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Materia medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics online

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Dose, ^ to i gr. ; .015 to .06 gm.

PIPERINUM. Piperin. C 17 H 19 NO S =284.38. A neutral principle ob-
tained from Pepper, and obtainable also from other plants of the natural order
Piperacece.

CHARACTERS. Colorless or pale yellowish, shining, prismatic crystals,
odorless and almost tasteless when first put in the mouth, but on prolonged
contact producing a sharp and bitter sensation. Permanent in the air. Solu-
bility. Almost insoluble in water ; soluble in 30 parts of Alcohol ; also
slightly soluble in Ether. Isomeric with Morphine, it decomposes into Piperic
Acid, C W H 10 O 4 , and a liquid Alkaloid Piperidine, C 5 HjjN.

Dose, i to 10 gr. ; .06 to .60 gm.]

ACTION OF PEPPER.

Pepper, because of its volatile oil, acts like other substances
containing volatile oils ; thus externally it is at first rubefacient
and counter-irritant, and subsequently it acts as an anodyne.
Internally it increases the secretions of the mouth, and in the
stomach it is stomachic and "carminative. During its excretion
it stimulates the mucous membrane of the genito-urinary tract.
Piperin is believed to be a feeble antipyretic and antiperiodic.

THERAPEUTICS OF PEPPER.

Occasionally pepper is used externally as an irritant for the
same class of cases as mustard. Internally it may be applied in
the form of a gargle, as a stimulant for the relaxed conditions of



538 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

the throat. It is taken in the form of a condiment for its
stomachic properties. The confection [B. P. , Pepper, 2 ; car-
away, 3; honey, 15. Synonym. Ward's paste], or pepper
lozenges are given empirically to relieve haemorrhoids, ulcers of
the rectum, and fissures of the anus.

MYRISTICA.

NUTMEG. [The seed of Myristica Fragrans Houttuyn (nat. ord.
MyristicaceiE), deprived of its testa. Habitat. Molucca Islands ; cultivated
in tropical countries.

CHARACTERS. Oval or roundish-ovate, about 25 mm. long, light brown,
reticulately furrowed, with a circular scar on the broad end ; internally pale
brownish, with dark orange-brown veins, and of a fatty lustre ; odor strongly
aromatic ; taste aromatic, warm, and somewhat bitter. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) The fi xed oil, 25 1030
per cent, (see below). (2) The volatile oil (see below), 2 to 8 per cent.

Nutmeg is contained in [Pulvis Aromaticus, and Tinctura Lavandulse
Composita. ]

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; [.30 to i.oo gm.]

[OLEUM MYRISTICA EXPRESSUM. (Not official). Ex-
pressed Oil of Nutmeg. A concrete oil obtained by expression and heat from
Nutmeg. .

CHARACTERS. Orange-brown or orange-yellow, mottled, of a firm consis-
tence ; odor like Nutmeg.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Glyceryl Oleate, C 3 H 5
(CjgH^O^j. (2) Glyceryl Butyrate, C S H 5 (C U H 7 O 2 ) S . (3) Glyceryl, Myris-
tate, C s H 5 (C u H 27 Oj) s . (4) A little volatile oil. (5) A little resin.]

OLEUM MYRISTICA. [Oil of Nutmeg. A volatile oil distilled
from Nutmeg.

CHARACTERS. A thin, colorless or pale yellowish liquid, having the
characteristic odor of Nutmeg and a warm, spicy taste. It becomes darker
and thicker by age and exposure to the air. Sp. gr., 0.870 to 0.900. Solu-
bility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Myristicene [Ci H lg ,], a
terpene. (2) Afyristicol, [C 10 H U O, a stearopten, isomeric with Carvol.

Oil of Nutmeg is contained in Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus.]

Dose, i to 3 m. ; [.06 to .20 c.c. J

Preparation.

Spiritus Myristicae. [Spirit of Nutmeg. Synonym. Essence
of Nutmeg. Oil of Nutmeg, 50 ; Alcohol, 950.
Dose, y 2 to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]



VOLATILE OILS. 539

MACIS.

[MACE. The arillode of the seed of Myristica fragrans Houttuyn (nat.
ord. Myristicaceiz). Habitat. Molucca Islands ; cultivated in the tropical
countries.

CHARACTERS. In narrow bands, 25 mm. or more long, somewhat
branched and lobed above, united into broader bands below ; brownish-
orange ; fatty when scratched or pressed ; odor fragrant, taste warm and
aromatic.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A Volatile Oil, 8 per
cent., a greater portion of which is Afacene, C 10 H 16 . (2) A red fixed Oil. (3)
Resin.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF NUTMEG AND MACE.

The action of oil of nutmeg is the same as that of other
aromatic oils. [The expressed oil of nutmeg is used in plasters
as a sweet-smelling stimulant.] Nutmeg [and mace] are much
employed in cookery for the sake of their volatile oil, which is
an agreeable stomachic. A liniment, containing one part of the
expressed oil to three of olive oil, is an elegant antiparasitic for
mild cases of ringworm.

CINNAMOMUM.

[CINNAMOMUM SAIGONICUM. Saigon Cinnamon. The bark
of an undetermined species of Cinnamomum (nat. ord. Laurinea:}, Habitat.
China.

CHARACTERS. In quills about 15 cm. long, and 10 to 15 mm. in
diameter, the bark 2 or 3 mm. thick ; outer surface gray or light grayish -brown
with whitish patches, more or less rough from numerous warts and some trans-
verse ridges and fine longitudinal wrinkles ; the inner surface cinnamon-brown
or dark brown, granular and slightly striate ; fracture short, granular, in the
outer layer cinnamon-colored, having near the cork numerous whitish striae
forming an almost uninterrupted line ; odor fragrant ; taste sweet, warmly aro-
matic, somewhat astringent.

CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM. Ceylon Cinnamon. The inner
bark of the shoots of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyne (nat. ord. Laurinea:).
Habitat. Ceylon ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Long, closely-rolled quills, composed of eight or more
layers of bark of the thickness of paper ; pale yellowish-brown ; outer surface
smooth, marked with wavy lines of bast-bundles ; inner surface striate ; frac-
ture short splintery ; odor fragrant ; taste sweet and warmly aromatic.



54O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A Volatile Oil, j^ to i%
percent (2) Tannic acid. (3) Sugar. (4) Mannit.]
IMPURITY. Cassia Bark.

Preparations.

[i. Pulvis Arornaticus. Aromatic Powder. Ceylon Cinnamon,
35; Cardamom, 15; Ginger, 35 ; Nutmeg, 15.

Aromatic Powder is used to make Extractum Aromaticum Fluidum.
Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00 gm.

2. Tinctura Cinnamomi. Tincture of Cinnamon. Ceylon Cin-
namon, 100 ; Glycerin, 50 ; Alcohol and Water to 1000. By perco-
lation.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

3. Extractum Aromaticum Fluidum. Aromatic Fluid Ex-
tract. Aromatic Powder, by maceration and percolation with Alcohol,

and evaporation.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.

CINNAMOMUM CASSIA. Cassia Cinnamon. Synonym. Cassia
Bark. The bark of the shoots of one or more undetermined species of Cinna-
momum grown in China (Chinese Cinnamon) (nat. ord. Laurinea). Habitat.
China.

CHARACTERS. In quills of varying length and about i mm. or more in
thickness; nearly deprived of the corky layer; yellowish-brown; outer sur-
face somewhat rough ; fracture nearly smooth ; odor fragrant ; taste sweet,
and warmly aromatic.

COMPOSITION. (i) Volatile Oil (see below). (2) Tannic acid. (3)
Sugar. (4) Mannit.

Cassia Cinnamon is contained in Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, Tinc-
tura Catechu Composita, Tinctura Lavandulae Composita and Vinum Opii.]

OLEUM CINNAMOMI. [Oil of Cinnamon. Synonym. Oil of
Cassia. A volatile oil distilled from Cassia Cinnamon.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish or brownish liquid, becoming darker and
thicker by age and exposure to the air, having the characteristic odor of Cin-
namon, and a sweetish, spicy, and burning taste. Sp. gr. , 1.055 to 1-065.
Solubility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Cinnamic Aldehyde,
C 9 H 8 O, which makes up the greatest part. (2) Eugenol [found also in the
oils of cloves and nutmeg. (3) In old oil, Cinnamic Acid, CgHgO.,.

Oil of Cinnamon is contained in Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]

Preparations.

[i. Aqua Cinnamomi. Cinnamon Water. Oil of Cinnamon, 2;
by trituration with precipitated Calcium Phosphate and addition of Dis-
tilled Water to 1000.



VOLATILE OILS. $4!

Cinnamon Water is contained in Infusum Digitalis.
Dose, Y?, to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.

2. Spiritus Cinnamomi. Spirit of Cinnamon. Oil of Cinna-
mon, 100 ; Alcohol, 900.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CINNAMON.
Oil of cinnamon has the same action as other aromatic vola-
tile oils, and is therefore stomachic and carminative. Cinnamon
bark in addition has, in virtue of its tannic acid, some astringent
action, and is consequently a common flavoring vehicle for
astringent stomachic powders and mixtures, except such as con-
tain iron. Finely powdered cinnamon (60 to 90 gr. [4, to 6.
gm.] ), is given night and morning in acute dysentery.

ARMORACIA.

HORSE-RADISH. [B. P., not official.] The fresh root of the Coch-
learia armoracia (nat. ord. Cruciferce). Habitat. Cultivated in [the United
States and Britain. It is most active in the autumn and early spring, before
the leaves have appeared.]

CHARACTERS. A long, cylindrical, fleshy root, enlarged at the upper end,
where it is marked by the scars of fallen leaves, [12 to 25 mm.] in diameter,
and usually [30 cm.] or more long. Pale yellowish or brownish- white exter-
nally ; whitish and fleshy within. Taste very pungent. Inodorous unless
bruised or scraped. Resembling Horse-Radish Root. Aconite root, which is
shorter, conical, not cylindrical, darker, and causes tingling and numbness
when chewed.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is a substance which, by the action
of an enzyme, yields a volatile oil, Butyl Sulphocyanide, C 4 H g CNS.

ACTION AND USES OF HORSE-RADISH.

Horse-radish is a condiment, having the same action as mus-
tard.. It has been used as a counter-irritant. The [compound]
spirit [B. P., scraped horse-radish root, 10 ; bitter orange peel,
10 ; nutmeg, i ; alcohol, 192 ; water, 196 ; dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ;
4. to 8. c.c.] is a pleasant flavoring and carminative agent.

CAPSICUM.

CAPSICUM. [Synonyms. Cayenne Pepper. Guinea Pepper. Afri-
can Pepper. The fruit of Capsicum fastigiatum Blume (nat. ord. Solanacetz).
Habitat. Tropical America ; cultivated in tropical countries.



542 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. Oblong-conical, from 10 to 20 mm. long, supported by a
flatfish, cup-shaped, five-toothed calyx, with a red, shining membranous and
translucent pericarp, enclosing two cells, and containing flat, reniform, yellow-
ish seeds attached to a thick, central placenta. It has a peculiar odor, and an
intensely hot taste.] Dried and powdered it constitutes red pepper.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Capsaicin, [C 9 H 14 NO 2 ],
a crystallizable acrid substance. (2) Capsicin, a volatile Alkaloid smelling
like Coniine. (3) A fixed oil. (4) A Resin. (5) Fatty matter.

IMPURITIES. Various red substances, e.g., red-lead.

Dose, i to 8 gr. ; [.06 to .50 gm.]

Prepa rations.

[i. Extractum Capsici Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Capsicum.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, i to 8 m. ; .06 to .50 c.c.

2. Oleoresina Capsici. Oleoresin of Capsicum. By percolation
with Ether and distillation, and evaporation of the residue.

Dose, ^ to i m. ; .015 to .06 c.c.

3. Tinctura Capsici. Tincture of Capsicum. Capsicum, 50.
By percolation with Alcohol and Water to loco.

Dose, 5 to 60 m. ; .30 to 4.00 c.c.

4. Emplastrum Capsici. Capsicum Plaster. Resin Plaster and
Oleoresin of Capsicum. Cover muslin with the melted plaster, coat it
when cool, by brushing on the Oleoresin.]

ACTION OF CAPSICUM.

The action of capsicum is like that of volatile oils generally.
Thus externally it is a powerful rubefacient, irritant, and counter-
irritant. Internally in small doses it stimulates the gastric secre-
tions, causes dilatation of the gastric vessels, and excites the
muscular coat. It is therefore stomachic and carminative.

THERAPEUTICS OF CAPSICUM.

External. Capsicum ointment [B. P. Capsicum, 6 ; sper-
maceti, 3 ; olive oil, 22 ; which resembles Smedley's paste] is
used as a counter-irritant for pleurisy, sciatica, neuralgia and
rheumatic pains.

Internal. Capsicum is used as a condiment. Medicinally
it is given as a stomachic and carminative in dyspepsia, particu-
larly that of drunkards when it is required either to excite the
appetite and digestion, or to cause the evacuation of gas.



VOLATILE OILS. 543

ZINGIBER.

GINGER. [The rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (nat. ord. Sci-
laminecE}. Habitat. India; cultivated in the tropics.

CHARACTERS. About 5 to 10 cm. long, 10 to 15 mm. broad, and 4 to 8
mm. thick, flattish, on one side lobed or clavately branched ; deprived of the
corky layer ; pale, buff-colored, striate, breaking with a mealy, rather fibrous
fracture, showing numerous small, scattered resin-cells and nbro-vascular
bundles, the latter enclosed by a nucleus sheath ; agreeably aromatic, and of a
pungent and warm taste.-] Resembling Ginger. Turmeric, which is yellow.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) An aromatic volatile oil,
[^ to 2 per cent.] giving the flavor. (2) Resin. [(3) Gingerol, to which
the pungent taste is due (Thresh).

Ginger is contained in Pulvis Rhei Compositus and Pulvis Aromaticus.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.j

Preparations.

1. Extractum Zingiberis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Ginger.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, and evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Ginger is used in Syrupus Zingiberis.
Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.

2. Oleoresina Zingiberis. Oleoresin of Ginger. By percolation
with Ether, distillation, and evaporation of the residue.

Dose, ]/z to 2 m. ; .03 to .12 c.c.

3. Tinctura Zingiberis. Tincture of Ginger. Ginger, 200. By
percolation with Alcohol to 1000.

Tincture of Ginger is used in Trochisci Zingiberis.
Dose, % to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

4. Syrupus Zingiberis. Syrup of Ginger. Fluid Extract of
Ginger, 30 ; Sugar, 850 ; Water to 1000. By trituration with Precipi-
tated Calcium Phosphate, solution and filtration.

Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

5. Trochisci Zingiberis. Troches of Ginger. Tincture of Gin-
ger, 20 ; Tragacanth, 4 ; Sugar, 130 gm. ; Syrup of Ginger in sufficient
quantity to make 100 troches.

Dose, freely.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF GINGER.

Its action is the same as that of other substances containing
aromatic volatile oils. It is chiefly used as a stomachic, car-
minative, and flavoring agent. The oleoresin is a useful addi-
tion to purgative pills to prevent griping.



544 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CARDAMOMUM.

CARDAMOM. [The fruit of Elettaria repens (Sonnrat) Baillon (nat.
ord. ScitaminecE}. Habitat. Malabar; cultivated in India.

CHARACTERS. Ovoid or oblong, from 10 to 15 mm. long, obtusely tri-
angular, rounded at the base, beaked, longitudinally striate ; of a pale buff
color, three-celled, with a thin, leathery, nearly tasteless pericarp, and a central
placenta. The seeds are about 4 mm. long, reddish-brown, angular, rugose,
depressed at the hilum, surrounded by a thin, membranous arillus, and have
an agreeable odor and a pungent, aromatic taste. ] -

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil, 4 to 5 per
cent., which contains a terpene, C 10 H 16 , called Terpinene. (2) A fixed oil,
10 to II per cent. The pericarp is medicinally inactive.

Cardamom is contained in Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, [Pulvis
Aromaticus, Tinctura Gentianse Composita, Tinctura Rhei, and Tinctura Rhei
Dulcis].

Dose, 10 to 15 gr. ; [.60 to i.oo gm.

Preparations.

1. Tinctura Cardamomi. Tincture of Cardamom. Cardamom,
loo. By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol to looo.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

2. Tinctura Cardamomi Composita. Compound Tincture of
Cardamom. Cardamom, 20; Caraway, IO; Cassia Cinnamon, 20;
Cochineal, 5 ; Glycerin, 50. By percolation with Diluted Alcohol to

IOOO.

Dose, 2 to 4 3. dr. ; 8. to 15. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CARDAMOM.

Cardamom, because of its volatile oil, acts like cloves or pep-
per; therefore it is carminative and stomachic. As it has a
pleasant taste, and the [compound] tincture is of a red color, it
is much used as a coloring and flavoring agent. A good flavor-
ing carminative is the Tinctura Carminativa of the British Phar-
maceutical Conference. It contains cardamom, 6 ; tincture of
ginger, 6 ; oil of cinnamom, oil of caraway, oil of cloves, of
each, i; rectified spirit to 96. Dose, 2 to 10 minims [.12 to

.60 c.c.]

SUMBUL.

SUMBUL. Synonym. Musk Root. [The root of Ferula Sumbul
(Kauffmann) Hooker filius (nat. ord. Umbellifeia). Habitat. Central and
Northeastern Asia.



VOLATILE OILS. 545

CHARACTERS. In transverse segments, varying in diameter from about
2 to 7 cm., and in length from 15 to 30 mm.; light, spongy, annulate or
longitudinally wrinkled ; bark thin, brown, more or less bristly fibrous ; the
interior whitish, with numerous brownish-yellow resin dots and irregular,
easily separated fibres ; odor strong, musk-like ; taste bitter and balsamic.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil. (2) Two
Resins. (3) Valerianic Acid. (4) Sumbjilic and Angelic Acids.

Preparation.

Tinctura Sumbul. [Tincture of Sumbul. Sumbul, 100 ; by
maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water to 1000.
Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SUMBUL.

The action of sumbul is the same as that of volatile oils in
general. It is only used internally, and is given as a carmina-
tive in flatulence. It is also employed in much the same class
of cases as valerian that is to say, in neurotic conditions, hys-
teria, etc. In Russia it is given chiefly as a stimulant in typhoid
fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, etc., for the same purposes as musk
is employed in many other countries.

OLEUM LAVANDUL^E [FLORUM.]

OIL OF LAVENDER [FLOWERS. A volatile oil distilled from
the fresh flowers of Lavandula officinalis Chaix (nat. ord. Labiatte). Habitat.
Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or yellowish liquid, having the fragrant odor
of Lavender Flowers, and a pungent and bitter taste. Sp. gr., 0.885 to
0.897. Solubility. In all proportions in Alcohol.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Linalool Acetate (also
found in Oil of Bergamot). (2) Linalool, C, H 18 O, which is an alcohol and
an oxidation product of the terpene, Myrcene, C 10 H 16 . It is isomeric with
Bomeol (see p. 53) Geraniol (<j. v. ) and Menthol (see p. 547). (3) Cineol\
also found in Oil of Eucalyptus (see p. 528) and other volatile oils.

IMPURITY. -Oil of Spike.

Oil of Lavender Floivers is contained in Linimentum Saponis Mollis,
Spiritus Ammoniee Aromaticus, and Unguentum Diachylon.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

Preparations.

i. Spiritus Lavandulae. Spirit of Lavender. Oil of Lavender
Flowers, 50 ; Deodorized Alcohol, 950.
Dose, y z to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.



546 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

2. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita. Compound Tincture of
Lavender. Synonym. Compound Spirit of Lavender. Oil of Lav-
ender Flowers, 8 ; Oil of Rosemary, 2 ; Cassia Cinnamon, 20 ; Cloves,
5 ; Nutmeg, 10 ; Red Saunders, 10 ; Alcohol, 700 ; Water, 250 ; di-
luted Alcohol to looo. By mixing and percolation.

Compound Tincture of Lavender is contained in Liquor Potassii
Arsenitis.

Dose, J^ to I fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF OIL OF LAVENDER FLOWERS.

Oil of lavender flowers has the same action as other aromatic
volatile oils. It is used externally as a pleasant stimulating com-
ponent of liniments, and most red lotions (see p. 178) are
colored with the compound tincture. This given internally
makes a very agreeable gastric stimulant, and carminative agent.

[OLEUM BERGAMOTT.E.

OIL OF BERGAMOT. Synonym. Oleum Bergamii. A volatile
oil obtained by expression from the rind of the fresh fruit of Citrus Bergamia,
Risso et Poiteau (nat. ord. Rutacece}. Habitat. Sicily; naturalized in sub-
tropical countries.

CHARACTERS. A greenish or greenish-yellow, thin liquid, having a
peculiar^ very fragrant odor, and an aromatic, bitter taste. Sp. gr., 0.880 to
0.885. Solubility. In Alcohol and in Glacial Acetic Acid.

COMPOSITION. By fractional distillation is obtained (I) Limonine. (2)
Dipentene, C, H 16 . (3) Linalool, C 10 H 18 O, 25 percent. (4) Linalool acetate,
j, about 20 per cent., and to which the odor is probably due.



ACTION AND USES OF OIL OF BERGAMOT.
Although possessed of the stimulant properties of volatile oils
in general, it is used chiefly, if not exclusively, as a perfume

MENTHA PIPERITA.

PEPPERMINT. The leaves and tops of Mentha piperita Smith (nat.
ord. Labiate. Habitat. Wild in Asia, Europe, and North America ;
cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Leaves about 5 cm. long, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, acute,
sharply serrate, glandular, nearly smooth, the few hairs containing crystals of
Menthol in one or mor.e thin cells ; branches quadrangular, often purplish ;
flowers in terminal, conical spikes, with a tubular, five-toothed, often purplish,
calyx, a purplish, four-lobed corolla, and four short stamens ; odor aromatic ;
taste pungent and cooling.



VOLATILE OILS. 547

COMPOSITION. -Its chief constituents are (l) A volatile oil, (see below) ;
(2) A liquid, and (3) a crystalline Menthol.

Preparation.

i. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae. Spirit of Peppermint. Synonym.
Essence of Peppermint. Oil of Peppermint, 100 ; Peppermint, IO.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol to 1000.

Spirit of Peppermint is contained in Mistura Rhei et Sodas.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.]

OLEUM MENTH^ PIPERITAE. Oil of Peppermint. [A vola-
tile oil distilled from Peppermint.

CHARACTERS. A colorless, or yellowish, or greenish-yellow liquid, be-
coming darker and thicker by age and exposure to the air, having the char-
acteristic, strong odor of Peppermint, and a strongly aromatic, pungent taste,
followed by a sensation of cold when air is drawn into the mouth. Sp. gr.,
0.900 to 0.920.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Menthene, C 10 H 18 , the
liquid Terpene obtained by distillation. (2) Menthol, the solid Stearopten
((/. -ft. ), 50 to 65 per cent.

Oil of Peppermint is contained in Pilulse Rhei Compositse.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]

Prepa rations.

1. Aqua Menthae Piperitae. [Peppermint water. Oil of Pep-
permint, 2. By trituration with precipitated Calcium Phosphate, and
filtration with distilled water to 1000.

Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. oz. ; 15. to 60. c.c.

2. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae. See above.

3. Trochisci Menthae Piperitae. Troches of Peppermint. Oil
of Peppermint, I ; Sugar, 80 gm. ; Mucilage of Tragacanth to make
loo troches.

Dose, Freely.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF PEPPERMINT.

External. The action of oil of peppermint is the same as
that of volatile oils generally, but the cool, numb feeling often
produced by volatile oils after the sensation has passed off is
especially well marked with oil of peppermint ; and this effect,
which is due to the menthol in it, has caused it to be applied
externally in neuralgia. Like many other volatile oils it is a



548 ORGANIC MATERIA MED1CA.

powerful antiseptic. [It is in common use as the " peppermint
test" for defective plumbing.]

Internal. It is often used as a powerful stomachic and car-
minative, and also as a flavoring agent.

[MENTHA VIRIDIS.

SPEARMINT. The leaves and tops of Mentha viridis Linnfi (nat.
ord- Labiates'). Habitat. Wild in Europe and North America ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Leaves about 5 cm - l n gi subsessile, lance-ovate, acute
serrate, glandular, nearly smooth ; branches quadrangular, mostly light green ;
flowers in terminal, interrupted, narrow, acute spikes, with a tubular, sharply
five-toothed calyx, a light-purplish, four-lobed corolla, and four rather long
stamens ; odor aromatic, taste pungent.

COMPOSITION. (i) A volatile oil (see below). (2) Resin. (3) Gum.

Preparation.

Spiritus Menthae Viridis. Spirit of Spearmint. Synonym.
Essence of Spearmint. Oil of Spearmint, loo ; Spearmint, 10. By
maceration with Alcohol and filtration to 1000.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.]

OLEUM MENTHA VIRIDIS. [Oil of Spearmint. A volatile oil
distilled from Spearmint.

CHARACTERS. A colorless, yellowish, or greenish-yellow liquid, becom-
ing darker and thicker by age and exposure to the air, having the character-
istic, strong odor of Spearmint, and a hot, aromatic taste. Sp. gr. , o. 930 to
0.940. Solubility. Freely in Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Menthene, the same ter-
pene as in Peppermint. (2) [Carvol,~\ C 10 H U O, a Stearopten isomeric with
Thymol (</. v. ).



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