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a severe burning pain is soon felt. The irritation of the nerves
is followed by their paralysis, consequently there is a local loss
of sensibility, and a diminution both of the pain produced by
the mustard and of any that may have been present before its
application. The irritation of the vessels leads to the transuda-
tion of plasma through them ; this, collecting under the epidermis,
raises it, and thus vesicles, blebs, or blisters, are formed (vesi-
cant effect.) Mustard is also a counter-irritant {see p. 61);


that is to say, the stimulation of the cutaneous nerves reflexly
leads to an alteration in the size of the vessels of the viscera
under the seat of application.

This excitation of the sensory nerves is sufficiently powerful
to reflexly stimulate the heart and respiration, and some-
times to restore consciousness after fainting.

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. Mustard also acts here
as an irritant. Taken in the usual small quantities as a condi-
ment, it causes a sense of warmth in the stomach, it moderately
stimulates the secretion of gastric juice and the peristaltic
movements, and therefore sharpens the appetite. A dose of one
to four teaspoonfuls [4. to 15. gm.] stirred up in a tumbler of
[lukewarm] water is sufficiently irritating to be a direct stomachic
emetic, causing prompt vomiting without the depression which
usually attends emetics, because the mustard reflexly stimulates
the heart and respiration.


External. A poultice made with flaxseed and having a little
mustard (i to 16 of flaxseed) sprinkled on it is a very "common
and efficacious application as an irritant and counter-irritant in
rheumatism, pleurisy, pneumonia, bronchitis, pericarditis, and
many inflammatory diseases. In the manner already explained,
it will, when applied to the skin, soothe pain in gastralgia, colic,
painful diseases of the chest, neuralgia, lumbago, etc. The
paper or any of the mustard leaves that are sold, moistened in
water, form an excellent application. Often the local applica-
tion of mustard over the stomach relieves vomiting. A large
mustard poultice applied to the legs was formerly used as a reflex
stimulant in cases of syncope, asphyxia, and coma.

Common colds and febrile conditions, especially in children,
are often treated by placing the feet and legs or the whole body
in mustard and water as hot as can be borne [i to 128], the
object being by the cutaneous dilatation to withdraw blood from
the inflamed part. A mustard sitz-bath may be taken at the
time of the expected period, to induce menstruation.

Internal. Mustard is used as a condiment, and also as an


emetic. It is especially valuable for poisoning by narcotics, be-
cause of its reflex stimulant effects.


[OIL OF CAJUPUT. A volatile oil distilled from the leaves of
Melaleuca Leucadendron Linne (nat. ord. Myrtacets], Habitat. East Indian

CHARACTERS. A light, thin, bluish-green, or after rectification, colorless
liquid, having a peculiar, agreeable, distinctly camphoraceous odor, and an
aromatic, bitterish taste. Sp. gr., 0.922 to 0.929. Solubility. Readily in

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Cajuputol, Ci H 18 O ; (67
per cent. ) said to be identical with Cineol, and is isomeric with Eucalyptol.
(2) Terpineol, C 10 H, 8 O, and (3) Several terpenes, C 10 H 16 ( cajuputene, ) and

C 15 H W

IMPURITIES. Copper, and other oils.
Dose, i to 5 m. ; [.06 to .30 c.c.]


The action of oil of cajuput is exactly the same as that of the
oil of cloves (g. v. )


External. Oil of cajuput is used as a stimulant, irritant,
and counter-irritant usually diluted with sweet oil for all sorts
of purposes when any of these effects are needed. Thus it is
rubbed in for chilblains, myalgia, rheumatic pains, chronic in-
flammatory conditions of the joints or periosteum. It has also
been employed as a parasiticide for Tinea tonsurans. The only
objection to its use is its strong smell.

Internal. It is occasionally given in dyspepsia, usually com-
bined with other remedies, for the sake of its carminative, stom-
achic, and anti -spasmodic effects ; it may be taken on sugar.


[EUCALYPTUS. The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere
(nat. ord. A1yrtace<e), collected from the older parts of the tree. Habitat.
Australia ; cultivated in subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. Petiolate, lanceolately scythe-shaped, from 15 to 30 cm.
long, rounded below, tapering above, entire, leathery, grayish-green, glandu-


lar, feather- veined between the midrib, and marginal veins ; odor strongly
camphoraceous ; taste pungently aromatic and somewhat cooling, bitter and

COMPOSITION. (I) A volatile oil (see below); (2) Cerylic Alcohol ; (3)
A crystallizable Fatty Acid ; (4) A crystallizable Resin.

Dose, ^ to 2 dr. ; 2. to 8. gm.


Extractum Eucalypti Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Eucalyptus.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evapora-

Dose, YZ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.]

OLEUM EUCALYPTI. [Oil of Eucalyptus. A volatile oil dis-
tilled from the fresh leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere, Eucalyptus
oleosa F. v. Mueller, and some other species of Eucalyptus (nat. ord.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or faintly yellowish liquid, having a charac-
teristic, aromatic, somewhat comphoraceous odor, and a pungent, spicy, and
cooling taste. Sp. gr.,o.9!5 to 0.925. Solubility. In all proportions, in
Alcohol, Carbon Bisulphide, or Glacial Acetic Acid.] The oils from different
species of Eucalyptus vary very much.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Eucalyptol C 10 H, 8 O or
Cineol (about 70 per cent.) ; [(2) Cymene, C 10 H M ; (3) Eucalyptene, C 10 H, 6 ;
(4) Tannic Acid.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies, mineral acids, and metallic salts.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; [.30 to 2.00 c.c.

EUCALYPTOL. Eucalyptol. Ci H 18 O=l53.66. A neutral body
obtained from the volatile oil of Eucalyptus globulus Labillardiere, and of
some o;her species of Eucalyptus ( nat. ord. Myrtacet?}.

SOURCE. In the distillation of Eucalyptus leaves, crude Eucalyptol comes
over between 338 and 352.4 F. ; 170 and 178 C., and is purified by re-dis-
tillation from Caustic Potash or Calcium Chloride.

CHARACTERS. A colorless liquid, having a characteristic, aromatic, and
distinctly camphoraceous odor, and a pungent, spicy, and cooling taste. Sp.
gr. ,0.930. Solubility. In all proportions, in Alcohol, Carbon Bisulphide,
and Glacial Acetic Acid.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.]


External. Oil of eucalyptus is much less irritant when
applied externally than other volatile oils, but if its vapor is con-
fined it will produce vesication and pustulation. It is power-


fully antiseptic and disinfectant. Old oil is more anti-
septic than new, probably from the greater amount of ozone it

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. In medicinal doses oil
of eucalyptus is stomachic, having the same action as oil of cloves.
In large doses it produces severe gastro-intestinal irritation, as
shown by vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain.

Circulation. It, like quinine, arrests the movements of the
white blood-corpuscles ; and it likewise resembles this drug in its
antipyretic and its antiperiodic actions, and also, it is said, in
causing contraction of spleen ; but quinine is in all respects the
more energetic. In medicinal doses the heart is stimulated by
oil of eucalyptus, and the blood-pressure rises ; probably these
effects are reflex from the stomach. After large quantities the
action of the heart is enfeebled, and temperature falls.

Respiration. Small doses slightly accelerate, poisonous doses
slow respiration.

Nervous system. Large doses are powerfully depressant to the
brain, to the medulla, and to the spinal cord, abolishing reflex
action. Death occurs from paralysis of respiration.

Mucous membranes, kidneys, and skin. Like other volatile
oils, eucalyptus is excreted by all these channels. It imparts its
odor to and disinfects the breath and the urine. It stimulates the
organs by which it is excreted, consequently it is a diaphoretic, a
stimulating expectorant, a diuretic, and a stimulant to the genito-
urinary tract. Large doses cause renal congestion.


External. It is used as an antiseptic for wounds, sores, and
ulcers. It is three times as powerful as carbolic acid, and is there-
fore preferred by some surgeons. A eucalyptus gauze has been
prepared as a dressing for wounds, which may be washed with a
weak solution of the oil in alcohol. An ointment of oil of euca-
lyptus, 8 ; iodoform, i ; hard paraffin and vaseline, of each 40, is
applied to chancres. An emulsion of the oil is used as an ure-
thral injection. It would probably be an efficient parasiticide.

Internal. A vapor or the spray of oil of eucalyptus has



been recommended for diphtheria and fetid bronchitis, and it is
sometimes given by the mouth to correct the foetor of the expec-
toration. Occasionally it is used for its stomachic and carminative
effects, especially if the faeces are very foul smelling, and some
employ it in cystitis and pyelitis. It has been prescribed in
septicaemia. As an antiperiodic for ague and an antipyretic it
is far inferior to quinine. [In most cases eucalyptol can be sub-
stituted for the oil with advantage.]


OIL OF ROSEMARY. [A volatile oil distilled from the leaves of
Rosmarinus officinalis Linne (nat. ord. Labiatai). Habitat. Basin of the
Mediterranean ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or pale yellow, limpid liquid, having the
characteristic pungent odor of Rosemary, and a warm, somewhat camphora-
ceous taste. Sp. gr. , 0.895 to -9 I S- Solubility. In an equal volume of
Alcohol ; also soluble in an equal volume of Glacial Acetic Acid. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) The terpene, Finene,
[C 10 H 16 , 80 per cent.] (2) Cineol, [C 10 H 18 O]. (3) Borneol, [C 10 H,,O], an
alcohol isomeric with Geraniol (q. z>.). (4) Linalool (see p. 545)- (5)
Menthol (see p. 547).

Oil of Rosemary is contained in Linimentum Saponis and Tinctura Lav-
andulae Composite.

Dose, i to 5 m.; [.06 to .30 c.c.]


Oil of rosemary has an action similar to that of other aromatic
volatile oils. It is very commonly used to give a pleasant scent
to lotions and other preparations which are used externally.


[ARNIC-dE FLORES. Arnica Flowers. The flower heads of Arnica
montana Linne (nat. ord. Compositor). Synonym. Leopardsbane. Habitat.
Europe and Northern Asia ; in mountainous districts.

CHARACTERS. Heads about 3 cm. broad, depressed-roundish, consisting
of scaly involucre in two rows, and a small, nearly flat, hairy receptacle, bear-
ing about sixteen yellow, strap-shaped, ten- nerved ray-florets, and numerous
yellow, five-toothed, tubular disk-florets, having slender, spindle-shaped
achenes, crowned by a hairy pappus. Odor feeble, aromatic ; taste bitter and

COMPOSITION. (I) Arnicin, an amorphous, yellow, acrid, bitter principle;


easily soluble in Alcohol and Ether. (2) Volatile Oil. (3) Caprylic and
Capronic Acids. (4) Resin. (5) Tannic acid.
Dose, 10 to 20 gr. ; .60 to 1.20 gm.


Tinctura Arnicae Florum. Tincture of Arnica Flowers. Arnica
Flowers, 200 ; by percolation with Diluted Alcohol to 1000.
Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to l.oo c.c.]

ARNIC/E [RADIX. Arnica Root. The rhizome and roots of Arnica
montana Linne (nat. ord. Composites).

CHARACTERS. Rhizome about 5 cm. long, and 3 or 4 mm. thick ; exter-
nally brown, rough from leaf-scars ; internally whitish, with a rather thick
bark, containing a circle of resin-cells, surrounding the short, yellowish wood-
wedges, and large spongy pith. The roots numerous, thin, fragile, grayish-
brown, with a thick bark containing a circle of resin-cells. Odor somewhat
aromatic ; taste pungently aromatic and bitter.] Resembling Arnica. Vale-
rian and Serpentaria, each having a characteristic odor ; Veratrum Viride,
having thicker rootlets.

COMPOSITION. The same as of the flowers.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]


[i. Extractum Arnicae Radicis. Extract of Arnica Root. By
maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Extract of Arnica Root is used to make Emplastrum Arnicae.
Dose, 5 to 10 gr. ; .30 to .60 gm.

2. Extractum Arnicae Radicis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Arnica Root. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water,
and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 20 m. ; .30 to 1.20 c.c.

3. Tinctura Arnicae Radicis. Tincture of Arnica Root. Arnica
Root, loo ; by maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water to


Dose, 5 to 10 m. ; .30 to .60 c.c.

4. Emplastrum Arnicae. Arnica Plaster. Extract of Arnica
Root, 330; resin plaster, 670.]


External. The action of arnica is the same as that of vola-
tile oils generally. Externally the tincture is used as an applica-
tion to bruises, but it is very doubtful how far its good effects


are owing to the [alcohol] and how far to any increase of cuta-
neous vascularity due to the volatile oil of the arnica.

Internal. It is rarely given internally, but in small doses it
is a stomachic, a carminative, and a reflex stimulant, and in
larger doses causes vomiting and purging. It is excreted by the
kidneys and mucous membranes, and it has been credited with
obscure effects on the central nervous system.


[MEZEREUM. Synonym. Mezereon. The bark of Daphne Meze-
num Linne, and other species of Daphne (nat. ord. Thymel&acea'). Habitat.
Europe in mountainous regions, eastward to Siberia ; spontaneous in Canada
and New England.

CHARACTERS. In long thin bands, usually folded or rolled into disks;
outer surface yellowish or brownish yellow, with transverse scars, and minute,
blackish dots, underneath of a light greenish color ; inner surface whitish,
silky ; bast in transverse layers, very tough ; inodorous ; taste very acrid.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Mezerein, a soft, acrid
resin. (2) An acrid, rubefacient, volatile oil. (3) Daphnin, C 15 H 16 O 9 -|-
2H 2 O, a bitter glucoside in fine needles or rectangular plates. (4) Coccogin,
C^H^Og, a bitter principle.

Mezereum is contained in Decoctum Sarsaparillae Compositum and Ex-
tractum Sarsaparillae Compositum Fluidum.


Extractum Mezerei Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Mezereum. By
maceration and percolation with Alcohol and evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Mezereum is used in Linimentum Sinapis Com-

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.]


[External. Mezereum has the same action as volatile oils
generally. It is a powerful rubefacient and vesicant externally,
and is used chiefly in the compound mustard liniment, where it
excites the same effects and is employed for the same purposes as
the oil of mustard. Almost its only use at present is to keep
open an issue, a procedure which is very rarely employed.

Internal. It is a gastric stimulant, producing, in large doses,
vomiting and diarrhoea.]



[MANILLA ELEMI (not official.) A concrete resinous exudation,
probably from Canarium commune (nat. ord. Bursaracece). Habitat.

CHARACTERS. A soft unctuous mass, becoming harder and yellowish by
age. Strong fennel -like odor. Resembling Elemi. Asafoetida, Galbanum,
and Ammoniacum, but Elemi is known'by its odor.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Resinous bodies, 80 per
cent. (2) A volatile oil.


Elemi acts like volatile oils generally, but is only used as a
stimulating disinfectant ointment which was formerly official in
B. P. as elemi, i; ointment, 4.]



PYRETHRUM. Synonym. Pellitory. [The root of Anacyclus Py-
rethrum (Linne) De Candolle (nat. ord. Composites). Habitat. Highlands
of Northern Africa.

CHARACTERS. From 5 to 10 cm. long, and i to 2 cm. thick, somewhat
fusiform, nearly simple, annulate above, wrinkled below, externally dark gray-
ish brown ; internally brownish-white ; fracture short ; bark rather thick, con-
taining two circles of resin-cells, and surrounding the slender wood bundles
and medullary rays, the latter having about four circles of shining resin-cells ;
inodorous, pungent and very acrid. ] Resembling Pyrethrum. Taraxacum,
which is darker and has not a burning taste.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Two volatile oils. [(2) An
acrid, brown Resin. (3) Inulin, 50 per cent., which in many plants replaces

Dose, y z to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.]


Tinctura Pyrethri. [Tincture of Pyrethrum. Pyrethrum, 200 ;
by maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water to 1000.]


Pyrethrum is a powerful sialogogue, and causes a burning sen-
sation in the mouth, followed by numbness and tingling. Small
quantities give a pleasant taste to tooth powders.



CLOVES. [The unexpanded flowers of Eugenia aromatica (Linne) O.
Kuntze (nat. ord Myrtacece). Habitat. Molucca Islands ; cultivated in
tropical countries.

CHARACTERS. About 15 mm. long, dark brown, consisting of a sub-
cylindrical, solid and granular calyx-tube, terminated by four teeth, and sur-
mounted by a globular head, formed of four petals, which cover numerous
curved stamens, and one style. Cloves emit oil, when scratched, and have a
strong, aromatic odor, and a pungent, spicy taste.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Oleum Caryophylli [(see
below), 18 per cent] (2) Eugenin [C 10 H 12 O 2 ], a crystalline body. (3)
Caryofhyllin, [C 10 H 16 O,] a neutral body isomeric with Camphor.

[Cloves are contained in Vinum Opii, Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, and Tinc-
tura Lavanduloe Composita.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]

OLEUM CARYOPHYLLI. [Oil of Cloves. A volatile oil distilled
from Cloves.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, thin liquid, becoming darker and thicker
by age and exposure to the air, having a strongly aromatic odor of Cloves, and
a pungent and spicy taste. Sp. gr., 1. 060 to 1.067. Solubility. Soluble in
an equal volume of Alcohol ; also soluble in an equal volume of glacial Acetic

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Eugenol (Synonym.
Eugenic Acid), C 10 H, 2 O 2 , 85 per cent., which chemically resembles Phenol,
and forms permanent Salts with Alkalies. This is also found in Oil of Pi-
menta. (2) A terpene (Caryophyllene), Ci 5 H M .

INCOMPATIBI.ES. Lime water, iron salts, mineral acids, and gelatin.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; [.06 to .30 c.c.]


Oil of cloves is a typical example of a volatile oil the most
important actions of which are exerted in the stomach.

External. When rubbed into the skin it is stimulant,
rubefacient, irritant, and counter-irritant, and gives rise to
considerable vascular dilatation. At first it causes a sensation of
tingling and pain, which afterwards is replaced by local anaes-
thesia. It is a parasiticide and antiseptic.

Internal. Mouth. In the mouth, oil of cloves produces
the same effects as on the skin : there is a burning sensation
accompanied by vascular dilatation and an increased flow of


saliva, and followed by local anaesthesia. Cloves stimulate the
nerves of taste, and being volatile and aromatic, those of smell
also ; by both these means taste is sharpened.

Stomach. The stimulant effect of cloves is experienced here.
The vessels are dilated, peristalsis is accelerated, the
secretion of gastric juice is excited, and as cloves are pleasant
and aromatic, they do not ordinarily produce nausea ; conse-
quently the appetite is increased. The combined effect of
these actions is to aid digestive processes therefore oil of cloves
is stomachic; and to facilitate the expulsion of gas thus it is
carminative. The stimulation of the gastric nerves to a slight
extent reflexly affects the heart in the same way as alcohol ;
therefore the rate and force of the pulse are moderately

Intestines, Here likewise oil of cloves dilates the vessels, and
stimulates the secretion and the muscular coat of the intestine ;
consequently colicky pains due to irregular contraction of it are
relieved, and flatus is expelled.

Circulation. Oil of cloves is readily absorbed from the intes-
tine, circulates in the blood, and is said to increase the number
of white corpuscles. It may, to a slight extent, stimulate the
heart directly, but the greater part of the stimulation of the heart
excited by it is reflex from the stomach. It is credited with the
power of arresting painful spasmodic contractions in various parts
of the body. It can, as we have seen, do this in the intestine, .,
and possibly it may have to a slight extent the same action in the
bronchial tubes, heart, etc. This causes it to be called anti-

Mucous membranes. Like other volatile oils it is excreted by
the kidneys, skin, bronchi, and genito-urinary tract, and in pass-
ing through these structures will act as a stimulating disinfect-
ant to their secretion ; but oil of cloves is never used for these

External. Oil of cloves is too [expensive] for frequent ex-
ternal application, but on account of its local anaesthetic effect it


has been used for neuralgia. It is employed to give a pleasant
scent to liniments.

Internal. The oil is sometimes dropped into decayed teeth
to relieve pain. Cloves are frequently employed in cookery for
their taste, and because they stimulate the appetite and aid diges-
tion. The oil or infusion [B. P., i to 40] may be used medici-
nally as a stomachic, as a carminative, as an anti-spasmodic, or
to relieve colicky pains in indigestion. It will be noticed that
oil of cloves is [sometimes combined with preparations of scam-
mony, of castor oil, and of] colocynth. This is to prevent the
griping these purgatives might otherwise cause.


PIMENTA. [Synonym. Allspice. The nearly ripe fruit of Pimenta
officinalis Lindley (nat. ord. Myrtacea). Habitat. Tropical America; culti-

CHARACTERS. About 5 mm. in diameter, nearly globular, crowned with
the short, four-parted calyx or its remnants, and a short style ; brownish or
brownish gray, granular and glandular, two-celled ; each cell containing one
brown plano-convex, roundish-reniform seed ; odor and taste pungently aro-
matic, clove-like.] Resembling Pimenta. Pepper, which has no calyx;
Cubeb, which is stalked.

COMPOSITION. The chief ingredient is [Oleum Pimento (see below),
which is chemically almost identical with the volatile oil found in cloves.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]

OLEUM PIMENTO. [Oil of Pimenta. Synonym. Oil of Allspice.
A volatile oil distilled from Pimenta.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or pale yellow liquid, having a strong, aro-
matic, Clove like odor, and a pungent, spicy taste. It becomes darker and
thicker by age and exposure to the air. Sp. gr., 1.045 to l-55- Solubility.
With an equal volume of Alcohol it forms a clear solution.

COMPOSITION. (i) JEugenoI, 70 per cent. (2) A sesquiterpene.

Oil of Pimenta is used in Spiritus Myrcise.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]


The action and uses of pimenta and its oil are precisely the
same as those of cloves and oil of cloves.



PEPPER. [Synonym. Black Pepper. The unripe fruit of Piper
Nigrum, Linne (nat. ord. Piperacece). Habitat. India ; cultivated in the

CHARACTERS. Globular, about 4 mm. in diameter, reticulately wrinkled,
brownish-black, or grayish-black, internally lighter, hollow, with an undevel-
oped embryo ; odor aromatic ; taste jpungently spicy. ] Resembling Black
Pepper. Pimenta, which has a calyx ; Cubeb, which is stalked.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) An Oleoresin, readily yield-
ing a volatile oil, [i to 2 per cent] with the odor of pepper, and a resin. (2)
Piperin, (see below), 6 to 8 per cent.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.


Oleoresina Piperis. Oleoresin of Pepper. By percolation with
Ether, distillation and evaporation of the residue.

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 47 of 67)