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in water.]

They will be classified according to the tissue on which they chiefly act,
or for the action for which they are mostly used.

CLASS I. Volatile oils (or substances containing them), acting chiefly
upon, or used chiefly for their stimulation of the skin.

[Turpentine,] Oil of Turpentine, [Oil of Erigeron, Pix Liquida,]
Oil of Cade, Burgundy Pitch, Resin, Frankincense, Canada [Turpen-
tine,] Mustard, Oil of Cajuput, Eucalyptus, Oil of Rosemary, Arnica,
Mezereum, [Elemi.]

CLASS II. Volatile oils (or substances containing them) acting chiefly
upon, or used chiefly for their stimulation of the gastro-intestinal tract.


Pyrethrum, Cloves, Pimenta, Pepper, Nutmeg, [Mace,] Cinna-
mon, Horseradish, Capsicum, Ginger, Cardamom, Sumbul, Oil of
Lavender, [Oil of Lavender Flowers, Oil of Bergamot,] Peppermint,
Spearmint, Anise, [Illicium,] Coriander, Fennel, Caraway, Dill, Sam-
bucus, [Oil of Pennyroyal, Absinthium], Chamomile, [Matricaria,

CLASS III. Volatile oils (or substances containing them) acting chiefly
upon the stomach, so as to reflexly stimulate the heart and central nervous
systems, or chiefly used for this purpose.

Valerian, [Cypripedium,] Asafcetida, Galbanum, Ammoniacum,

CLASS IV. Volatile oils (or substances containing them) acting chiefly
upon, or used chiefly for their stimulation of the bronchial mucous mem-

Terebene, [Terpin Hydrate], Balsam of Peru, Balsam of Tolu,
Storax, Fir Wood Oil, Grindelia.

CLASS V. Volatile oils (or substances containing them) acting chiefly
upon, or used chiefly for their stimulation of the kidneys and genito-urinary

Oil of Juniper, Buchu, Copaiba, [Oil of Thyme], Cubeb, Oil of
Santal, [Matico, Damiana.]

[CLASS VI. Volatile oils (or substances containing them) acting chiefly
upon, or used chiefly for their stimulation of the female genital organs.
Savine, Tansy, Oil of Rue.]



[TURPENTINE. A concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris
Miller, and from other species of Pinus (nat. ord. Conifera}. Habitat,
United States ; in the Atlantic and Gulf States from Virginia to Texas.

CHARACTERS. In yellowish, opaque, tough masses, brittle in the cold,
crumbly-crystalline in the interior, of a terebinthinate odor and taste.]


OIL OF TURPENTINE. [A volatile oil distilled from Turpentine.

CHARACTERS. A thin, colorless liquid, having a characteristic odor and
taste, both of which become stronger and less pleasant by age and exposure to
the air. Sp. gr., 0.855 100.870. Dissolves Resins (the solution forms varnish),
Wax, Sulphur, Phosphorus and Iodine. Solubility. In 3 times its volume
of Alcohol, the solution being neutral or slightly acid to litmus paper : also
soluble in an equal volume of Glacial Acetic Acid.] It is easily oxidized.


Old Oil of Turpentine is an oxidizing agent ; it readily absorbs Oxygen, and
becomes converted into an Oleoresin. French Oil of Turpentine is Icevo-
rotatory, some of it comes from Finns maritima ; English Oil of Turpentine,
which mostly comes from America, and Russian Oil of Turpentine are dextro-

COMPOSITION. Oil of Turpentine is a mixture of (i) several isomeric hy-
drocarbons (terpenes), all having the formula C 10 H 16 . The chief of them found
in the oil are pinene, phellandrtne, limonene, and dipentene. They vary in
their boiling points and the direction in which they rotate the plane of polar-
ization. The principal terpene in American oil of turpentine is dextro-pinene ;
the principal terpene in French oil of turpentine is lasvopinene. (2) Sesqui-
terpenes, C 15 H 24 . (3) Bornyl acetate. Most turpentine contains [from 20 to
30 per cent. ] of the Oil of Turpentine. Many official volatile oils, viz., Oils of
Lavender, [Cubeb, Juniper,] Peppermint, Chamomile, Caraway, Cloves, con-
tain various terpenes, all isomeric, and all having the formula, C 10 H 16 . An
oxidation product of terpene is Camphor, C 10 H 16 O, which is pharmacopoeial
(see Camphor). Sanitas (set p. 518) is another product of the oxidation of a

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; [.30 to 2.00 c.c., or J^ to 4 fl. dr. ; 2. to 15. c.c.]

Two parts of mucilage, with thorough trituration, emulsify one part of Oil
of Turpentine with sixteen parts of water.


[i. Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum. Rectified Oil of Tur-

SOURCE. Oil of Turpentine, I ; Lime water, 6 volumes. By
shaking and distillation.

CHARACTERS. A thin, colorless liquid, having the general proper-
ties mentioned under Oil of Turpentine. Sp. gr. , 0.855 * 0.865.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c., or ^ to 4 fl. dr. ; 2. to 15.
c.c. (anthelmintic).

2. Linimentum Terebinthinae. Turpentine Liniment. Resin
Cerate, 650; Oil of Turpentine, 350. By melting and mixing.]


External. Oil of turpentine has, to a marked degree, the
action of other volatile oils. Thus applied to the skin, especially
if rubbed in, it causes the vessels to dilate, there is a sense of
warmth, the part becomes red, and subsequently common sensa-
tion is blunted. The oil is therefore rubefacient, irritant,
and counter-irritant. If enough is applied, it is a vesicant.


Like the other volatile oils it is antiseptic and disinfectant.
It is absorbed by the unbroken skin.

Internal. Alimentary canal. Oil of turpentine has the
same stimulant effect when locally applied to the mouth and
pharynx as it has on the skin, and in the stomach it powerfully
dilates the vessels, increases peristalsis and the gastric secretion,
and reflexly stimulates the heart, but on account of its
nauseous taste it is not used for these properties, which it has in
common with other volatile oils. Its effects on the intestine are
the same as those on the stomach, the most marked being its
energetic stimulation of the muscular coat, hence it is a strong
carminative, expelling gas from the bowels. If a large amount
is given, the excitation of the muscular coat leads to purging,
the motions often containing much blood, haemorrhage resulting
from the great vascular dilatation. Oil of turpentine is anthel-
mintic, killing the tapeworm when administered in doses of
[/^] * 4 fl- dr. [ 2 - * I 5- c - c -]> but * ms treatment may cause
severe symptoms. When given as an enema it kills the thread-

Circulation. Oil of turpentine is readily absorbed. We do
not know in what form it circulates. Statements concerning its
action on the heart and vessels are very discordant, probably be-
cause different experimenters have used different varieties of oil
of turpentine ; but most specimens appear first to stimulate
the heart, in some degree at least, directly, for oil of turpen-
tine locally applied will excite the excised heart, increasing the
force and frequency of the cardiac beat. It contracts the ves-
sels, arid therefore it is a haemostatic. The blood-pressure
rises. After a large dose of any variety this stimulation is fol-
lowed by depression, the heart beats feebly, the vessels dilate,
and the blood-pressure falls.

Respiration. When inhaled, oil of turpentine acts on the
bronchial mucous membrane as it does on the skin, irritating it,
dilating the vessels, increasing and disinfecting the secretion,
stimulating the muscles of the bronchi, and reflexly exciting
cough. If given internally, [since] some of it is excreted by the
bronchial mucous membrane, similar effects are produced. At


the same time the activity of the respiratory movements is in-
creased, so that the drug is a powerful expectorant.

Nervous system. Oil of turpentine in large doses is a severe
depressant to the nervous system, producing languor, dulness,
sleepiness, and unsteady gait. Toxic doses cause coma and
paralyze the sensory nerves ; consequently reflex action is abol-

Kidneys. It acts more powerfully on these than almost any
other volatile oil. Even moderate doses may lead to pain in the
loins, scanty, high-colored urine, albuminuria, and haematuria.
The urinary passages are also irritated ; consequently, owing
to muscular spasm, there is difficulty in passing water, micturition
is painful, and a sensation of heat in the perinseum is present
(these symptoms constitute strangury). If a large dose has been
given, the urine may be completely suppressed. Turpentine

causes the urine to smell of violets.

Skin. Oil of turpentine is excreted by the skin, and may
cause an erythematous rash.

Some is probably excreted by the milk, bile and intestinal
mucous membrane.

It is said to be a mild antipyretic. [Old] oil of turpentine
[containing oxygen {see p. 239)] is an antidote to phosphorus,
and it is stated that [that] and [the] French oil are preferable,
but this is doubtful.


External. Oil of turpentine is very largely employed as an
irritant or counter-irritant in various forms of chronic inflamma-
tion, such as osteo-arthritis, bronchitis, or pleurisy. The liniment
forms a useful application. It may also be rubbed in over pain-
ful areas, as in neuralgia, myalgia, rheumatic pains, lumbago, etc.
Sometimes it is used as a parasiticide for ringworm. Sanitas [not
official] is an aqueous solution of common turpentine, which has
been allowed to oxidize in the air. Its active antiseptic principle
is hydrogen [dioxide,] and it contains a little thymol. It is a
very pleasant disinfectant, but is not so strong as carbolic acid.
[Oil of turpentine is an excellent antiseptic for old suppurat-


ing wounds. Care must be taken that it does not blister the
skin. ]

Internal. Stomach and intestines. [For internal use the
rectified oil only should be prescribed.] It is not often pre-
scribed for its carminative and stomachic effects, though given
either by the mouth or as an enema (i to 15 fl. oz. of mucilage
of starch) it is often very efficacious in removing the intestinal
distension due to gas. If it is used as an anthelmintic, [^ to 4
fl. dr., 2. to 15. c.c.], emulsified in mucilage and followed by a
dose of castor oil, should be given. Sometimes it promptly re-
lieves intestinal haemorrhage, such as that due to typhoid fever.
[It is also used in this disease as an antiseptic.] Whenever it is
prescribed as a haemostatic, considerable doses, 30 to 60 minims
[2. to 4. c.c.] should be administered every hour fora few hours.

Circulation. It is not employed to influence this, except as a
haemostatic. It has the reputation of being fairly efficacious in
arresting haemorrhage. It may be given in haemoptysis and
other conditions attended with bleeding.

Respiration. It is not much used as an inhalation, for the
[Vapor Olei Pini Sylvestris (^. ?'.,)] is much pleasanter, but it
might be employed to disinfect foul bronchial secretions, and
to stimulate the mucous membrane in chronic bronchitis.

It should be remembered that oil of turpentine must be given
internally with great care because of its liability to cause inflam-
mation of the kidneys; indeed, this fact and its [unpleasant]
taste account for its not being so often administered as would
otherwise be the case. It should never be given to the subjects
of Bright' s disease.


OIL OF ERIGERON. Synonym. Oil of Fleabane. A volatile oil
distilled from the fresh, flowering herb of Erigeron canadense Linn6 (nat. ord.
Composite.) Habitat. North America, in fields and waste places; natural-
ized in other countries.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, limpid liquid, becoming darker and thicker
by age and exposure to the air, having a peculiar aromatic, persistent odor,
and an aromatic, slightly pungent taste. Sp. gr., about 0.850, increasing with
age. Solubility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.


Oil of erigeron is less irritant and also less efficient than oil of
turpentine. Externally it is often applied to prevent insects from
injuring the skin. It has been used in diarrhoea, dysentery and
haemorrhages, in much the same way as oil of turpentine.]


TAR. [An empyreumatic oleoresin obtained by the destructive distilla-
tion of the wood of Pinus palustris, Miller, and of other species of Finus (nat.
ord. Conifer(E). Habitat. United States.

CHARACTERS. Thick, viscid, semi-fluid, blackish-brown, heavier than
water, transparent in thin layers, becoming granular and opaque with age ;
odor empyreumatic, terebinthinate ; taste sharp, empyreumatic. Solubility.
Slightly, in water ; soluble in Alcohol, fixed and volatile oils, and solution of
Potassium or Sodium Hydrate. ] On distillation it gives off an empyreumatic
oil (oil of tar), which is official (see below), and pyroligneous acid. What
remains behind is pitch. This is black, solid, melting in boiling water.

COMPOSITION. Tar is a very complex substance. The chief constituents
are (l) Oil of Turpentine (see p. 515). (2) Creosote (see p. 334). (3) Phe-
nols (see p. 324). (4) Pyrocatechin, or Catechol, C 6 H 6 O., (which see). (5)
Acetic Acid. (6) Acetone. (7) Xylol. (8) Toluol. (9) Methylic Alcohol.
(10) Resins.

Dose, X to x dr. i [* to 4- S m -] > n the form of pill.


1. [Syrupus Picis Liquidae. Syrup of Tar. Tar, 75 ; Water,
150 ; Boiling Distilled Water, 400 ; Sugar, 800 ; Glycerin, 100 ; Dis-
tilled Water to lOOO. By solution, decantation and filtration.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c. ]

2. Unguentum Picis Liquidae. [Tar Ointment. Tar, 500 ;
Yellow Wax, 125 ; Lard, 375.

OLEUM PICIS LIQUID^. Oil of Tar. A volatile oil distilled
from Tar.

CHARACTERS. An almost colorless liquid when freshly distilled, but
soon acquiring a dark, reddish-brown color, and having a strong, tarry odor
and taste. Sp. gr., about 0.970. Solubility. Readily in Alcohol.]


External. Tar has precisely the same action as oil of tur-
pentine, but it is not so powerful, therefore the vascular dilata-


tion rarely proceeds to the stage of vesication ; but pustules may
result if the tar is rubbed in.

Internal. It is very liable to upset digestion ; in large doses
it causes epigastric pain, vomiting, severe headache, dark urine,
and other symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning (see p. 332).
Some of its constituents are excreted by mucous membranes,
especially the bronchial, on which it acts as a disinfectant, stimu-
lating expectorant.


External. Tar ointment, which is [sometimes] rather hard,
and may be softened by half the wax with almond oil, is often
applied as a stimulant to chronic skin diseases, such as psoriasis
and chronic eczema. Because of its mildly anaesthetic action,
it is sometime? useful in pruritus.

[Wood tar is the only official form of tar, but coal tar is often
used in medicine. The prepared form of it is made by simply
heating and stirring coal tar at 120 F. 48 C. for an hour.]
Liquor Picis Carbonis [not official] is a favorite preparation for
many skin diseases. It may be made thus : Dissolve resin soap,
i (see below) in alcohol, 8 ; add prepared coal tar, 4 ; digest
at 125 F. [51 C.] for two days, allow it to cool, then decant
and filter. An ointment of 3 parts of lard with i of this solu-
tion may be made. Liquor Carbonis Detergens [not official] is
an alcoholic solution of ordinary coal tar. [It is used externally
in skin diseases, diluted in 20 parts of water.]

Internal. Coal tar is rarely prescribed for internal use.
Wood tar is only given as an expectorant, and it is very valuable
for chronic bronchitis. It may be prescribed as a pill or as the
syrup, or as Vinum Picis [not official] (a saturated solution of
wood tar in sherry, dose i to 4 fl. dr. [4. to 15. c.c.]), or as the
French preparation, Eau de Goudron. Tar water is made by
stirring wood tar with water [i to 4] for fifteen minutes and
decanting. The dose is a pint [480. c.c.] daily. It may be
used externally as a wash. The syrup with syrup of wild cherry
(see p. 462) and apomorphine hydrochlorate ^ gr. ; .003 gm.,
forms an excellent cough mixture.



OIL OF CADE. [Synonyms. Huile de Cade. Juniper Tar Oil. A
product of the dry distillation of the wood of Juniperus Oxycedrus Linne (nat.
ord. Conifera). Habitat, Mediterranean districts of North Africa, Spain,
Portugal and France ; in waste places and on stony hill-sides.

CHARACTERS. A brownish or dark brown, clear, thick liquid, having a
tarry odor, and an empyreumatic, burning, somewhat bitter taste. Sp. gr.,
alxjut 0.950. Solubility. Almost insoluble in water ; only partially soluble
in Alcohol, but is completely soluble in Ether, Chloroform, or Carbon Bi-
sulphide. ]

COMPOSITION. Probably much the same as that of Tar.


Oil of cade has the same action on the skin as tar, but it is
preferable, as the odor is pleasanter. The diseases treated by the
application of it are psoriasis, chronic eczema, and pruritus. A
usual formula is oil of cade, i ; soft soap, 4 ; alcohol, 4 ; but an
ointment made by melting with it an equal part of yellow wax,
is a more agreeable preparation.


BURGUNDY PITCH. [The prepared, resinous exudation of Abies
excelsa Poiret (nat. ord. Conifera). Habitat. Europe, in the Southern parts,
in mountainous districts.

CHARACTERS. Hard, yet gradually taking the form of the vessels in
which it is kept ; brittle, with a shining, conchoidal fracture, opaque or trans-
lucent, reddish-brown or yellowish-brown, odor agreeably terebinthinate;
taste aromatic, sweelish, not bitter. Solubility. Almost entirely in Glacial
Acetic Acid, and partly soluble in cold Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. [The chief constituents are (I) Resin; (2) A volatile
oil, a mixture of several isomeric terpenes in variable proportion.]

IMPURITIES. Palm Oil and Resin, which are detected by not being solu-
ble in Glacial Acetic Acid.

[Burgundy Pitch is contained in Emplastrum Ferri and Emplastrum Opii.]

- Preparations.

1. Emplastrum Picis [Burgundicae. Burgundy Pitch Plaster.
Burgundy Pitch, 800 ; Yellow Wax, 150 ; Olive Oil, 50.

2. Emplastrum Picis Cantharidatum. Cantharidal Pitch Plas-
ter. Synonym. Warming Plaster. Cerate of Cantharides, 80 ; Bur-
gundy Pitch to looo. Heat the cerate and strain ; melt the pitch with
the strained liquid.]



Burgundy pitch is used as a basis for plasters.- It is mildly
stimulant to the skin.


RESIN. [Synonyms. Colophony. Rosin. The residue left after dis-
tilling off the Volatile Oil from Turpeptine.

CHARACTERS. A transparent, amber-colored substance, hard, brittle, pul-
verizable ; fracture glossy and shallow-conchoidal ; odor and taste faintly tere-
binthinate. Sp. gr., 1.070 to 1. 080. Solubility. In Alcohol, Ether, and
fixed or volatile oils ; also in solution of Potassium or Sodium Hydrate.

COMPOSITION. Resin may be considered as containing Abietic Acid
Anhydride, C^H^Oj, 80 to 90 per cent.

Resin is contained in Ceratum Cantharidis. ]


[i. Ceratum Resinae. Resin Cerate. Synonym. Basilicon
Ointment. Resin, 350; Yellow Wax, 150; Lard, 500.
Resin Cerate is contained in Linimentum Terebinthinae.

2. Emplastrum Resinae. Resin Plaster. Synonym. Adhesive
Plaster. Resin, 140 ; Lead Plaster, 800 ; Yellow Wax, 60.
Resin Plaster is contained in Emplastrum Arnicae, Emplastrum Belladonnas,
and Emplastrum Capsici.]


Resin is antiseptic and slightly stimulant, and is, therefore, an
excellent application for indolent ulcers, sores and wounds.
Resin soap is formed by boiling together in an evaporating dish
for two hours : resin, 6 ; caustic soda, i ; and water, 2.5 ; sepa-
rating the soap by a strainer, and drying on a water-bath. It
may be used as an emulsifying agent, but the taste is very dis-


FRANKINCENSE. [B. P., not official.] The concrete oleo-resin
scraped off the trunks of Pinus tceda, Frankincense Pine, and Pinus australis,
the Swamp Pine (nat. ord. Conifers). Habitat. Southern United States.

CHARACTERS. When fresh it is a soft, yellow, opaque, tough, solid,
becoming darker, dry and brittle by keeping. Odor and taste as of other


Frankincense is used for the same purposes as resin (see p.



CANADA TURPENTINE. Synonyms. Canada Balsam. [Balsam
of Fir. A liquid oleo-resin obtained from Abies balsamea (Linnfe) Miller
(nat. ord. Coniferce}. Habitat. Canada r.nd Northern United States, west to
Minnesota, and south along the mountains to Virginia.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish or faintly greenish, transparent, viscid liquid,
of an agreeable, terebinthinate odor, and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste. When
exposed to the air, it gradually dries, forming a transparent mass. Solubility.
Completely in Ether, Chloroform or Benzol.

COMPOSITION. (i) A volatile oil, 20 to 30 per cent. (2) Resin. (3) A
bitter principle soluble in water.]

Canada Turpentine is contained in Collodium Flexile.


Canada turpentine is rarely used except for its physical pro-
perty of drying to form an adhesive varnish. It has the same
action as oil of turpentine.


i. SINAPIS ALBA. White Mustard. [The seed of Brassica alba
(Linn6) Hooker filius et Thompson (nat ord. Crucifem). Habitat. Asia
and Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. About 2 mm. in diameter, almost globular, with a circular
hilum ; testa yellowish, finely pitted, hard ; embryo oily, with a curved
radicle, and two cotyledons, one folded over the other ; free from starch ; in-
odorous ; taste pungent and acrid.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A bland fixed oil, [20 to
25 per cent.] (2) Sinalbin, [CgoH^NjSjOjg,] and Myrosin ; the latter is an
Enzyme, and in contact with water converts Sinalbin, which is a Glucoside,
into a fixed pungent body, very acrid, called Acrinyl Sulphocyanide,
[C T H 7 ONCS], Glucose, and Sinapine Sulphate, [C^H^NOjHjSOj.

a. SINAPIS NIGRA. Black Mustard. [The seed of Brassica nigra
(Linn6) Koch (nat. ord. Crucifertf). Habitat. Asia and Southern Europe ;

CHARACTERS. About I mm. in diameter, almost globular, with a circular
hilum ; testa blackish-brown or grayish-brown, finely pitted, hard, embryo
oily, with a curved radicle, and two cotyledons, one folded over the other;
free from starch ; inodorous when dry, but when triturated with water, of a
pungent, penetrating, irritating odor ; taste pungent and acrid.]


COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) The same fixed oil as the
white seeds, about 35 per cent. (2) Sinigrin (which is Potassium Myronate,
C 10 H 18 KO 10 NS.j, a potassium salt of myronic acid, which is a crystalline gluco-
side) and Myrosin, an enzyme which on contact with water converts Sinigrin
into the official volatile Oil of Mustard, (see below) (C 3 H 5 CNS, which is
Allyl Sulpkocyanide), Glucose, and Potassium Sulphate. The volatile oil is
very pungent and highly volatile, and its development on the addition of water
explains the pungency of ordinary mustard.

Resembling black mustard seeds. Colchicum seeds, which are larger,
lighter and not quite globular.


[Charta Sinapis. Mustard Paper. Black Mustard, loo. Per-
colate the Mustard with a sufficient quantity of Benzin. Remove the
powder and dry ; add this to the solution ; India rubber, 10 ; Benzin,
loo ; and Carbon Bisulphide, 100 ; and with a brush apply to one side
of a piece of rather stiff, well-sized paper, and dry.]

3. OLEUM SINAPIS VOLATILE. Volatile Oil of Mustard.
[Allyl Sulphocyanide, C 3 H 5 CNS. A volatile oil obtained from Black Mus-
tard by maceration with Water and subsequent distillation.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or pale yellow, limpid, and strongly refractive
liquid, having a very pungent and acrid odor and taste. Sp. gr., 1.018 to
1.029. Solubility. Freely in Alcohol, Ether or Carbon Disulphide. ]


Linimentum Sinapis [Compositum. Compound Liniment of
Mustard. Volatile Oil of Mustard, 30 ; Fluid Extract of Mezereum,
200 ; Camphor, 60; Castor Oil, 150 ; Alcohol, to looo; by solution.]


External. Mustard is a typical powerful local irritant.
Thus it first produces dilatation of the vessels, which causes red-
ness of the skin (rubefacient effect) and a sensation of warmth.
Because of the irritant action of mustard on the sensory nerves,

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 46 of 67)