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imbedded in a yellowish-gray or brownish-gray, sticky mass. The tears, when
hard, break with a conchoidal fracture, showing a milk-white color, which
changes, gradually, on exposure, to pink, and finally to brown. It has a per-
sistent, alliaceous odor, and a bitter alliaceous acrid taste. Solubility. Partly
in Ether and Alcohol.] Resembling Asafetida. Galbanum, Ammoniacum,
and Benzoin, distinguished by their peculiar odors, which differ markedly from
that of Asafetida.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) A volatile oil, 5 per cent.,
the most important ingredient of which is [Allyl sulphide (see p. 455).] This
gives Asafetida its very unpleasant odor. (2) Gum, 25 per cent. (3) Bas-
sorin resin, 65 per cent. , [which contains Ferulaic Acid, C 10 H 10 O 4 . ]

IMPURITIES. Earthy matter [or Calcium Sulphate and Carbonate, and
sand.]

Preparations.

i. [Emulsum Asafcetidae. Emulsion of Asafetida. Synonyms.
Mistura Asafcetidae. Milk of Asafetida. Asafetida, 40 ; by rubbing
in a warmed mortar with Water, and straining to looo.

Dose, Yz to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.

2. Pilulae Aloes et Asafcetidae. See Aloes, p. 497.

3. Pilulae Asafcetidae. Pills of Asafetida. Asafetida, 20 ;
Soap, 60 gm. ; to make 100 pills. Each pill contains 3 gr. ; .20 gm.
of Asafetida.

Dose, i to 4 pills.

4. Tinctura Asafcetidae. Tincture of Asafetida. Asafetida,
200. By maceration with Alcohol, and filtration to looo.

Dose, ' ^ to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]

ACTION OF ASAFETIDA.

Both internally and externally, asafetida, in virtue of its vola-
tile oil, acts like volatile oils generally. Its action as a stimulant
to the intestinal muscle is especially well marked, hence it is
combined with aloes in Pilulae Aloes et Asafcetidae ; and the
enema, [i to 64 of water,] will relieve flatus. Owing to its
containing [allyl sulphide] it is extremely [unpleasant], and there-
fore it is not, like many volatile oils, available as a condiment.
Its taste is credited with some mental effect in cases of hysteria.



VOLATILE OILS. 561

THERAPEUTICS OF ASAFETIDA.

Asafetida is not used externally. Internally it is prescribed
to aid the action of other purgatives, and also to stimulate the
muscular coat to expel flatus. It may be given by the mouth or
as an enema. Partly on account of its reflex stimulating effect,
but also on account of its very [unpleasant] taste, it is used to
control hysteria, emotional, and other mental disturbances, but
it often fails. P'or this purpose it may be combined with vale-
rian. Cases of malingering may sometimes be cured by making
the patient take, three times a day, an effervescing draught con-
taining a few [drops] of each of the tinctures of valerian and
asafetida, with some mucilage to suspend the precipitated resin.
The effervescence makes the [unpleasant] taste of these medi-
cines "repeat" in the mouth for some time after taking them.
Asafetida oil would in the course of its excretion disinfect the
urine and the expectoration, but its smell forbids its use for these

purposes.

GALBANUM.

GALBANUM. [B. P., not official.] A gum-resin obtained from
Ferula galbaniflua, ferula rubrifaulis (nat. ord. Umbellifertz), and probably
other species. \_ffabifaf. ~\ Persia and the Levant.

CHARACTERS. Tears or masses of agglutinated tears. Tears roundish,
about the size of a pea, yellowish-brown or yellowish-green. Translucent,
rough, and dirty. Hard and brittle in the cold, softening with heat and be-
coming sticky. Masses contain pieces of root, stem, etc. They are hard,
compact yellowish-brown. Odor peculiar, aromatic. Taste bitter, unpleas-
ant. Resembling Galbanum. Ammoniacum, Asafoetida, and Benzoin ; known
by their different odors.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Volatile oil, C 10 H 16 , 6 to
9 per cent. , consisting chiefly of a terpene, C 10 H 16 . (2) A sulphurous resin, 60
to 67 per cent. (3) Gum, 19 to 22 per cent. (4) Umbelliferone, [C 9 H 6 O S in
acicular crystals].

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF GALBANUM.

Galbanum acts like other substances containing volatile oils ;
it is always combined with ammoniacum or asafetida. It has
been used externally as a plaster [Galbanum, i ; ammoniacum,
i; yellow wax, i ; lead plaster, 8;] for its irritant effect, to aid
the absorption of old inflammatory products, and internally it is
given with asafetida as a carminative.

36



562 . ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

AMMONIACUM.

AMMONIAC. A gum-resin [obtained from Dorema Ammoniacum
Don (nat ord. Umbellifertz). Habitat. Eastern Persia and Turkestan.

CHARACTERS. In roundish tears, from 2 to 6 mm. or more in diameter ;
externally pale yellowish-brown, internally milk-white, brittle when cold, and
breaking with a flat, conchoidal, and waxy fracture ; or the tears are super-
ficially united into irregular masses without any intervening, dark-colored
substance. It has a peculiar odor, and a bitter, acrid and nauseous taste.]
Resembling Ammoniacum, Asafoetida, Galbanum, Benzoin, known by their
odor.

COMPOSITION. The chief ingredients are (i) Volatile oil, 10 per cent.

(2) Resin, 70 per cent (3) Gum, 20 per cent.
Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 gm.]

Preparations.

1. Emplastrum Ammoniaci cum Hydrargyro. [See Mer-
cury, p. 210.

2. Emulsum Ammoniaci. Emulsion of Ammoniac. Ammo-
niac, 40 ; water added gradually to 1000. It forms a milk-like emul-
sion.

Dose, ^ to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF AMMONIACUM.

The action of ammoniacum is precisely the same as that of
volatile oils generally. It is employed externally to aid, by its
mildly irritating effects, the absorption of chronic inflammatory
products, and internally in chronic bronchitis with offensive
expectoration for the sake of the remote disinfectant expectorant
effect that it has, in the course of its excretion through the
bronchial mucous membrane.

MYRRHA.

MYRRH. A gum-resin [obtained from Commiphora Myrrha (Nees)
Engler (nat. ord. Burseracea}. Habitat. Eastern Africa and Southwestern
Arabia.

CHARACTERS. In roundish or irregular tears or masses, brownish-yellow
or reddish-brown ; fracture waxy, somewhat splintery, translucent on the edges,
sometimes marked with whitish veins ; odor balsamic ; taste aromatic, bitter
and acrid. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Mvrrhin r^H^G,,,], a
resin, 23 per cent. (2) Myrrhol, C 10 H J4 O, a volatile oil. 2 J[to 4} pef cent.

(3) Gum, 60 per cent. (4) A bitter principle.



VOLATILE OILS. 563

IMPURITIES. Many varieties of gum and gum-resins.
\_Myrrk is contained in Mistura Ferri Composita and Pilulae Rhei Com-
positae.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.]

Preparations.

1. Tinctura Myrrhae. [Tincture of Myrrh. Myrrh, 200 ; by
maceration with Alcohol and filtration to 1000.

Dose, X to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4'. c.c.

2. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae. See Aloes, p. 498.

3. Pilulae Aloes et Myrrhae. See Aloes, p. 498.]

ACTION OF MYRRH.

External. Both externally and internally, myrrh has the
same action as other substances containing a volatile oil. It is a
mild disinfectant, and a stimulant to sores and ulcers.

Internal. It has the same effect in the mouth. It is a
stomachic carminative, exciting the appetite, the flow of
gastric juice, and the vascularity and peristalsis of the stomach
and intestines. The number of leucocytes in the blood is said
to be increased by the administration of myrrh. It is excreted
by mucous membranes, especially the genito-urinary and the
bronchial, and it stimulates and disinfects their secretions in its
passage through them. Thus it becomes an expectorant, a
uterine stimulant, and an emmenagogue.

THERAPEUTICS OF MYRRH.

External. Occasionally myrrh has been employed as a
stimulant to sores and ulcers.

Internal. It is, in the form of the tincture diffused through
water [i to 16], used as a mouth-wash and gargle for sore spongy
gums, relaxed throat, and other similar conditions, for which it
is often combined with borax, as in the following formula:
Myrrh, i; eau de Cologne, 16 ; borax, i; water, 3 ; syrup, 3.
It is frequently given with purgatives for the sake of its carmina-
tive and stomachic properties. It is also commonly combined
with iron when this drug is given for anaemia, but the reason for
this is not clear. It is prescribed for amenorrhoea, and has been



564 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

given for cystitis, and as a disinfectant expectorant for chronic
bronchitis.

CLASS IV. THOSE USED CHIEFLY FOR THEIR ACTION ON
THE BRONCHIAL MUCOUS MEMBRANE.

TEREBENUM.

[TEREBENE. C 10 Hi 6 =i35. 7. A liquid consisting chiefly of Pinene,
and containing not more than very small proportions of Terpinene and Dipen-
tene.

SOURCE. From acting upon Oil of Turpentine with Sulphuric Acid, and
distilling.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or slightly yellowish, thin liquid, having a
rather agreeable thyme- like odor, and an aromatic, somewhat terebinthinate
taste. Sp.gr., about 0.862. Solubility. Only slightly soluble in Water, but
soluble in an equal volume of Alcohol, glacial Acetic Acid, or Carbon Bisul-
phide.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF TEREBENE.

Terebene is an excellent stimulating disinfectant expectorant
for chronic bronchitis. It may be used as an inhalation thus :
Pure terebene, 2; magnesium carbonate, i; distilled water, 24.
Use this in water [i to 128] at 140 F. [60 C.] in an apparatus
so arranged that air can be drawn through it and inhaled. Or it
may be given with other expectorants in a mixture ; many pa-
tients find five drops several times a day on sugar quite sufficient
to cure a slight winter cough [although it is said to form an in-
soluble compound with sugar.]

[TERPINI HYDRAS.

TERPIN HYDRATE. C, n H 18 (OH),+ 11,0=189.58. The Hydrate
of the Diatomic Alcohol Terpin.

SOURCE. Rectified Oil of Turpentine, Alcohol and Nitric Acid are
allowed to stand together for three or four days in shallow porcelain dishes.
The crystals which have formed are collected, drained thoroughly, dried by
absorbent paper, and re- crystallized in a cold solution of Alcohol.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, lustrous, rhombic prisms, nearly odorless, and
having a slightly aromatic and somewhat bitter taste. Permanent in the air.
Solubility. Soluble in about 250 parts of water, and in 10 parts of Alcohol ;
also soluble in about loo parts of Ether, 200 parts of Chloroform.

Dose, 2 to 30 gr. ; .12 to 2.00 gm.



VOLATILE OILS. 565

ACTION AND USES OF TERPIN HYDRATE.

Terpin hydrate is an antiseptic, and it is believed that it will
arrest the development of tubercle bacilli. It increases the secre-
tion of the mucous membrane, and the functional activity of the
kidneys. It has been given as an antiseptic in acute and chronic
bronchitis, when the secretion is unusually free, in whooping-
cough, and rarely in the treatment of chronic nephritis, chronic
cystitis and gonorrhoea.

BALSAMUM PERUVIANUM.

BALSAM OF PERU. A balsam [obtained from Toluifera Pereira
(Royle) Baillon (nat. ord. Leguminostz). It is obtained from the bark after
it has been beaten, scorched and removed. Habitat. Central America. Bal-
sam of Peru is named from its place of export.

CHARACTERS. A liquid having a syrupy consistence, free from stringiness
or stickiness, of a brownish-black color in bulk, reddish-brown and transparent
in thin layers, of an agreeable vanilla-like, somewhat smoky odor, and a bitter
taste, leaving a persistent after-taste. On exposure to air it does not become
hard. Sp. gr., 1.135 to 1.150. Solubility. Miscible, in- all proportions,
with absolute Alcohol, Chloroform, or Glacial Acetic Acid ; only partially
soluble in Ether or Benzin. It is completely soluble in 5 parts of Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil. This is
present in large quantities ; it consists of [Cinnametn (Benzylic Cinnamate),
C 9 H 7 (C 7 H 7 )O 2 , about 60 per cent. (2) Cinnamic Acid, C 9 H 8 O 2 . (3) Resin,
about 32 per cent., which on dry distillation yields Benzoic Add, HC 7 H 5 O 2 .
Small quantities of (4) Benzylic Benzoate, C 7 H 5 (C 7 H 7 )O 2 , (5) Benzyl Alcohol,
C 7 H 8 O, (6) Stilbene, C U H 12 , (7) Styrol, C 8 H 8 , and (8) Styracin or Cinnamyl
Cinnamate, C 9 H 7 (C g H 9 )O 2 .

IMPURITIES. Fixed oils, resins, oleoresins and alcohol.]

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; [.60 to 2.00 c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF BALSAM OF PERU.

External. Like most substances containing a volatile oil,
balsam of Peru is a disinfectant, and also a stimulant when
rubbed into the skin or applied to raw surfaces. Formerly it
was much used for these purposes, chiefly as an application to
indolent sores and chronic eczema. [As a stimulating dressing
for sluggish granulations a 5 to 10 per cent, solution in castor
oil is frequently employed.] A mixture of balsam of Peru, i;
lard, 7 ; is very useful for sore nipples and cracked lips. It is



566 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

not often employed at present except externally as antiparasitic
for pediculi, scabies and ringworm. [An ointment consisting
of balsam of Peru, 20 ; olive oil, 50 ; petrolatum, 100 ; may be
used.] For scabies it should be applied in the way already de-
scribed for sulphur ointment [see p. 259]; it is a more agreeable
preparation.

Internal. Like most volatile oils balsam of Peru is carmina-
tive and stomachic, and after absorption is excreted by, and
stimulates and disinfects the mucous membranes. For this
reason it is used as an expectorant in chronic bronchitis. It
is also excreted by the skin and the kidneys.

BALSAMUM TOLUTANUM.

BALSAM OF TOLU. A balsam [obtained from Toluifera Baha-
rnum Linne (nat. ord. Leguminos<z). Habitat. Venezuela and New
Granada.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish-brown, semi-fluid or nearly solid mass, be-
coming more brittle when exposed to cold, transparent in thin layers, having
an agreeable odor recalling that of Vanilla, but distinct from it, and a mild,
aromatic taste. Solubility. Readily and completely soluble in Alcohol.
Also completely soluble in Chloroform, and in solutions of the fixed alkalies ;
almost completely soluble in Ether, but nearly insoluble in water, Benzin, or
Carbon Bisulphide.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Toluene, C 10 H 16 , [i per
cent., a thin, colorless, aromatic oil. (2) Benzylic Benzoate, C 7 H 6 (C 7 H 7 )O 2 , a
colorless, aromatic oil. (3) Benzylic Cinnamate, C 9 H 7 (C 7 H 7 )O r (4) Ben-
zoic Acid, HC 7 H 5 O 2 . (5) Cinnamic Acid, C 9 H 8 O 2 . (6) Resins.

IMPURITIES. Turpentine, storax, sweet gum, and resins.

Balsam of 7olu is contained in Tinctura Benzoini Composita.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.]

Preparations.

1. Syrupus Tolutanus. [Syrup of Tolu. Balsam of Tolu, 10;
Alcohol, 50 ; Precipitated Calcium Phosphate, 50 ; Sugar, 850 ; Water
to looo. By solution and filtration.

Dose, YJ. to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.

2. Tinctura Tolutana. Tincture of Tolu. Balsam of Tolu, 100.
By maceration with Alcohol and filtration to looo.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.]



VOLATILE OILS. 567

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF BALSAM OF TOLU.
Although it has an action in all respects similar to that of
balsam of Peru, it is only used as an expectorant in cough

mixtures.

STYRAX.

STORAX. [A balsam prepared from the inner bark of Liquidambar
orientalis Miller (nat. ord. Hamamelacece). Habitat. Asia Minor.

CHARACTERS. A semi-liquid, gray, sticky, opaque mass, depositing on
standing a heavier, dark-brown stratum ; transparent in thin layers, and having
an agreeable odor and a balsamic taste. Solubility. Insoluble in water, but
completely soluble in an equal weight of warm Alcohol.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Siyrol, C 8 Hg, or Cinna-
mene, a volatile oil. (2) Cinnamic Acid, C 9 H g O 2 , colorless, odorless, crystalline;
this can be oxidized to Benzoic Acid, and is also found in Cinnamon, and Bal-
sams of Tolu and Peru. (3) Slyracin, or Cinnamyl Cinnamate, C 9 H 7 (C 9 H 9 )O r
(4) Phenylpropyl Cinnamate, C 9 H 7 (C 9 H 17 )Oj. (5) Ethyl Cinnamate, C 9 H 7
(C,H 5 )O 2 . (6) Storesin, CjjHjgOj, in considerable quantity. (7) Vanillin,
having a fragrant odor.]

Storax is contained in Tinctura Benzoini Composita.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF STORAX.

Storax has the same action as balsams of Tolu and Peru and
benzoin, and may be employed for the same purposes. It is not
often given internally except in the compound tincture of ben-
zoin. Mixed with an equal part of olive oil it may be used to
kill the \_Sarcoptes scabiei\ and pediculi.

OLEUM PINI.

OIL OF PINE. [B. P., not official.] The oil is distilled from the fresh
leaves of Pinus pumilio (nat. ord. Coniferce). Synonyms. Pinol. Pumiline.
[ Habitat. Russia . ]

CHARACTERS. Almost colorless. Odor aromatic. Taste pungent. Sp.
gr., 0.865 to 0.870. [Solubility. In 7 parts of Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. (i) Various terpenes. (2) Boruyl Acetate.

[Preparation.

Vapor Olei Pini (not official). Vapor of Oil of Pine. Oil of Pine,
2 ; rub with Magnesium Carbonate, I ; add Water, 24. Put I ff. dr. ;
4. c.c. of this in half a pint, 240. c.c. of cold and half a pint, 240. c.c.
of boiling water, in a vessel so arranged that air, drawn through the
liquid, can be inhaled.]



568 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF FIR-WOOD OIL.

The action of oil of pine is the same as that of oil of turpen-
tine (see p. 515). But it is pleasanter to inhale, and forms a
useful, stimulating, disinfectant, expectorant inhalation in chronic
bronchitis or laryngitis.

GRINDELIA.

GRINDELIA. [The leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia robusta
Nuttall, and of Grindelia squarrosa Dunal (nat. ord. Composite). Habitat.

(1) G. robusta, North America, west of the Rocky Mountains, in salt marshes.

(2) G. sqttarrosa, Western Plains to the Sierra Nevada and south to Texas.
CHARACTERS. Leaves about 5 cm. or less long, varying from broadly

spatulate or oblong to lanceolate, sessile or clasping, obtuse, more or less
sharply serrate, often spinosely toothed, or even lacinate-pinnatifid, pale green,
smooth, finely dotted, thickish, brittle ; heads many-flowered, subglobular or
somewhat conical ; the involucre hemispherical, about 10 mm. broad, com-
posed of numerous imbricated, squarrosely-tipped or spreading scales ; ray.
florets yellow, ligulate, pistillate ; disk-florets yellow, tubulaf, perfect ; pappus
consisting of two or three awns of the length of the disk-florets ; odor balsamic,
taste pungently aromatic and bitter. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil. (2) A
resin, resembling Saponin in its action. (3) Probably an alkaloid, [Grinde-
&*.]

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Grindeliae [Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Grindelia.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, ^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF GRINDELIA.

In small doses, grindelia is a mild stomachic and cardiac
sedative, but its main action depends upon the fact that in its
excretion by the bronchial mucous membrane it acts as an expec-
torant, and also relaxes the muscular coat of the bronchial tubes,
and this explains its efficacy [in the symptom] asthma. Two or
three doses of twenty minims; [1.20 c.c.], of the fluid extract
in milk, which prevents precipitation of the resin, given every
twenty minutes, will often allay the paroxysms of asthma.
Between the attacks, this dose should be taken three times daily.
The same quantity may with advantage be added to mixtures



VOLATILE OILS. 569

prescribed for chronic bronchitis, for not only is grindelia an
expectorant, but it relieves the asthmatic paroxysms which so
frequently accompany bronchitis. It is very bitter ; its taste is
best concealed by Spiritus Chloroformi. Linen soaked in a
lotion of the fluid extract in water, i to 48, is applied to the skin
for the dermatitis caused by Rhus toxicodendron, the poison ivy.
The same lotion is used in burns and as an injection in gleet and
leucorrhcea.

CLASS V. THOSE USED CHIEFLY FOR THEIR ACTION ON
THE KIDNEYS AND GENITO-URINARY TRACT.

OLEUM JUNIPERI.

OIL OF JUNIPER. A volatile oil distilled [from the fruit (berry)
of Juniperus comnninis Linne (nat. ord. Coniferie). Habitat. North
America throughout Canada, the Northern United States, and in the Rocky
Mountains south to New Mexico.

CHARACTERS. A colorless or faintly greenish-yellow liquid, becoming
darker and thicker by age and exposure to air, having the characteristic odor
of Juniper, and a warm, aromatic, somewhat terebinthinate and bitterish taste.
Sp. gr., 0.850 to 0.890. Solubility. In about 4 times its volume of Alcohol. ]

COMPOSITION. Oil of Juniper is composed chiefly of terpenes, which are
mostly Finene and Cadinene.

Dose, 2 to 10 m. ; [.12 to .60 c.c.]

Prepa rations.

1. Spiritus Juniperi. [Spirit of Juniper. Oil of Juniper, 50 }
Alcohol, 950.

Dose, 30 to 60 m. ; 2. to 4. c.c.

2. Spiritus Juniperi Compositus. Compound Spirit of Juniper.
Oil of Juniper, 8 ; Oil of Caraway, I ; Oil of Fennel, I ; Alcohol,
1400 ; Water to 2000.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr.; 4. to 15. c.c.]

ACTION OF OIL OF JUNIPER.

Oil of juniper has much the same action as oil of turpentine ;
but it is not so liable to upset the digestion ; and although it is
a powerful renal stimulant and diuretic, it does not easily cause
hrematuria and albuminuria. [Because of its antiseptic proper-
ties it is employed for the preservation of cat-gut.]



5/O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

THERAPEUTICS OF OIL OF JUNIPER.

Internal. Occasionally it is given as a pleasant carminative
and stomachic, but its main use is as a diuretic in heart disease,
hepatic ascites, and chronic Bright' s disease. It must not be
given in the acute form, and should always be combined with
other diuretics. It certainly markedly increases the quantity
of the urine, which it causes to smell like violets. As [it is] a
constituent of Holland and [other] gins these are good forms of
alcohol for persons suffering from the above diseases.

BUCHU.

BUCHU. Synonym. Bucco. The leaves of Barosma betulina
[(Thunberg) Bartling et Wendland, and Barosma crenulata (Linne) Hooker
(nat. ord. Rutacea). Habitat. Southern Africa.

CHARACTERS. About 15 mm. long, roundish-obovate, with a rather
wedge-shaped base, or varying between oval and obovate, obtuse, crenate or
serrate, with a gland at the base of each tooth, dull yellowish-green, thickish,
pellucid-punctate ; odor and taste strongly aromatic, somewhat mint-like, pun-
gent and bitterish. ] Resembling Buchu. Senna and Uva Ursi, which have
entire leaves.

IMPURITY. Leaves of Emplanum serrulatum, which have no glands.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) A yellowish-brown volatile
oil, from the glands. [(2) A stearopten (Diospkenol, C 10 H 16 O 2 )] in solution
in a liquid hydrocarbon. The stearopten is deposited on exposure to air. (3)
A [glucoside Barosmin, soluble in alcohol (scarcely so, if cold) and in ether,
volatile oils, dilute acids and alkalies. (4) Rutin, a bitter principle. (5)
Mucilage.

Dose, 15 to 30 gr. ; i. to 2. grn.]

Preparation.

[Extractum Buchu Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Buchu. By
maceration and percolation with Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, 15 to 30 m. ; i. to 2. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF BUCHU.

A medicinal dose of buchu causes a slight feeling of warmth
in the stomach, and a large one gives rise to vomiting. The
volatile oil diffuses into the blood and is excreted by the bron-
chial mucous membrane, which it stimulates, and buchu is there-
fore occasionally given as an expectorant. Most of the oil is



VOLATILE OILS. 5/1

excreted by the kidneys, which are also stimulated, and thus
buchu is a mild diuretic. In the process of excretion it gives
a peculiar odor to the urine, and acts as an astringent and dis-
infectant to the urinary tract, especially the bladder. It
has consequently been administered for cystitis, irritable bladder,
pyelitis, gonorrhoea, etc. Large doses continued for a long
time are said to damage the kidney. The infusion [B. P., i to
20, dose i to 2 fl. oz., 30. to 6b. c.c.] contains very little of
the oil. The fluid extract does not mix well with water on ac-
count of the oil in it. The action of the buchu is much the
same as that of pareira, (<?. v.) but it is pleasanter to take, and
is a good vehicle for diuretics.

COPAIBA.

COPAIBA. Synonyms. Copaiva. [Balsam of Copaiba. (This is not
a true balsam because it does not contain cinnamic or benzoic acid). The oleo-
resin of Copaiba Langsdorffii (Desfontaines) O. Kuntze, and of other species
of Copaiba (nat. ord. Leguminoste}. Habitat. Brazil, Venezuela and New



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