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The resinous constituents of rhubarb are said to increase the flow
of bile, but certainly its cholagogue action is not sufficiently
powerful to explain completely its purgative properties. It is
commonly stated to exaggerate very actively intestinal peristalsis,
but there is no adequate proof of this. It is liable to gripe. The
purgation is followed by constipation ; this is ascribed to the
rheotannic acid : if so, it is probably absorbed and subsequently


re-excreted into the intestines, otherwise it would be all swept
away in the purging.

Kidneys. The coloring matter is excreted in the urine, and
stains it yellow. The urinary flow is slightly increased.


Rhubarb is commonly given to children as a stomachic pur-
gative in indigestion, especially when caused by errors of diet,
for it clears away any undigested food, and its stomachic and
after- astringent effects are valuable. In the same way.it is useful
in diarrhoea due to irritation caused by undigested food ; here
the after-astringency is especially serviceable. A powder of
powdered rhubarb and sodium bicarbonate (which [conceals] the
taste) equal parts, with some powdered gentian, or a similar
[liquid] medicine, forms an excellant stomachic for young chil-
dren. Rhubarb should never be given alone, because of the

griping it causes.


JUGLANS. Synonym. Butternut. The bark of the root of Juglans
cinerea Linne (nat. ord. Juglandacea) , collected in autumn. Habitat. North

CHARACTERS. In flat or curved pieces, about 5 mm. thick ; the outer
surface dark gray and nearly smooth, or deprived of the soft cork and deep
brown ; the inner surface smooth and striate ; transverse fracture short, deli-
cately checkered, whitish and brown ; odor, feeble ; taste bitter and somewhat

COMPOSITION. (i) Nucin, C 10 H 6 O 8 . (2) Juglandic Acid. (3) Fixed
Oil, 4 per cent.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.


Ext rac turn Juglandis. Extract of Juglans. By maceration and
percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.


Butternut is a mild cathartic, and resembling rhubarb in the
property of evacuating, without debilitating, the alimentary
canal. It was much employed during the war of the Revolution.]



SENNA. [The leaflets of Cassia acutifolia Delile (Alexandria Senna),
and of Cassia angustifolia Vahn (India Senna) ; (nat. ord. Leguminous).

CHARACTERS. Alexandria Senna consists of leaflets about 25 mm.
long and 10 mm. broad, lanceolate, or lance-oval, subcoriaceous, brittle, rather
pointed, equally oblique at the base, entire, grayish-green, somewhat pubes-
cent, of a peculiar odor, and a nauseous, bitter taste. Habitat. Eastern and
Central Africa.]

Resembling Senna. Argel leaves (the leaves of Solenostemma Argel
[Hayne, (nat. ord. Asclepiadea), which are frequently present ; these leaves
are thicker, one-veined, wrinkled, glaucous] and are equal at the base, as
also are the leaves of Uva Ursi and Buchu.

\_India Senna. Synonym. Tinnivelly Senna. Consists of leaflets from
3 to 5 cm. long and 10 to 15 mm. broad ; lanceolate, acute, unequally oblique
at the base, entire, thin, yellowish green or dull green, nearly smooth ; odor
peculiar, somewhat tea-like; taste mucilaginous, bitter and nauseous. Habitat.
Eastern Africa to India ; cultivated.

IMPURITIES. Stalks, discolored leaves, and other admixtures.]
COMPOSITION OF BOTH KINDS. The chief constituents are (i) Cathar-
tic Add, CjgoHjg.jNg.jSOj, an amorphous sulphurated Glucosicle. It exists as
salts of earthy bases, such as Calcium and Magnesium, which are soluble in
water. Cathartic Acid is capable of decomposition into Glucose and Cathar-
togenic Acid. It is the chief purgative principle in Senna and other purgatives.

(2) \_Sennacrol and Sennapicrin, C 3t H 58 O 17 ,] glucosides, which do not, in
most preparations, contribute to their action, as they are insoluble in water.

(3) Chrysophanic Acid in small amounts as a coloring matter (see Rhubarb
and Chrysarobinum). (4) Cathartomannit, [CjjH^Ojj, a peculiar unfer-
mentable] sugar.

Dose, i to 3 dr. ; [4. to 12. gm.]


1. Confectio Sennae. [Confection of Senna. Senna, loo ; Oil
of Coriander, 5; Fig, 120; Tamarind, 100 ; Cassia Fistula, 160;
Prune, 70 ; Sugar, 555 ; Water to make 1000. By sifting, digestion
and evaporation.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.

2. Extractum Sennae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Senna. By
maceration, percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Senna is used to prepare Syrupus Sarsaparillae

Dose, i to 3 fl. dr.; 4. to 12. c.c.

3. Infusum Sennae Compositum. Compound Infusion ol
Senna. Synonym. Black Draught. Senna, 60 ; Manna, 120; Mag-


nesium Sulphate, 1 20 ; Fennel, 20 j Boiling Water, 500 j Cold Water
to 1000.

Dose, i to 2 fl. oz. ; 30. to 60. c.c.

4. Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus. Compound Powder of
Glycyrrhiza. Synonym. Compound Liquorice Powder. Senna, 1 80;
Glycyrrhiza, 236 ; Oil of Fennel, 4 ; Washed Sulphur, 80 ; Sugar,

Dose, ^ to 2 dr. ; a. to 8. gm.

5. Syrupus Sennae. Syrup of Senna. Alexandria Senna, 25 ;
Oil of Coriander, 5 ; Sugar, 700 ; Alcohol, 150 ; Water to 1000. By
digestion, straining, evaporation and filtration.

Dose, % to i fl. oz. ; 8. to 30. c.c.]


External. None.

Internal. Senna, because of the cathartic acid in it, stimu-
lates the muscular coat of the intestine, especially the colon, and
produces some hyperaemia. Consequently the fluid contents of
the small intestine are hurried through the colon, and pale yellow
watery stools, containing some undigested food, are the result.
Senna acts very feebly or not at all on the biliary secretion.
Large doses open the bowels several times and produce griping,
but not much hyperaemia. Probably there are other substances
in senna, besides cathartic acid, having a purgative property,
but it is by far the most important. Purgation by senna does
not subsequently cause constipation. Some constituents of it
are absorbed, and may cause the urine to be red. It will purge,
if injected into the veins, and will impart its purgative proper-
ties to the milk of nursing women.


Senna is a safe, useful purgative for cases of simple constipa-
tion. It is, because of its tendency to gripe and its nauseous
taste, rarely given alone. The compound liquorice powder is to
be preferred to the compound infusion of senna ("black
draught "), as this is a [disagreeable] mixture. Senna is largely
used to complete the effect of duodenal purgatives, as we see in
the old prescription of a blue pill at night and a black draught


in the morning. Acting on the colon, it is valuable in slight
cases of faecal collection. Compound liquorice powder is much
used in habitual constipation and the constipation of pregnancy.
Confection of senna, coated with chocolate, forms the well-
known purgative, Tamar Indien, and in this form can be taken
by children. It is said that an infusion contains more of the
active principles than the other preparations ; it soon decom-
poses, but nitre [i to 480] will prevent this.


[FRANGULA. Synonym. Buckthorn. The bark of Rhamnus Fran-
gula Linne (nat. ord. JtAamneez), collected at least one year before being used.
Habitat. Europe and Northern Asia.

CHARACTERS. Quilled, about I mm. thick ; outer surface grayish- brown,
or blackish-brown, with numerous small, whitish, transversely elongated lenti-
cels ; inner surface smooth, pale, brownish-yellow ; fracture in the outer layer
short, of a purplish tint ; in the inner layer fibrous and pale yellow ; when
masticated, coloring the saliva yellow ; nearly inodorous ; taste sweetish and

COMPOSITION. Fresh bark contains a glucoside, Frangulin, C W U W O W .
This in the old bark has become converted into Emodin, C 15 H 10 O 5 (also found
in Rhubarb), to which the value of the bark is due. Two products are ob-
tained from Frangulin by hydrolysis, Emodin and Rhamnose, C 6 H 12 O 6 .

Dose, y z to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.


Extractum Frangulae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Frangula,
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evaporation.
Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

The fresh bark is a violent gastro-intestinal irritant, but
that which has been kept a year is a mild laxative, acting like
senna ; it is suitable for children, and for use in chronic con-


CASCARA SAGRADA. Synonyms. Sacred Bark. [Chittem Bark.
The bark of Rhamnus Purshiana De Candolle (nat. ord. Rhamne<z~). Hab-
itat. Northern Idaho, and westward to the Pacific Coast.

CHARACTERS. In quills or curved pieces, about 3 to 10 cm. long, and
about 2 mm. thick ; outer surface brownish gray and whitish ; the young bark
having numerous, rather broad, pale-colored warts ; inner surface yellowish to


light brownish, becoming dark brown by age ; smooth or finely striate ; fracture
short, yellowish, in the inner layer of thick bark somewhat fibrous ; inodorous ;
taste bitter.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Cascarin, [a glucoside
said to be identical with Frangulin (see above). (2) Three resins. (3) Acids.
(4) A volatile oil. The fresh bark causes much griping, but this unpleasant
effect is lost if the bark is kept and properly cured.]

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; [i. to 4. gm.]


Extractum [Rhamni Purshianae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Rhamnus Purshiana. By maceration and percolation with Diluted
Alcohol, and evaporation.

Dose, ] to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.]


Cascara Sagrada is a simple laxative and aperient, not
causing much griping, and resembling in its action [buckthorn],
but it is more certain and more active. The bitter principle gives
it stomachic properties. It is very serviceable for constipation,
especially if chronic. A single dose may either be taken in the
evening, or 10 to 15 minims; .60 to i.oo c.c., of the fluid ex-
tract may be given three times a day before meals. One advan-
tage of its use is that gradually increasing doses are not required.
The [fluid] extract is very bitter ; this taste may be concealed by
aromatics, liquorice or sal volatile, and it may be given in chloro-
form water. The aromatic syrup [B. P.] conceals the taste very
well. [This consists of the fluid extract, 8 ; tincture of orange,
2 ; alcohol, i ; cinnamon water, 3 ; syrup, 6.] A preparation
known as Tinctura Laxativa, dose 20 to 60 m. [1.20 104.00
c.c.] (Extractum [Rhamni Purshianae Fluidum], Spiritus Am-
moniae Aromaticus, Spiritus Chloroformi, Tinctura Belladonnas
[Foliorum], Tinctura Nucis Vomicae, equal parts of each), is
miscible with water, and is a pleasant simple purge which is
especially useful for chronic constipation and may cure it.


ALOE BARBADENSIS. Barbadoes Aloes. [Synonym. Curacoa
AJoes, The inspissated juice of the leaves of Aloe vera (Linne) Webb (nat.
ord. Liliacea). Habitat. Island of Barbadoes.


CHARACTERS. In hard masses, orange-brown, opaque, translucent on the
edges ; fracture waxy or resinous, somewhat conchoidal ; odor saffron-like ;
taste strongly bitter.

Dose, y 2 to 10 gr. ; .03 to .60 gm.]

ALOE SOCOTRINA. Socotrine Aloes. [The inspissated juice of
the leaves of Aloe Perryi Baker (nat. ord. Liliacea}. Habitat. Eastern

CHARACTERS. In hard masses, occasionally soft in the interior, opaque,
yellowish-brown, orange-brown or dark ruby-red, not greenish, translucent on
the edges ; fracture resinous, somewhat conchoidal. When breathed upon, it
emits a fragrant saffron-like odor. Taste peculiar, strongly bitter. Solubility.
Almost entirely soluble in Alcohol and in 4 parts of boiling water. The
aqueous solution becomes turbid on cooling and yields a deposit. Moistened
with Alcohol and examined in a thin stratum under the microscope, Socotrine
Aloes exhibits numerous crystals. Socotrine Aloes is less deep in color, less
opaque, its powder is brighter and more reddish, and its odor is not nearly so
disagreeable as that of Barbadoes Aloes. Some specimens of Socotrine Aloes
are more or less opaque and liver-colored, and then are called Hepatic Aloes.]
The variety known as Zanzibar Aloes is included under Socotrine Aloes.

COMPOSITION. (i) Aloin, see p. 498. (2) A Resin. (3) A trace of Gallic
Acid. (4) A trace of a volatile oil giving the odor. ^Resembling Aloes. Resins
of Jalap, Guaiacum [and Catechu.]

Dose, y 2 to 10 gr. ; [.03 to .60 gm.]


1. [Aloe Purificata. Purified Aloes. Socotrine Aloes, 1000 ;
Alcohol, 200. Heat, strain, and evaporate.

CHARACTERS. In irregular, brittle pieces, of a dull brown or red-
dish-brown color, and having the peculiar, aromatic odor of Socotrine
Aloes. It is almost entirely soluble in Alcohol.

Purified Aloes are contained in Extractum Colocynthidis Composi-
tum, Pilulae Rhei Compositse and Tinctura Benzoini Composita.

Dose, y?, to 10 gr. ; .03 to .60 gm.

2. Extractum Aloes. Extract of Aloes. Socotrine Aloes ; by
disintegration by boiling in distilled water ; filtration and evaporation.

Dose, y z to 3 gr. ; .03 to .20 gm.

3. Pilulae Aloes. Pills of Aloes. Purified Aloes, 13 ; Soap, 13
gm. ; to make 100 pills. Each pill contains 2 gr. ; .13 gm., of Aloes.

Dose, i to 4 pills.

4. Pilulae Aloes et Asafcetidae. Pills of Aloes and Asafetida.
Purified Aloes, 9 ; Asafetida, 9 ; Soap, 9 gm. ; to make 100 pills.
Each pill contains i^ gr. ; .09 gm., of Aloes.

Dose, i to 5 pills.

3 2


5. Pilulae Aloes et Ferri. Pills of Aloes and Iron. Purified
Aloes, 7 ; Dried Ferrous Sulphate, 7 ; Aromatic Powder, 7 gin. ; Con-
fection of Rose, a sufficient quantity to make 100 pills. Each pill
contains about I gr. ; . 07 gm. , of Aloes.

Dose, i to 4 pills.

6. Pilulae Aloes et Mastiches. Pills of Aloes and Mastic.
Synonym. Lady Webster's pill. Purified Aloes, 13 ; Mastic, 4 ; Red
Rose, 3 gm. ; to make loo pills. Each pill contains 2 gr. ; .13 gm.,
of Aloes.

Dose, i to 3 pills.

7. Pilulae Aloes et Myrrhae. Pills of Aloes and Myrrh. Puri-
fied Aloes, 13 ; Myrrh, 6 ; Aromatic Powder, 4 gm. ; Syrup, a sufficient
quantity to make loo pills. Each pill contains 2 gr. ; .13 gm., of Aloes.

Dose, 2 to 10 pills.

8. Tinctura Aloes. Tincture of Aloes. Purified Aloes, 100;
Liquorice Root, 200. Macerate with Diluted Alcohol and percolate to


Dose, ! 4 to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

g. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae. Tincture of Aloes and Myrrh.
Synonym. Elixir Proprietatis Paracelsi. Purified Aloes, 100; Myrrh,
loo ; Liquorice Root, loo. Macerate with Alcohol and Water, and
percolate to 1000.

Dose, i to 2)4 fl- dr. ; 4. to 10. c.c.]

ALOINUM. Aloin. [A neutral principle obtained from several varie-
ties of Aloes, chiefly Barbadoes Aloes (yielding Barbaloin} and Socotrine
Aloes (yielding Socaloin}, differing more or less in chemical composition and
physical properties according to the source from which it is derived. Besides
these varieties we have Nataloin (Natal) and Zanaloin (Zanzibar).

Barbaloin, CjjH^Oj, is soluble in about 60 parts of water, 20 parts of
Alcohol, or 470 parts of Ether.

Sofa/oin, C 15 H 16 O 7 , is soluble in about 60 parts of water, 30 parts of abso-
lute Alcohol, 380 parts of Ether, or 9 parts of Acetic Ether.

CHARACTERS. Minute, acicular crystals, or a microcrystalline powder,
varying in color from yellow to yellowish-brown, odorless or possessing a
slight odor of Aloes, a characteristic bitter taste, and permanent in the air.

Dose, y 2 to 2 gr. ; .03 to .12 gm.]


External. Aloes has no external action on the unbroken
skin, but it can be absorbed from a raw surface, for aloes sprin-


kled on an ulcer, to which it is a slight stimulant, will lead to

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. In the stomach the
bitter principle of aloes causes it to act as a stomachic, like
other bitters. In the intestine it increases the rate of the flow
of bile, and probably the amount secreted. It produces little
influence in the small intestine, but the muscular coat of the
colon is powerfully stimulated, and the intestinal secretion
from that part slightly accelerated. Aloes, therefore, purges,
and naturally takes some time, usually fifteen to twenty hours, to
act ; the motion is well formed, not very soft, as there is so little
increased secretion of fluid, and it is dark colored from the bile
in it. Sometimes the drug gripes somewhat, because the mus-
cular contraction it produces is irregular. As it acts chiefly on
the lower bowel the habitual use of it may lead to piles.

Female genital organs. Aloes will aggravate the menstrual
flow; it is therefore an emmenagogue. It is excreted by the
milk, for aloes given to the mother may purge the child. It is
stated also to be excreted in the urine, [and it is quite likely
that the habitual use of aloes will result in irritation of the

Barbadoes aloes is more purgative than Socatrine aloes, and
contains a greater proportion of substances soluble in water. As
a rule aloin acts like aloes, but it does not gripe so much. Some
specimens, however, have very little action. This may be owing
to adulteration, or differences in composition of different speci-


Aloes is an excellent purgative for cases of habitual constipa-
tion, many of which are due to an imperfect contraction of the
muscular coat of the large intestine. It is very commonly given
as a dinner pill (i gr. ; .06 gm., of extract of aloes and % gr.;
.015 gm., of extract of nux vomica) to sufferers from chronic
constipation, and in these cases its bitter principles acting as
stomachics aid digestion. If the faeces are hard, ^ gr. [.03
gm.] of powdered ipecacuanha should be added. To avoid


griping it is well to combine a little extract of hyoscyamus or a
little extract of belladonna with it. One great advantage of
aloes is that the dose need not be gradually increased. It is also
very commonly given as a pill with mix vomica and a grain or
two; [.06 or .12 gm.] of dried [ferrous] sulphate to persons
suffering from chlorosis, and other forms of anaemia. It over-
comes the chronic constipation so common in these cases, and
some regard this as very important for the cure of the disease.
The amenorrhcea so frequently associated with chlorosis is often
benefited by aloes, and amenorrhoea due to other causes may also
be relieved. Aloes is of great service in many cases of chronic
constipation of children. A warm aqueous solution of aloin
purges when injected subcutaneously. Aloes must not be given
in pregnancy or menorrhagia. [If a patient suffers from
haemorrhoids which are not inflamed, aloes can be safely ad-
ministered, and even with marked benefit if they are due to a re-
laxed rectal mucous membrane, (Barker).] An enema [Soco-
trine aloes, 8 ; potassium carbonate, 3 ; mucilage of starch,
960.] is anthelmintic.



SCAMMONY. [A resinous exudation from the living root of Convol-
vulus Sc ammonia, Linne (nat. ord. Covolvulacea). Habitat. Western

CHARACTERS. In irregular, angular pieces or circular cakes, greenish-
gray or blackish, internally porous, and breaking with an angular fracture,
of a resinous lustre ; odor peculiar, somewhat cheese-like ; taste slightly acrid ;
powder gray or greenish-gray.]

IMPURITIES. Chalk and Starch.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) The resin (see below), 75
to 80 per cent. (2) Gum, 10 to 20 per cent. (3) Starch.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; [.30 to i.oo gm.]


Resina Scammonii. Resin of Scammony.

SOURCE. [Digest Scammony with successive portions of boiling
Alcohol, distil off the Alcohol, precipitate the Resin with Water, wash
it several times, and dry with gentle heat.


CHARACTERS. Yellowish-brown or brownish-yellow masses or
fragments, breaking with glossy, resinous fracture, translucent at the
edges ; or a yellowish-white or grayish-white powder, having a faint
peculiar odor, and a slight, peculiar taste. Solubility. In Alcohol
in all proportions ; also wholly soluble in Ether and in Oil of Turpen-

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is Scammonin, CggHjjgO^,
probably the same zsjalapin, see p. 502.]

IMPURITIES. Guaiacum resin, which blues potato. Resin of jalap,
insoluble in Ether.

Resin of Scammony is contained in Extractum Colocynthidis Com-

Dose, [i to 8 gr. ; .06 to .50 gm.]


Gastro-intestinal tract. Scammony has no effect till it
reaches the duodenum. With the bile it forms a strongly
purgative compound, powerfully stimulating the intestinal
glands and causing a profuse secretion of intestinal fluids. There
is some exaggeration of vascularity, some irregular stimulation
of the muscular coat, but these are comparatively slight, and
there is little if any addition to the biliary flow. As a result
of these actions, in about four hours there is a profuse watery
evacuation of the bowels. The drug is, therefore, a powerful
hydragogue cathartic, and, in large doses, a strong gastro-
intestinal irritant. Its action is attended with some griping. It
produces no effect if injected into the blood, and therefore acts
only locally on the intestine. It is anthelmintic to both round-
worms and tape-worms.


Scammony being a prompt purgative, obstinate constipation
in either children or adults may be treated with it. It may also
be given as an anthelmintic.


JALAP. [The tuberous root of Ipom&a Jalapa, Nuttall (nat. ord. Con-
volvulacea). Habitat. Eastern Mexico.

CHARACTERS. Napiform, pyriform or oblong, varying in size, the large
roots incised, more or less wrinkled, dark brown, with lighter-colored spots,


and short, transverse ridges ; hard, compact ; internally pale grayish-brown,
with numerous concentric circles composed of small resin-cells ; fracture resin-
ous, not fibrous ; odor slight, but peculiar, smoky and sweetish ; taste sweetish
and acrid. On exhausting 100 parts of Jalap by Alcohol, concentrating the
tincture, and pouring it into water, a precipitate of resin should be obtained,
which, after washing with water and drying, should weigh not less than 12
parts, and of which not over 10 per cent, should be soluble in Ether].

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are: (I) The official resin (see
below), 7 to 22 per cent, mostly Jalapurgin, C^H^O^. (2) A soft resin.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]


1. Extractum Jalapae. [Extract of Jalap. By maceration and
percolation, with Alcohol, and evaporation.

Extract of Jalap is contained in Pilulae Catharticae Composite and
Pilulse Catharticae Vegetabiles.

Dose, 2 to 8 gr. ; .12 to .50 gm.

2. Pulvis Jalapae Compositus. Compound powder of Jalap.
Synonym. Pulvis Purgans. Jalap, 35 ; Potassium Bitartrate, 65.

Dose, ]^ to i dr. ; i. to 40. gm.

3. Resina Jalapae. Resin of Jalap.

SOURCE. By maceration with Alcohol, percolation, distillation of
the Alcohol, and precipitation with water, and drying.

CHARACTERS. Yellowish- brown, or brown masses or fragments,
breaking with a resinous, glossy fracture, translucent at the edges, or a
yellowish-gray or yellowish-brown powder, having a slight, peculiar
odor, and a somewhat acrid taste].

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i } Jalapurgin, or Con-
volvulin [CjjHjopOjj], a glucoside, a hard substance insoluble in Ether,
more irritant thanyiz/a/m, and probably the most active ingredient of
Jalap. (2) Jalapin [probably identical with Scammoniri]. This is a
soft resinous substance, soluble in Ether. It is found in Jalap wood
and Jalap stalk. (3) Starch and Gum. Resembling Jalap Resin.
Aloes, which is bitter.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; [.06 to .30 gm.]


The mode of action of jalap is precisely the same as that
of scammony, with only two exceptions. It causes a greater
secretion of intestinal juice, and is therefore more hydragogue ;
it stimulates the vessels and muscular coat less, and therefore is
less irritant and griping.



Jalap is very largely used as a hydragogue purgative when we
want to draw off large quantities of fluid ; therefore it is especially
suitable for patients with Bright' s disease, for those suffering from

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