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cylic acid has been given to render the urine acid in cases of alka-
line urine and cystitis, but there are better remedies for this
purpose. It has also been given in cases of gallstone with the
object of rendering the urine less viscid.

[Aspirin (not official) is acetyl salicylic acid, which occurs as
a white, insoluble, crystalline powder, or in needles, of an agree-
able taste. In an alkaline fluid it breaks up and sets free salicylic
acid. It has been employed for acute polyarticular rheumatism
in the same doses as sodium salicylate, over which it is believed
to possess the advantage of not deranging digestion.

OLEUM BETUL^E VOLATILE.

VOLATILE OIL OF BETULA. Synonym. Oil of Sweet Birch.
A volatile oil obtained by distillation from the bark of Betula lenta Linn6
(Sweet Birch) ; (nat. ord. Betulacece}. Habitat. Northern United States. It
is identical with Methyl Salicylate (CH 9 C 7 H 5 O 3 =I5I.64), and nearly identi-
cal with Oil of Gaultheria.

CHARACTERS. It has the same properties and conforms to the same reac-
tions and tests as Methyl Salicylate (see Methyl Salicylas ; also Oleum Gaul-
theriae).

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

OLEUM GAULTHERIA.

OIL OF GAULTHERIA. Synonym. Oil of Wintergreen. A vola-
tile oil distilled from the leaves of Gaultheria procumbens Linn6 (Winter-
green) ; (nat. ord. Ericaceat), consisting almost entirely of Methyl Salicylate
(CH S C,H 5 O,=I5I.64) and nearly identical with Volatile Oil of Betula.
Habitat. North America, west to Minnesota, and south to Georgia.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or yellow, or occasionally reddish liquid, hav-
ing a characteristic, strongly aromatic odor, and a sweetish, warm and aromatic
taste. Sp.gr.: 1.175 to 1-185. Boiling point: 2l8 to 221 C. (424.4
F. to 429.8 F. ). It deviates polarized light slightly to the left. In other



ANTIPERIODIC, ANTIPYRETIC, AND ANTISEPTIC DRUGS. 481

respects it has the same properties and conforms to the same reactions and
tests as Methyl Salicylate (see Methyl Salicylas ; also Oleum Betulse Volatile).
Dose, i to 5 m. : .06 to .30 c.c.

Preparation.

Spiritus Gaultheriae. Spirit of Gaultheria. Oil of Gaultheria,
50 ; Alcohol, 950.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

METHYL SALICYLAS. - <&*JL Y\^^^1r><^*>~*-
METHYL SALICYLATE. CH 3 C 7 H 5 O 3 =I51. 64. Synonym.
Artificial (or Synthetic) Oil of Wintergreen. Methyl Salicylate, producea
synthetically by distilling Salicylic Acid, or a Salicylate, with Methyl Alcohol
and strong Sulphuric Acid.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or slightly yellowish liquid, having the char-
acteristic, strongly aromatic odor and the sweetish, warm and aromatic taste
of the Oil of Gaultheria, with the essential constituent of which it is identical.
It is wholly identical with Volatile Oil of Betula (see Oleum Betulae Volatile).
Sp. gr. : 1.183-1.185. Boiling point : 2i9-22i C. (426.2-429.8F.). It
is optically inactive. Solubility. In all proportions in Alcohol, Glacial Ace-
tic Acid, or Carbon Bisulphide.
Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF VOLATILE OIL OF BETULA, OIL OF
WINTERGREEN AND METHYL SALICYLATE.

The action of these substances is the same as of salicylic acid.
When taken in moderate quantities, they are, like that acid,
broken up and eliminated as salicyluric acid. It is asserted that
methyl salicylate can be produced of more uniform quality and
is more certain and definite in its action than either of the nat-
ural oils. The uses of these drugs is the same as of salicylic
acid, and they possess the additional advantage that they are not
liable to contamination with impurities (ortho- and paracreo?otic
acids), the former of which is a powerful cardiac depressant ;
both are found in the artificial salicylic acid.]

SALOL.

SALOL. [C 6 H 5 C 7 H 5 O 3 =2I3.49. Synonym. Phenyl Salicylate. The
Salicylic Ether of Phenol.

SOURCE. By heating Salicylic Acid with Phenol in the presence of Phos-
phorous Pentachloride ; this action dehydrates and withdraws the elements of
water, and unites the Phenyl group with the Salicylic \cid radical.

31



482 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. A white, crystalline powder, odorless, or having a faintly
aromatic odor, and almost tasteless. Permanent in the air. Solubility.
Almost insoluble in water ; soluble in 10 parts of Alcohol ; also soluble in 0.3
part of Ether, and readily in Chloroform, and in fixed or volatile oils.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SALOL.

External. It is an antiseptic, and when mixed with talc
( i to 5 ) may be used as a dusting powder.

Internal. In the body [presumably in the small intestine)
salol splits up into [phenol, about 36, and salicylic acid, 64
per cent.] and the former may render the urine dark. In rheu-
matic fever it is efficacious on account of the salicylic acid it
contains, [although somewhat slower in action] but it has no
advantage over salicin or salicylic acid, and the carboluria may
be troublesome.

[It is an antiseptic, and since this decomposition takes place
in the alkaline fluid, it has been used as an intestinal antiseptic
in acute diarrhcea, dysentery, cholera and other diseases ; also in
affections of the urinary tract.] For the last the following is a
good way of prescribing it : Salol, i ; Almond Oil, 2 ; Pow-
dered Acacia, i ; Syrup, 2 ; water, 24. The emulsion should
be made in a warm mortar with water at 150 F. [65.5 C.
It is a remedy of very great value in the treatment of typhoid
fever, for by the active disinfection of the contents of the intes-
tine and of the ulcerations, it favors their healing and prevents
reinfection, thus lowering temperature, diminishing the liability
to relapse and to permanent damage to tissues. It is the logical
treatment, because it destroys the cause of the symptoms, at their
point of origin. On account of the large proportion of phenol
which it contains it is more dangerous than the corresponding
amount of salicylic acid, and it is especially to be used, with
great caution if the kidneys are diseased. Sometimes, in fever,
on account of the lessened alkalinity of the intestinal contents
it is not decomposed into its constituents, and for that reason
becomes very much less effective. In this case an alkali should
be administered at the same time.



VEGETABLE PURGATIVES. 483

SALOPHEN.

SALOPHEN. ( Not official. )C 6 H 4 (OH)CO 2 C 6 H 4 NHCOCH s =27o.40.
Synonym. Acetylparamidophenol Salicylate.

SOURCE. From Paranitrophenol Salicylate by a complicated process, and
purifying by crystallization from Alcohol.

CHARACTERS. Minute white scales, free from odor or taste. It contains
50.9 per cent, of Salicylic Acid. Solubility . Almost insoluble in water;
freely soluble in Alkalies, Alcohol and Ether.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.

ACTION AND USES OF SALOPHEN.

In a warm alkaline solution salophen is broken up into sali-
cylic acid and acetylparamidophenol, the latter being harmless.
It is decomposed in the intestines, even when given hypoder-
matically. It is used as a substitute for salicylic acid in acute
rheumatism, and as an intestinal antiseptic. It is probably quite
as efficient, and much safer than salol. The fact that it is taste-
less renders it easy of administration.]



GROUP V.

Vegetable Purgatives.

CLASS I. Laxatives.

Prune, Fig, Tamarind, Cassia [Fistula, Manna, Phytolacca,
Eupatorium,] Castor Oil (small doses).

CLASS II. Simple purgatives.

Castor Oil, Rhubarb, [Juglans,] Senna, Frangula, [Rhamnus Pur-
shiana,] Aloes.

CLASS III. Drastic purgatives.

Scammony, Jalap, [Bryonia,] Croton Oil, Colocynth, Elaterium,
Gamboge.

CLASS IV. Cholagogues.

Podophyllum, [Leptandra, Chelidonium, Iris,] Euonymus.

CLASS I. LAXATIVES.

PRUNUM.

PRUNE. {The fruit of Prunus Domcstica Linn6 (nat. ord. Rosacece).
Habitat. Western Asia ; cultivated in many varieties.



484 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. Oblong or subglobular, about 3 cm. long, shrivelled
blackish-blue, glaucous ; the sarcocarp brownish-yellow ; sweet and acidulous ;
putamen hard, smooth, or irregularly ridged ; the seed almond-like in shape,
but smaller, and of a bitter-almond taste. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Sugar, [12 to 15 per
cent.], (2) Malic Acid, and (3) A purgative principle.

Prunes are contained in Confectio Sennse.

[Dose. They can be administered freely.]'

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF PRUNES.

Prunes are demulcent and slightly laxative. They may be
eaten as articles of diet in cases of slight constipation. [They
are used as a corrective for senna in the confection.]

FICUS.

FIG. [The fleshy receptacle of Ficus Carica Linne (nat. ord. Urticaceee\
bearing fruit upon its inner surface. Habitat. Western Asia ; cultivated in
subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. Compressed, of irregular shape, fleshy, brownish or
yellowish, covered with an efflorescence of sugar; of a sweet, frui y odor, and
a very sweet, mucilaginous taste. When softened in water, figs are pear-
shaped, with a scar or short stalk at the base, and a small scaly orifice at the
apex ; hollow internally ; the inner surface covered with numerous yellowish,
hard achenes.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Sugar, 62 percent.; (2)
Gum; (3) [Fat and Salts.]

Figs are contained in Confectio Sennae.

[Dose. They can be administered freely.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF FIGS.

Figs are a pleasant food and mildly purgative, forming a con-
venient remedy for slight constipation.

TAMARINDUS.

TAMARIND. [The preserved pulp of the fruit of Tamarindus indica
Linne (nat. ord. Leguminosce). Habitat. India and tropical Africa ; natur-
alized in the West Indies.

CHARACTERS. A reddish-brown, sweet, subacid, pulpy mass, containing
strong, somewhat branching fibres, and polished, brown, flatfish-quadrangular
seeds, each enclosed in a tough membrane ; taste sweet and refreshingly
acidulous. ]



VEGETABLE PURGATIVES. 485

I MPURITY. Copper.

COMPOSITION. (i) Tartaric, [Citric, Malic and Acetic Acids; (2) Sugar;
(3) Pectin ; (4) Tannic acid and (5) Potassium compounds.]
Tamarind is contained in Confectio Sennae.
[Dose. It can be administered freely.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF TAMARIND.

Tamarind is pleasant and acid to the taste, and a mild laxa-
tive. It may be made into tamarind whey ( i part of tamarind
to 30 of milk) and given as an acid, cooling, slightly purgative
drink in fevers. It is a good purgative for children, and may be
spread on bread and butter.

CASSIA [FISTULA].

CASSIA [FISTULA. Synonym. Purging Cassia. The fruit of
Cassia Fistula Linne (nat. ord. Leguminostz). Habitat. East India ; natural-
ized in tropical Africa and America.

CHARACTERS. Cylindrical, 40 to 60 cm. long, nearly 25 mm. in diameter,
blackish-brown, somewhat veined, the sutures smooth, forming two longitudi-
nal bands ; indehiscent, internally divided transversely into numerous cells,
each containing a reddish-brown, glossy, flatfish-ovate seed imbedded in a
blackish-brown, sweet pulp; odor resembling that of prunes.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A purgative principle,
closely allied to Cathartic Acid. (See Senna, p. 492.) [(2) Sennapicrin, a
Glucoside, C^H^Oj,.] (3) Sugar, 60 percent. (4) [Pectin. (5) Calcium
Oxalate. ]

Cassia Fistula is contained in Confectio Sennae.

[Dose, i to 8 dr. ; 4. to 30. gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CASSIA FISTULA.

[The pulp is administered as] a laxative, given only in con-
fection of senna.

[MANNA.

MANNA. The concrete, saccharine exudation of Fraxinus Ornus
Linne (nat. ord. Oleaceee). Habitat. Basin of the Mediterranean.

CHARACTERS. In flatfish, somewhat three-edged pieces, occasionally 20
cm. long, and 5 cm. broad, usually smaller; friable; externally yellowish-
white, internally white, porous and crystalline ; or in fragments of different
sizes, brownish-white and somewhat glutinous on the surface, internally white
and crystalline : odor honey-like ; taste sweet, slightly bitter and faintly acrid.



486 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Mannit, C 6 H 8 (OH) 6 , 90
per cent. (2) Glucose. (3) Fraxin, C 32 H 36 O 20 . (4) Mucilage. (5) Resin.
Manna is contained in Infusum Sennse Compositum.
Dose, y 2 to 2 oz. ; 15. to 60. gm.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF MANNA.

Manna is given as a mild laxative to children. It dissolves
easily in milk, and is pleasant to the taste.

PHYTOLACCA.

PHYTOLACC-ffi FRUCTUS. Phytolacca Fruit. Synonym. Poke
Berry. The fruit of Phytolacca decandra Linn6 (nat. ord. Phytolaccacea.*}
Habitat. North America ; naturalized in Europe.

CHARACTERS. A depressed globular, dark purple compound berry, about
8 mm. in diameter, composed of ten carpels, each containing one lenticular,
black seed ; juice purplish red ; inodorous ; taste sweet, slightly acrid.

CONSTITUENTS. (I) Phytolaccin. (2) Phytolaccic Acid. (3) Sugar.
(4) Gum.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

PHYTOLACC^E RADIX. Phytolacca Root. Synonym. Poke
Root. The root of Phytolacca decandra Linn6 (nat. ord. Phytolaccaced).

CHARACTERS. Large, conical, branched and fleshy; mostly in transverse
or longitudinal slices, wrinkled, grayish, hard ; fracture fibrous, the wood-
bundles in several distinct, concentric circles ; inodorous ; taste sweetish and
acrid.

CONSTITUENTS. (i) Resin. (2) Probably a Glucoside. (3) A volatile
acid.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Phytolaccae Radicis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of

Phytolacca Root. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and
water, and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.



ACTION AND USES OF PHYTOLACCA.

Phytolacca is used as a laxative, and in large doses it possesses
also some narcotic properties. Recently a preparation made
from the berries has been used to reduce adipose tissue.



VEGETABLE PURGATIVES. 487

EUPATORIUM.

EUPATORIUM. Synonyms. Thoroughwort. Boneset. The leaves
and flowering tops of Eupatorium perfoliatum Linne- (nat. ord. Composites).
Habitat. North America, west to Dakota ; in low grounds.

CHARACTERS. Leaves opposite, united at the base, lanceolate, from 10 to
15 cm. long, tapering, crenately serrate, rugosely veined, rough above, downy
and resinous dotted beneath ; flower heads corymbed, numerous, with an
oblong involucre of lance-linear scales, and with from ten to fifteen white
florets, having a bristly pappus in a single row ; odor weak and aromatic ;
taste astringent and bitter.

COMPOSITION. Its principal constituents are (i) Eupatorin, a bitter
glucoside. (2) Volatile Oil. (3) Resin.

Dose, % to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Eupatorii Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Eupatorium.
By maceration and percolation with diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, ^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF THOROUGHWORT.

Thoroughwort is tonic, diaphoretic (in infusion), and mildly
laxative. It is a domestic remedy for the commencement of a
catarrh, influenza, or muscular rheumatism.]

CLASS II. SIMPLE PURGATIVES.

OLEUM RICINI.

CASTOR OIL. [A fixed oil expressed from the seed of Ricinus com-
munis Linne (nat. ord. Euphorbiacea). Habitat. India ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellowish or almost colorless, transparent, viscid
liquid, having a faint, mild odor, and a bland, afterwards slightly acrid, and
generally offensive taste. Sp. gr., 0.950 to 0.970. Solubility. In an equal
volume of Alcohol, and, in all proportions, in absolute Alcohol, or in glacial
Acetic Acid ; also soluble in 3 times its volume of a mixture of 19 volumes
of Alcohol and I volume of water (absence of more than about 5 per cent,
of most other fixed oils).

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Ricinolein, C 3 H 5 (C 18 H S4
O 3 ) 3 , which is the Ricinoleic Acid (CjgH^Og), Glyceride.] This constitutes
the chief fiulk. (2) Other fixed oils, as palmitin, stearin, etc. (3) Possibly
an alkaloid, Ricinine,r\ol purgative. (4) According to some authorities an
active principle which has not yet been isolated.

[Castor oil is contained in Collodium Flexile, Linimentum Sinapis Com-
positum, Pilulae Antimonii Composite and Unguentum Hydrargyri Oxidi Rubri.

Dose, ^ to 2 fl. oz. ; 8. to 60. c.c.]



488 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Castor oil seeds are not official, but it is important to recognize them.
They are [17 mm.] long and [8 mm.] wide, ovoid, flattened. The seed is
prolonged into a sharp beak. Epidermis shiny gray, marked by brownish
bands and spots. Kernel white. They contain 50 per cent, of the oil, and
an acrid substance which makes them poisonous. Three Castor oil seeds have
been known to kill an adult man. [Quite likely the seeds are not poisonous
when matured.]

ACTION OF CASTOR OIL.

External. Castor oil is, like olive oil, protective and
sedative, and may be used to drop into the eye when the con-
junctiva is inflamed, and as a solvent for homatropine, but this
solution is occasionally a little irritating.

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. The so-called [unpleas-
ant taste] of castor oil is mostly due to the smell, and is not
noticed much if the nose is held when the oil is drunk. Medici-
nal doses produce no effect on the stomach. Reaching the in-
testine the oil is an excellent simple laxative or mild purga-
tive, acting in about five hours, and causing no griping nor sub-
sequent constipation. The motion is soft, but not liquid. Castor
oil will purge even when rubbed into the skin. How it acts is
unknown [but it is said to stimulate unstriped muscular fibre
whenever found.] It has been thought that the [ricinolein
(ricinoleic acid glyceride)] in the oil is decomposed in the duo-
denum, and the ricixioleic acid purges, but this is probably in-
correct. The most likely view is that the oil contains some
purgative principle which has not yet been isolated. Probably
the seeds contain much more of this than the oil, for they are
ten times more purgative, a fact which it is impossible to explain
if it is the ricinoleic acid which purges. Castor oil will purge
when given per rectum.

Mammary glands. [The leaves] applied locally to the breasts
are said to be galactagogue.

THERAPEUTICS OF CASTOR OIL.

Castor oil is perhaps the best simple purgative we have, and
is very useful in cases in which there is slight temporary consti-
pation. Being mild in its action it is very suitable for getting
rid of undigested food that is causing diarrhoea, and a dose of



VEGETABLE PURGATIVES. 489

castor oil with a minute quantity of laudanum in it is a favorite
remedy for certain forms of diarrhoea. It is also especially con-
venient in pregnancy, after delivery, and when in any abdominal
disease, as typhoid fever, peritonitis, or when, after abdominal
operations, the irritation caused by the faeces makes it absolutely
necessary to get the bowels open. Also, it is very useful for
children, or for very old or infirm persons, or for those suffering
from piles or fissures. It is a good purgative to give before and
after the use of anthelmintics [aspidium being excepted. It
should not be given during the later months of pregnancy owing
to its action on unstriped muscle fibres.]

Its [nauseous taste] is the only objection to it. As already
mentioned, this can largely be overcome by holding the nose,
and there are many forms of castor oil in the market so prepared
as to be almost colorless and odorless. It may be taken in cap-
sules, but they are bulky. Lemon juice or coffee conceals the
taste to some extent, or the oil may be added to a teaspoonful
[4. c.c.] of peppermint water, and then a little brandy added till
the oil neither sinks nor [floats] . If the inside and rim of the
glass are moistened with the vehicle, the oil, which should, if
possible, be between two layers of the vehicle, is hardly tasted.
[It is best administered in the beverage known as sarsaparilla.]

As an enema (castor oil, i ; warm olive oil, 5 ; mixed thor-
roughly) it is useful when a mild injection is required.

Breasts. The leaves of the castor-oil plant applied to the
breasts will sometimes induce the secretion of milk. A fluid ex-
tract of them [not official] may also be taken three or four times

a day.

RHEUM.

RHUBARB. [The root of Rheum offidnale Baillon (nat. ord. Poly-
gonactce]. Habitat. Western and Central China.

CHARACTERS. In cylindrical, conical or flattish segments, deprived of the
dark brown, corky layer, smoothish or somewhat wrinkled, externally covered
with a bright yellowish-brown powder, marked with white, elongated meshes,
containing a white, rather spongy tissue, and a number of short reddish-brown
or brownish-yellow striae ; compact, hard ; fracture uneven ; internally white,
with numerous red, irregularly curved and interrupted medullary rays, which
are radially parallel only near the cambium line ; odor somewhat peculiar,
aromatic; taste bitter, somewhat astringent.



49O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Chrysophan,
which yields Chrysophanic Acid, C 15 H JO O 4 , about 3 per cent. Synonyms.
Rhein. Chrysarobin, see Chrysarobinum. ] It is,not known whether, [in the
living plant], Rhubarb contains any Chrysophanic Acid, for when kept the
Chrysophan quickly oxidizes to Chrysophanic Acid. The purgative properties
are due to Ghrysophan which also gives the yellow color. (2) [Erythroretin.
(3) Emodin. (4) Phaoretin. (5) Aporctin.~\ (6) Rheotannic Acid, C 26 H 26 O U ,
to which the astringency of Rhubarb is due. (7) Lime Oxalate, 35 per cent.,
to which the grittiness is due.

IMPURITIES. English Rhubarb ; different taste, smell, and excess of
starch. Turmeric, which is turned brown by Boric Acid.

Dose, I to 5 gr. ; [.06 to .30 gm. (stomachic) ; 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00
gm.] (purgative).

Preparations.

1. Extractum Rhei. [Extract of Rhubarb. By percolation with
Alcohol and Water, and evaporation.

Dose, 3 to 5 gr. ; .20 to i.oo gm.

2. Extractum Rhei Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Rhubarb. By
maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evaporation.
Fluid Extract of Rhubarb is used to make Mistura Rhei et Sodse and
Syrupus Rhei.

Dose, ]^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

3. Pilulae Rhei. Pills of Rhubarb. Rhubarb, 20; Soap, 6 gm.,
to make IOO pills. Each pill contains 3 gr. ; .20 gm. of Rhubarb.

Dose, 3 to 5 pills.

4. Pilulae Rhei Compositae. Compound Pills of Rhubarb. Rhu-
barb, 13 ; Purified Aloes, 10 ; Myrrh, 6 gm. ; Oil of Peppermint, 0.5
c.c., to make 100 pills. Each pill contains 2 gr. ; . 13 gm. of Rhubarb.
Dose, i to 3 pills.

5. Pulvis Rhei Compositus. Compound Powder of Rhubarb.
Synonym. Gregory's powder. Rhubarb, 25 ; Magnesia, 65 ; Ginger,

10.

Dose, % to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.

6. Tinctura Rhei. Tincture of Rhubarb. Rhubarb, IOO ; Car-
damom, 20 ; Glycerin, loo ; Alcohol and Water to looo ; by macera-
tion and percolation.

Dose, ^ to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c. (stomachic) ; i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4.
to 15. c.c. (purgative).

7. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica. Aromatic Tincture of Rhubarb.
Rhubarb, 200; Cassia Cinnamon, 40; Cloves, 40; Nutmeg, 20; Gly-
cerin, IOO ; Diluted Alcohol, to looo. By maceration and percolation.



VEGETABLE PURGATIVES. 49 1

Aromatic Tincture of Rhubarb is used to make Syrupus Rhei Aro-
maticus.

Dose, i to 3 fl. dr. ; 4. to 12. c.c.

8. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis. Sweet Tincture of Rhubarb. Rhu-
barb, too ; Glycyrrhiza, 40 ; Anise, 40 ; Cardamom, 10 ; Glycerin, 100 ;
Diluted Alcohol to 1000. By maceration and percolation.

Dose, ]/z to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.

g. Mistura Rhei et Sodae. Mixture of Rhubarb and Soda. So-
dium Bicarbonate, 35 ; Fluid Extract of Rhubarb, 15 ; Fluid Extract of
Ipecac, 3 ; Spirit of Peppermint, 25 ; Glycerin, 350 ; Water to looo.
By solution.

DoSe, % to 2 fl. oz. ; 8. to 60. c.c.

10. Syrupus Rhei. Syrup of Rhubarb. Fluid Extract of Rhu-
barb, loo ; Potassium Carbonate, 10 ; Spirit of Cinnamon, 4 ; Glyce-
rin, 50 ; Water and Syrup to looo. By solution.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.

11. Syrupus Rhei Aromaticus. Aromatic Syrup of Rhubarb.
Aromatic Tincture of Rhubarb, 150 ; Syrup, 850. By mixture.

Dose, i fl. dr. ; 4. c.c. for a child.]

ACTION OF RHUBARB.

External. Probably rhubarb would have, to a mild degree,
the same action as [chrysarobin] , but it is never applied ex-
ternally.

Internal. Alimentary canal. In the mouth, rhubarb in-
creases the flow of saliva ; and in the stomach, in small doses, it,
like any other bitter substance, stimulates the flow of gastric
juice, and the vascularity and peristaltic movements of the
stomach. It is, therefore, a stomachic, and will aid digestion.
In large doses it causes purgation, producing in from four to
eight hours a liquid motion, colored yellow by the [chrysarobin] .



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