William Hale-White.

Materia medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics online

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Dose, i to 5 m. ; [.06 to .30 c.c.]

Preparations.

1. Aqua Menthae Viridis. [Spearmint water. Oil of Spear-
mint, 2. By trituration with precipitated Calcium Phosphate, addition
of Distilled Water and filtration to 1000.

Dose, YZ to 2 fl. oz. ; 15. to 60. c.c.]

2. Spiritus Menthae Viridis. (See above).

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SPEARMINT.

These are the same as those of [peppermint and] oil of pep-
permint, [but oil of spearmint is not so agreeable.]



VOLATILE OILS. 549

ANISUM.

ANISE. [The fruit of Pimpinella Anisum Linne (nat. ord. Umbelli-
Habitat. Western Asia, Egypt, Southeastern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. About 4 or 5 mm. long, ovate, compressed at the sides,
grayish, finely hairy, and consisting of two mericarps, each with a flat face,
and five light, brownish, filiform ridges, and about 15 thin oil tubes, which
can be seen in a transverse section by the microscope. It has an agreeable
aromatic odor, and a sweet, spicy taste. - Resembling Anise. Conium, which
has single mericarps, smooth, grooved upon the face, and having crenate ridges
with wrinkles between them, and no oil-tubes.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the official volatile oil (see below).

Anise is contained in Tinctura Rhei Dulcis.

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00 gm.

ILLICIUM. Synonym. Star Anise. The fruit of Illicium verum
Hooker filius (nat. ord. Magnoliace<z}. Habitat. Northern Anam.

CHARACTERS. The fruit is pedunculate and consists of eight stellately
arranged carpels, which are boat-shaped, about 10 mm. long, rather woody,
wrinkled, straight-beaked, brown, dehiscent on the upper suture, internally
reddish-brown, glossy, and containing a single, flatfish, oval, glossy, brownish-
yellow seed ; odor anise-like ; taste of the carpels sweet and aromatic, and of
the seeds oily. Resembling Star Anise. Illicium anisatum Linne (Illicium
reli^iosum Siebold), the carpels of which are more woody, shrivelled, and have
a thin, mostly curved beak, a faint, clove-like odor, and an unpleasant taste.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the volatile oil.

Oleum Anisi may be distilled from this as well as from Pimpinella Anisum.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]

OLEUM ANISI. [Oil of Anise. A volatile oil distilled from Anise.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or pale yellow, thin, and strongly refractive
liquid, having the characteristic odor of Anise, and a sweetish, mildly aro-
matic taste. That from the Pimpinella Anisum solidifies at 59 F. [15 C. ] ;
that from Illicium verum (Star-anise) at about 50 F. [10 C.]. Sp. gr., about
0.980 to 0.990. Solubility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) A Terpene, [C 10 H 16 , in
small quantity. (2) A Stearopten, anethol, C 10 H 12 O, 80 per cent.

Oil of Anise is contained in Tinctura Opii Camphorata, Spiritus Aurantii
Compositus, Syrupus Sarsaparilloe Compositus, and Trochisci Glycyrrhizoe et
Opii.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]

Preparations.

I. [Aqua Anisi. Anise water. ^ Oil of Anise, 2. By trituration
with precipitated Calcium Phosphate, addition of Water and filtration
to loco.

Dose, ^ to i fl. oz. ; 8. to 30. c.c.



55O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

2. Spiritus Anisi. Spirit of Anise. Oil of Anise, loo ; Alcohol,
900.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF ANISE.

The action of oil of anise is the same as that of aromatic oils
generally. It is specially used to get rid of flatulence in children,
and, on account of its slightly expectorant action, as a basis of
cough mixtures.

CORIANDRUM.

CORIANDER. [The fruit of Coriandrum sativum Linne (nat. ord.
Umbellifera). Habitat. Central Asia and Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Globular; about 4 mm. in diameter; crowned \vith the
calyx-teeth and stylopod ; brownish yellow, with slight, longitudinal ridges;
the two mericarps cohering, enclosing a lenticular cavity, and each furnished
on the face with two oil-tubes ; odor and taste agreeably aromatic.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the official volatile oil (see below).

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; [.60 to 2.00 gm.]

OLEUM CORIANDRI. [Oil of Coriander. A volatile oil distilled
from Coriander.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or slightly yellowish liquid, having the char-
acteristic, aromatic odor of Coriander, and a warm, spicy taste. Sp. gr., 0.870
to 0.885.

COMPOSITION. (i) Pinene, the chief terpene of Oil of Turpentine, 5 per
cent. (2) Coriandrol, C 10 H 18 O, which is isomeric with Borneo Camphor
(q. 0.]

Oil of Coriander is contained in Syrupus Sennse, [Confectio Sennae, and
Spiritus Aurantii Compositus.

Dose, 2 to 5 m. ; .12 to .30 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CORIANDER.

Oil of coriander has the same action as other volatile oils.
It is chiefly used as a stomachic and carminative, and to disguise
the taste of rhubarb and senna.

FCENICULUM.

FENNEL. [The fruit of Fceniculum capillaceum Gilibert (nat. ord.
Umbellifene). Habitat. Levant and Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Oblong, nearly cylindrical, slightly curved, from 4 to 8
mm. long, brownish or greenish-brown ; readily separable into the two promi-
nent mericarps, each with five light-brown, obtuse ribs, four oil-tubes on the



VOLATILE OILS. 551

back, and two or four oil-tubes upon the flat face ; odor and taste aromatic,
anise-like.] Resembling Fennel. Conium fruit (Fennel is larger and has
prominent vittae, [oil-tubes] ), Caraway and Anise fruits.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the official volatile oil, probably
[chemically] identical with Oil of Anise (see p. 549)-

[Fennel is contained m Infusum Sennae Compositum.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. gm.

OLEUM FCENICULI. Oil of Eennel. A volatile oil distilled from
Fennel.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or pale yellowish liquid, having the charac-
teristic, aromatic odor of Fennel, and a sweetish, mild and spicy taste. Sp.
gr., not less than 0.960. Solubility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.

Oil of Fennel is contained in Spiritus Juniperi Compositus and Pulvis
Glycyrrhizoe Compositus.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

Preparations.

Aqua Fceniculi. Fennel water. Oil of Fennel, 2. By tritura-
tion with precipitated Calcium Phosphate, addition of Distilled Water ;
and filtration to 1000.

Dose, % to i fl. oz. ; 8. to 30. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF FENNEL.
These are same as of oil of anise or of coriander.

CARUM.

CARAWAY. [The fruit of Carum Carvi Linne (nat. ord. Umbelli-
ferce). Habitat. Central and Western Asia ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Oblong, laterally compressed, about 4 or 5 mm. long,
usually separated into the two mericarps, which are curved, narrower at both
ends, brown, with five yellowish, filiform ribs, and with six oil-tubes. Cara-
way has an agreeable odor, and a sweetish, spicy taste.] Resembling Cara-
way. Conium and Fennel. Caraway is known by its small ridges and spicy
taste.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the official volatile oil (see below),
[5 to 7 per cent.

Caraway is contained in Tinctura Cardamomi Composita.]

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; [i. to 2. gm.]

OLEUM CARI. [Oil of Caraway. A volatile oil distilled from Car-
away.

CHARACTERS. A colorless, or pale yellow, thin liquid, having the char-
acteristic, aromatic odor of Caraway, and a mild, spicy taste. Sp. gr., 0.910
to 0.920. Solubility. In an equal volume of Alcohol.]



55 2 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Cymene, Ci H u ; also
found in Oil of Eucalyptus (see p. 528). (2) [Carvol,~\ C, H U O, isomeric
with Thymol (q. v.), also found in Oil of Spearmint. (3) Limonene, a ter-
pene, C, H 16 ; also found in Oil of Lemon (y. v.).

[ Oil of Caraway is contained in Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. ]

Dose, i to 5 m. ; [.06 to .30 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CARAWAY.

The action and uses of oil of caraway are the same as those of
other aromatic volatile oils. It is employed as a carminative,
stomachic and flavoring agent.

ANETHUM.

DILL. [B. P., not official.] The dried fruit of Peucedanum grav-
eolens (nat. ord. Umbellifera}. Habitat. Middle and Southern Europe ;
[cultivated.]

CHARACTERS. Broadly oval, [12 mm.] long, brown, flat, with a pale,
broad membranous border. Mericarps distinct, odor and taste agreeable and
aromatic. Resembling Dill. Conium, Anise, Fennel, Caraway ; but Dill is
winged.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the volatile oil (see below.)

OLEUM ANETHI. [Oil of Dill. B. P., (not official)]. The oil
distilled from Dill fruit.

CHARACTERS. Pale yellow, odor pungent, taste hot and sweetish. Sp.
gr., 0.905 to 0.920.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are almost identical with those of
Oil of Caraway (see p. 551).

Dose, i to 4 m. ; [.06 to .25 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF DILL.

The same as those of anise and caraway. Dill water [B. P. ;
dill fruit, i; water, 10; dose, i to 2 fl. oz., 30. to 60. c.c.] is
a common carminative for children, and it covers very well
the taste of sodium salts.

SAMBUCUS.

SAMBUCUS. Synonym. Elder. [The flowers of Sambucus cana-
densis Linne (nat. ord. Caprifoliacea}. Habitat. North America, west to
the Rocky Mountains, in damp places.

CHARACTERS. The flowers, when fresh, about 5 mm. broad, and after
drying shrivelled ; calyx superior, minutely five-toothed ; corolla originally



VOLATILE OILS. 553

cream-colored, after drying pale brownish-yellow, wheel-shaped and five-
lobed, with five stamens on the short tube; odor peculiar; taste sweetish,
somewhat aromatic and bitterish.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) A resin. (2) Valerianic
Acid. (3) A volatile oil.

Dose, y z to i dr. ; [2. to 4. gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SAMBUCUS.

Elder flowers are used to flavor medicines, [and are gently
stimulant and diaphoretic.

HEDEOMA.

HEDEOMA. Synonym. Pennyroyal. The leaves and tops of He~
deoma pulegioides (Linne) Persoon (nat. ord. Labiates). Habitat. North
America, south to Georgia, and west to Dakota ; in sandy fields.

CHARACTERS. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, about 12 mm. long, ob-
long-ovate, obscurely serrate, glandular beneath ; branches roundish-quad-
rangular, hairy ; flowers in small axillary cymules, with a tubular ovoid,
bilabiate and five-toothed calyx, and a pale blue, spotted, bilabiate corolla,
containing two sterile and two fertile, exserted stamens ; odor strong, mint-
like ; taste warm and pungent.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the official volatile oil.

OLEUM HEDEOMdE. Oil of Hedeoma. Synonym. Oil of Penny-
royal. A volatile oil distilled from Hedeoma.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellowish, limpid liquid, having a characteristic,
pungent, mint-like odor and taste. Sp. gr., 0.930 to 0.940. Solubility.
Freely in Alcohol.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF PENNYROYAL.

Pennyroyal is a gentle aromatic stimulant, and may be given
in flatulent colic and sick stomach. The oil is in common use
locally applied as a remedy for mosquito bites.

ABSINTHIUM.

ABSINTHIUM. Synonym. Wormwood. The leaves and tops of
Artemisia Absinthium Linne (nat. ord. Composites). Habitat^ Northern
Asia, Europe and Northern Africa ; naturalized in North America ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Leaves about 5 cm. long, hoary, silky-pubescent, petio-
iate, roundish-triangular in outline ; pinnately two- or three-cleft, with the
segments lanceolate, the terminal one spatulate ; bracts three-cleft or entire ;



554 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

heads numerous, about 3 mm. long, subglobose, with numerous small, pale
yellow florets, all tubular and without pappus ; odor aromatic ; taste persist-
ently bitter.

COMPOSITION. The principal constituents are (i) A volatile oil, about
I per cent., mainly Absinthol, C 10 H 16 O. (2) A bitter glucoside, Absinthin,
C 15 H M O. (3) Absinthic Acid. The volatile oil mixed with alcohol and oil
of anise is known as absinthe, a beverage much esteemed in France.

Dose, 8 to 40 gr. ; .50 to 2.40 gm.

ACTION AND USES OF WORMWOOD.

Wormwood is used in an infusion as an aromatic tonic in
itony of stomach or intestines.]

ANTHEMIS.

ANTHEMIS. Synonym. Chamomile. [The flower-heads of Anthe-
mis nobilis Linne (nat. ord. Composite), collected from cultivated plants.
Habitat. Southern and Western Europe ; cultivated ; naturalized in a few
localities in the United States.

CHARACTERS. Heads subglobular, about 2 cm. broad, consisting of an
imbricated involucre, and numerous white, strap-shaped, three-toothed florets,
and few, or no, yellow tubular disk florets, inserted upon a chaffy, conical,
solid receptacle. It has a strong, agreeable odor, and an aromatic, bitter
taste.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is the volatile oil.

Dose, y 2 to 2 dr. j 2. to 8. gm.]

OLEUM ANTHEMIDIS. [B. P., not official]. Oil of Chamo-
mile. The volatile oil distilled from Chamomile flowers.

CHARACTERS. Pale blue or greenish-blue, becoming yellowish-brown.
Odor and taste like Chamomile.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) A terpene, C^H^. (2)
[Anthemol, C 10 H 16 O.] (3) [Anthemene, CjgHj,, in tasteless needles.] (4)
A bitter principle.

Dose, i to 4 m. ; [.06 to .25 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CHAMOMILE.

External. A poultice made with chamomile flowers is a
popular domestic remedy. Its virtues are due to its warmth.

Internal. Like other volatile oils, oil of chamomile is a
stomachic and carminative. The infusion [i to 20], in large
doses [5 to 10 fl. oz.; 150. to 300. c.c.] is a simple emetic.



VOLATILE OILS. 555

[MATRICARIA.

MATRICARIA. Synonym. German Chamomile. The flower-heads
of Matricaria Chamomilla, Linne (nat. ord. Composite). Habitat. Europe
and Western Asia.

CHARACTERS. About 15 to 20 mm. broad, composed of a flattish, imbri-
cate involucre, a conical, hollow, naked receptacle, which is about 5 mm.
high, about fifteen white, ligulate, reflexed ray florets, and numerous yellow,
tubular, perfect disk-florets without pappus ; strongly aromatic and bitter.
Resembling Matricaria. Anthemis Arvensis and Anthemis Cotula, but these
have conical, solid, and chaffy receptacles.

COMPOSITION. (i) Volatile Oil ^ per cent. (2) Anthemic Acid. (3)
Anthemidin, probably a glucoside. (4) Tannic acid.

Dose, ]. to I dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

ACTION AND ,USES OF MATRICARIA.
The actions and uses are identical with those of chamomile.]

ROSA GALLICA. Red Rose. [The petals of Rosa gallica Linne
(nat. ord. Rosaceiz), collected before expanding. Habitat. Asia Minor and
Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Usually in small cones, consisting of numerous imbricated,
roundish, retuse, deep purple -colored, yellow-clawed petals, having a roseate
odor and a bitterish, slightly acidulous and distinctly astringent taste.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil, in minute
quantities. (2) Tannic Acid. (3) Mucilage. (4) Sugar.

Red Rose is contained in Pilulse Aloes et Mastiches.]

Preparations.

1. Confectio Rosae. [Confection of Rose. Red Rose, 80;
Sugar, 640 ; Clarified Honey, 12 ; Stronger Rose Water, 160.

Dose, )4 to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.

2. Extractum Rosae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Rose. By
maceration with Glycerin and Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Rose is used to make Mel Rosae and Syrupus
Rosse.

Dose, ]^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

3. Mel Rosse. Honey of Rose. Fluid Extract of Rose, 120;
Clarified Honey, to looo.

Dose, freely.

4. Syrupus Rosas. Syrup of Rose. Fluid Extract of Rose,
125 ; Syrup, 875.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

ROSA CENTIFOLIA. Pale Rose. The petals of Rosa centifolia
Linne (nat. ord. Rosacece). Habitat. Western Asia; cultivated.



556 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. Roundish-obovate and retuse, or obcordate, pink, fragrant,
sweetish, slightly bitter and faintly astringent.

COMPOSITION. (i) Volatile oil, in minute quantities. (2) Mucilage. (3)
Tannic Acid. (4) Malates and Tartrates.^ .

OLEUM ROS/E. Oil of Rose. Synonym. Attar of Rose. A vola-
tile oil distilled from the fresh flowers of Rosa damascena Miller (nat. ord.
Rosacea). Habitat. Cultivated in Bulgaria.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellowish, transparent liquid, having the strong
fragrant odor of Rose, and a mild, slightly sweetish taste. Sp. gr., 0.865 to
0.880. Solubility. It is but slightly soluble in Alcohol. ]

COMPOSITION. Its principal constituent is Rhodinol, or Geraniol, C 10 H 18 O,
a volatile oil, 12 to 14 per cent., very fragrant, It is an alcohol and is related
to Linalool which occurs in Oil of Lavender flowers.

[IMPURITIES. Oil of Ginger-grass or Turkish Oil of Geranium, Oil of
Rose Geranium, Spermaceti and Paraffin. ]

Prepa rations.

[i. Aqua Rosae Fortior. Stronger Rose Water. Synonym.
Triple Rose Water. Water saturated with the volatile oil of Rose
petals, obtained as a by-product in the distillation of Oil of Rose.

Stronger Rose Water is used to make Confectio Rosae.

Dose, indefinite.

2. Aqua Rosae. Rose Water. Stronger Rose Water, and Dis-
tilled Water, of each, one volume.

Dose, indefinite.

3. Unguentum Aquae Rosae. Ointment of Rose Water. Syno-
nym. Cold Cream. Spermaceti, 125; White Wax, I2O; Expressed
Oil of Almond, 600 ; Stronger Rose Water, 190; Sodium Borate, 5.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF ROSE.

The preparations of rose are pleasant vehicles, the confection
for pills and the water for lotions. The infusion ([B. P., not
official] dried petals, 2 ; diluted sulphuric acid, i; water, 80)
is mildly astringent. [The ointment of rose water is a favorite
soothing application for the skin.]

CLASS III. THOSE USED CHIEFLY FOR THEIR ACTION ON
THE HEART AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.

VALERIANA.

VALERIAN. The rhizome and roots of Valeriana officinalis [Linn
(nat. ord. Valerianea}. Habitat. Europe and Northern Asia; naturalized
in England ; cultivated.



VOLATILE OILS. 557

CHARACTERS. Rhizome from 2 to 4 cm. long, and I to 2 cm. thick, up-
right, subglobular or obconical, truncate at both ends, brown or yellowish-
brown, internally whitish or pale brownish, with a narrow circle of white
wood under the thin bark. Roots numerous, slender, brittle, brown with a
thick bark, and slender, ligneous cord. Odor peculiar, becoming stronger
and unpleasant on keeping ; taste camphoraceous and somewhat bitter. ] Re-
sembling Valerian. Serpentaria, Arnica, Green Hellebore; but Valerian is
known by its odor.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) A volatile oil, ^ to 2 per
cent., consisting of JBorneol, C 10 H 18 O, and Pinene, a terpene (see p. 516).
(2) Valerianic Acid, C 5 H 10 O 2 . It is colorless, oily, with the odor of Valerian,
and strongly acid, wiih a burning taste. Solubility. In 30 parts of water;
readily in Alcohol and Ether. The amount of it in Valerian increases by
keeping, while that of the oil decreases. It can be derived from Amylic
Alcohol, C 5 H 12 O (Valeryl Aldehyde). [(3) Formic, Acetic and Malic Acids.
(4) Tannic acid. (5) Resin.

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00 grn.]

Preparations.

1. [Extractum Valerianae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Valerian.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and evapora-
tion.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.

2. Tinctura Valerianae. Tincture of Valerian. Valerian, 200 ;
by maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water to looo.

Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

3. Tinctura Valerianae Ammoniata. Ammoniated Tincture
of Valerian. Valerian, 200; by maceration and percolation with Aro-
matic Spirit of Ammonia to 1000.

Dose, y?, to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

AMMONII VALERIANAS. Ammonium Valerianate. NH 4 C 5 H 9 O 2
=118.78.

SOURCE. By saturating Valerianic Acid with Gaseous Ammonia, obtained
from a mixture of Ammonium Chloride and Lime, and crystallization.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, or white, quadrangular plates, emitting the odor
of Valerianic Acid, of a sharp and sweetish taste, and deliquescent in moist
air. Solubility. Very soluble in Water and in Alcohol ; also soluble in
Ether.

Dose, 2 to 8 gr. ; .12 to .50 gm.

FERRI VALERIANAS. Ferric Valerianate.

SOURCE. By precipitating a .diluted solution of Ferric Sulphate, with a
solution of Sodium Valerianate and washing the precipitate.



558 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. A dark, brick-red, amorphous powder of somewhat vary-
ing chemical composition, having the odor of Valerianic Acid, and a mildly
styptic taste ; permanent in dry air. Solubility. Insoluble in cold water, but
readily soluble in Alcohol.

Dose, i to 3 gr. ; .06 to .20 gm.

SODII VALERIANAS. (Not official.) Sodium Valerianate. NaC 5
H 9 O 2 =I23.77.

SOURCE. Make Valerianic Acid by distilling a mixture of Amylic Alcohol,
Sulphuric Acid, and Potassium Bichromate. Saturate the distillate which
contains Valerianic Acid, with Caustic Soda, and evaporate.

CHARACTERS. White masses of a powerful Valerian-like odor. Solubility.
Easily in both Alcohol and Ether.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.

QUININE VALERIANAS. Quinine Valerianate. C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2

C 6 H 10 Cyf-H 2 0=443-<>7.

SOURCE. By decomposing Quinine Sulphate by Ammonia, combining
directly with Valerianic Acid, and crystallizing from a cold solution.

CHARACTERS. White, or nearly white, pearly, lustrous, triclinic crystals,
having a slight odor of Valerianic Acid, and a bitter taste. Permanent in the
air. Solubility. In 100 parts of Water, and in 5 parts of Alcohol.

Dose, i to 30 gr. ; .06 to 2.00 gm.]

ZINCI VALERIANAS. Zinc Valerianate. Zn(C 5 H 9 O 2 ) 2 [+2H 2 O
=302.56,

SOURCE. From hot solutions of Zinc Sulphate and Sodium Valerianate;
evaporate and Zinc Valerianate crystallizes out.

CHARACTERS. White, pearly scales, having the odor of Valerianic Acid,
and a sweetish, astringent and metallic taste. On exposure to the air it slowly
loses Valerianic Acid. Solubility, In about 100 parts of water, and in 40
parts of Alcohol.]

INCOMPATIBLES. All acids, soluble carbonates, most metallic salts and
vegetable astringents.

Dose, YI to 3 gr. ; [.03 to .20 gm.]

ACTION OF VALERIAN AND THE VALERIANATES.

Neither valerianic acid, [ammonium, ferric, sodium, quinine]
nor zinc valerianates are known to have any action [although
their extensive use warrants the belief that they are valuable
remedies.]

Valerian itself acts in virtue of its volatile oil, which has the
same properties as other volatile oils. Valerian is therefore an
irritant when applied externally ; internally it stimulates the



VOLATILE OILS. . 559

mouth, stomach, and intestines ; consequently it increases the
appetite and the vascularity, the secretion, and the peristaltic
action of the stomach, and intestines ; and in its excretion,
which takes place chiefly through the bronchial mucous mem-
brane, kidneys and genito-urinary mucous membrane, it excites
the flow of fluids excreted through these parts. Acting reflexly
from the stomach, it stimulates the circulation rather more
powerfully than most volatile oils.

THERAPEUTICS OF VALERIAN AND THE VALERIANATES.

Preparations of valerian, or still better the oil [not official, 2
to 5 m., .12 to .30 c.c.] suspended in mucilage with cinnamon
water, are often given as carminatives in cases of flatulence, and
as reflex stimulants in fainting, palpitation, etc. Valerian and
[the] valerianates sometimes relieve neuralgia, and they are
often prescribed for hysteria and other neurotic conditions, but
frequently without benefit.

[CYPRIPEDIUM.

CYPRIPEDIUM. Synonym. Ladies' Slipper. The rhizome and
roots of Cypripedium pubescens Swartz, and of Cypripedium parviflorum
Salisbury (nat. ord. Orchide<e). Habitat. North America ; in swampy places.

CHARACTERS. Of horizontal growth, bent, 10 cm., or less, long; from
3 to 5 mm. thick ; on the upper side beset with numerous circular, cup-shaped
scars ; closely covered below with simple, wiry roots, varying from 10 to 15
cm. in length ; brittle, dark brown, or orange-brown ; fracture short, white ;
odor peculiar, heavy j taste sweetish, bitter and somewhat pungent.

COMPOSITION. It contains (i) A volatile oil. (2) A volatile acid. (3)
Two resins. (4) Tannic acid.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Cypripedii Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Cypripe-
dium. By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and
evaporation.

Dose, 15 to 30 m ; i. to 2. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF CYPRIPEDIUM.

Cypripedium is a gentle, nervous stimulant, resembling vale-
rian in its action. It has been used for nervous diseases, epilepsy,
hypochondriasis and neuralgia.]



$6O . ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

ASAFCETIDA.

ASAFETIDA. A gum-resin obtained [from the root of Ferula faetida
(Bunge) Regel (nat. ord. Umbelliferce). Habitat. Persia, Turkestan and
Afghanistan.

CHARACTERS. In irregular masses composed of whitish tears, which are



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