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branes, it makes the mouth dry and feel stiff when locally ap-
plied ; in the stomach large doses prevent the secretion of gastric
juice, decrease the flow of mucus, and may cause vomiting. For
these reasons, and also because it precipitates pepsin, it interferes
with digestion. It will check gastric haemorrhage. In the in-
testine is is either converted into gallic acid, or forms al-
kaline tannates, and until these alterations it acts as an intestinal
astringent, controlling intestinal bleeding and causing constipa-
tion ; but this acid and these salts have no astringent properties,
therefore when, [as is often the case,] drugs containing large
amounts of tannic acid act as powerful intestinal astringents, we
must suppose that the amount of tannic acid taken is large
enough for the conversion of it, into salts or gallic acid, to take
place slowly. It is absorbed chiefly as gallates, and to a much
less extent as tannates.

Remote effects. Gallates and undecomposed alkaline tannates
circulate in the blood, but they have no power to coagulate al-
bumin, nor have they any astringent influence when locally ap-
plied, therefore it is difficult to believe that tannic acid has any
remote astringent or haemostatic effects ; some claim that it has,
but they have not proved their case. It is excreted in the urine



VEGETABLE DRUGS CONTAINING TANNIC ACID. $95

of animals as gallates with traces of tannates, but in man no
derivative of it can be detected in the urine or other excretions,
so that any which has been absorbed is entirely decomposed in
the body. Any excess passes out in the faeces as tannates and
gallates. Many vegetable substances, as logwood, depend for
their astringent properties on the tannic acid they contain.

THERAPEUTICS OF 'TANNIC ACID.

The therapeutical applications of tannic acid are very numer-
ous. It is used as an astringent for ulcers, sores, various moist
eruptions, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, nasal catarrh, otorrhcea, gastric
catarrh, diarrhoea (large doses of 30 gr. ; [2 gm.] may be given,
and catechu and logwood are favorite remedies), leucorrhcea,
gonorrhoea, rectal ulcers, fissures, and prolapse. It is employed
as a haemostatic in bleeding from small wounds, ulcers, the gums,
the pharynx, the nose, the stomach, the intestine, haemorrhoids,
and the bladder.- Whenever practicable a good method of ap-
plication is to dust it on the part, especially for a haemorrhage ;
if this is gastric or intestinal, 30 gr. ; [2. gm.] or more should
be frequently given by the mouth. For external use or applica-
tion to the throat the glycerite is useful. A gargle of the gly-
cerite in water, [i to 8] may be made. The [troches] are con-
venient for pharyngitis. A spray ( i to 2 in 96 of water) or an
insufflation of tannic acid and starch may be used for the mouth
and larynx. The ointment of [nutgall] and opium, [i to 14
of ointment of nutgall,] is a favorite application for piles. The
suppositories [3 gr. ; . 20 gm. each] are useful for rectal discharges.
Solutions [i to 48] in water may be injected into the urethra
for urethritis and gonorrhoea, and into the bladder for cystitis.
[It should never be used hypodermatically] . The decoction
of oak bark, employed as a [high] rectal injection, destroys the
threadworm. [A preparation of nutgall dissolved in glycerin
was formerly used as an injection into hernial sacs (Heaton's
method). The temporary results were excellent, but sooner or
later failures occurred in a very large percentage of cases.

Tannigen (not official), the acetic acid ester of tannic acid,
is prepared by the action of glacial acetic acid on tannic acid.



596 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

It is a tasteless, odorless powder, insoluble in water, and is believed
to pass -unchanged through the stomach and to be slowly decom-
posed in the intestines, thus exerting an astringent effect in them.
The dose is 5 to 30 gr. , .30 to 2.00 gm. in wafers.

Tannalbin (not official) is a tannin albuminate which has
been subjected to a dry heat of 230 248 F. (no-i2o C.) for
several hours. It is a faintly yellow, tasteless powder containing
about 50 per cent, of tannic acid. Laboratory experiments have
shown that it is not easily decomposed by an artificial gastric
juice, but it is rapidly separated into its constituents in an alka-
line medium or by an artificial solution of the pancreatic fer-
ments. This preparation then passes through the stomach un-
changed, and may not be broken up until it has passed well down
into the intestine. The dose is 5 gr., .30 gm., given in wafers
at frequent intervals.

ACIDUM GALLICUM. Gallic Acid. HC 7 H 5 O 5 -fH,O[=i87.55.
An organic acid, usually prepared from Tannic Acid.

SOURCE. By exposing a mixture of Nutgall and distilled water in the
form of a thin paste, to the air for a month, expressing and rejecting the liquor,
boiling the residue with distilled water and filtering, when hot, through purified
Animal Charcoal. HC U H 9 O 9 +H S O=2HC 7 H 5 O 5 .

CHARACTERS. White, or pale fawn-colored, silky, interlaced needles,
or tnclinic prisms ; odorless ; having an astringent or slightly acidulous taste ;
permanent in the air. Solubility. In loo parts of water, and in 5 parts of
Alcohol ; also soluble in 40 parts of Ether, and in 12 parts of Glycerin. Very
slightly soluble in Chloroform, Benzol, or Benzin.]

INCOMPATIBLE. Feme and metallic salts generally, and Spiritus Athens
Nitrosi.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]

ACTION AND USES OF GALLIC ACID.

Gallic acid has no power to coagulate albumin, and therefore
possesses none of the local properties of tannic acid. If it is
wished to produce the supposed remote astringent effects of tan-
nic acid, gallic acid may be administered, for tannic acid is in
the intestine converted into it.

PYROGALLOL.

[PYROGALLOL. C 6 H S (OII),=I25.7. Synonym. Pyrogallic Acid.
SOURCE. A triatomic phenol obtained chiefly by the dry distillation of
Gallic Acid. HC 7 H & O ft =C,H,(OH),f CO,.



VEGETABLE DRUGS CONTAINING TANNIC ACID.

CHARACTERS. Light white, shining laminas, or fine needles, odorless,
and having a bitter taste ; acquiring a gray or darker tint on exposure to air
and light. Solubility. In 1.7 parts of water, and in I part of Alcohol; also
soluble in 1.2 parts of Ether.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF PYROGALLOL.
It is used externally as an ointment (Jarisch's ointment is
pyrogallic acid, i; lard, 8) for the treatment of chronic psoria-
sis. It is also an excellent parasiticide for ringworm. [Before
pyrogallol is used, vaseline^ should be applied thoroughly, and
wiped off, to remove scales and other morbid products.] It
must not be applied over too large a surface, as it may be ab-
sorbed, and then it breaks up the blood corpuscles, causing
methaemoglobinuria and jaundice. Jarisch's ointment is very
strong ; a more usual strength is i or 2 [or even less] to 48 of
lard. [When it is applied in solution or ointment, it stains the
skin, but not permanently ; linen and clothing are, however,
permanently darkened. To avoid the staining it has been pro-
posed to dissolve the remedy in flexible collodion, i or 2 to 24.]

CATECHU.

CATECHU. [Synonym. Cutch. An extract prepared from the wood
of Acacia Catechu (Linne films) Willdenow (nat. or'd. Leguminoste). Habitat.
India.

CHARACTERS. In irregular masses, containing fragments of leaves, dark
brown, brittle, somewhat porous and glossy when freshly broken. It is nearly
inodorous, and has a strongly astringent and sweetish taste.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Catechntannic Acid, about
45 percent., the active principle, isomeric with Catechin, and converted into
it by boiling or by the saliva, a red color being formed. (2) Catechin or
Catechuic Acid [C. il Hj O 9 -t-5H 2 O], probably inactive. Both constituents
give a green precipitate with Ferric Salts. (3) Pyrocatechin or catechol gives
a green color with ferric chloride.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies, metallic salts, and gelatin.

IMPURITY. Starch.

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; [.60 to 2.00 gm.]

Prepa ra tions.

i. [Tinctura Catechu Composita. Compound Tincture of Cate-
chu. Catechu, 100 ; Cassia Cinnamon, 50 ; by maceration and perco-
lation with diluted Alcohol, to 1000.

Dose, YZ to 2 fl. dr. 2. to 8. c.c.



598 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

2. Trochisci Catechu. Troches of Catechu. Catechu, 6 ;
Sugar, 65 ; Tragacanth, 2 gm. ; Stronger Orange Flower Water, a
sufficient quantity to make loo troches. Each troche contains about
I gr. ; .06 gm.

Dose, i to 6 troches.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CATECHU.
Catechu is a powerful astringent, acting in virtue of its
tannic acid, and having a precisely similar action to it. It is
used as a [troche] for sore throat, and the compound [tincture]
is very efficacious for diarrhoea.

KRAMERIA.

[KRAMERIA. Synonym. Rhatany. The root of Krameria triandra
Ruiz et Pavon, and of Krameria Ixina Linne (nat. ord. Polygalea). Habitat.
Peru and Bolivia.

CHARACTERS. From I to 3 cm. thick, knotty and several-headed above,
branched below, the branches long ; bark smooth or, in the thinner pieces,
scaly, deep rust-brown, I to 2 mm. thick, very astringent, inodorous ; wood
pale brownish red, tough, with fine medullary rays, nearly tasteless. The root
of Krameria Ixina (Savanilla Rhatany) is less knotty and more slender, and
has a dark purplish-brown bark, about 3 mm. thick.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) \_Kramerotannic Acid,
C M H 24 O 21 , 20 per cent. (.2) Rhatanin. (3) Rhatanic red, C M H M O,,], the
coloring matter.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies, lime water, iron and lead salts, and gelatin.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 gm.]

Preparations.

1. Extractum Krameriae. [Extract of Krameria. By percola-
tion with water, straining and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 10 gr. ; .30 to .60 gm.

2. Extractum Krameriae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of KramerT .
By maceration and percolation with Glycerin and Diluted Alcohol, and
evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Krameria is used to make Syrupus Kramenae.
Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.

3. Tinctura Krameriae. Tincture of Krameria. Krameria, 200 ;
by maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

4. Trochisci Krameriae. Troches of Krameria. Extract of
Krameria, 6 ; Sugar, 65 ; Tragacanth, 2 gm.; Stronger Orange Flower



VEGETABLE DRUGS CONTAINING TANNIC ACID. 599

Water, a sufficient quantity to make 100 troches. Each troche con-
tains about I gr. ; .06 gm.
Dose, i to 5 troches.

5. Syrupus Krameriae. Syrup of Krameria. Fluid Extract of
Krameria, 450 ; Syrup, 550.

Dose, y z to 4 fl. dr. ; 2. to 15. c.c.]

ACTION OF KRAMERIA.

The action of krameria is due entirely to the tannic acid it
contains. It is therefore a powerful astringent.

THERAPEUTICS OF KRAMERIA.

The extract is the important ingredient of many tooth pow-
ders which are useful when the gums are liable to bleed. An
infusion [B. P., i to 20] is an excellent gargle for a relaxed
throat, and the troches are also efficacious. [The B. P. has a
troche each containing i gr.; .06 gm. of the extract with ^ gr. ;
.003 gm. of cocaine hydrochlorate, with a fruit basis.] Bleed-
ing from the nose or the rectum may be stopped by applying
powdered krameria locally ; the infusion may be used as an in-
jection in leucorrhcea or gonorrhoea. Any of its preparations,
especially [the fluid extract] are powerful astringents for all
varieties of diarrhoea, and may be taken to stop bleeding from
the stomach and intestines. They are also given as remote
haemostatics for haemoptysis and haematuria, but they are not

reliable for these purposes.

KINO.

KINO. [The inspissated juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxburgh
(nat. ord. Leguminosce). Habitat. East Indies.

CHARACTERS. Small, angular, dark brownish-red, shining pieces, brittle,
in thin layers ruby red and transparent, inodorous, very astringent and sweet-
ish, tingeing the saliva deep red. Solubility. Soluble in Alcohol, nearly in-
soluble in Ether, and only slightly soluble in cold water. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Kinotannic Acid, [C 18
H lg O 8 ,] 75 per cent. (2) Kinoin, a crystalline neutral principle. (3) Pyro-
catechin, C 6 H 4 (OH 2 ), a substance also found pathologically in the urine, and
giving it a dark color. It reduces blue copper solutions. (4) Kino red,
formed from kinotannic acid by oxidation. (5) Gum.

INCOMPATIBLES. Mineral acids, alkalies, all metallic salts, carbonates,
and gelatin.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 gm.]



6OO ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Preparation.

Tinctura Kino. [Tincture of Kino. Kino, 100 ; Glycerin, 150.
By maceration and filtration with water, aco ; and Alcohol to 1000.
Dose, # to 2 fl. dr. ; i. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF KINO.

Kinotannic acid acts like tannic acid, and therefore kino is
a powerful astringent. It is used in astringent gargles, and
also in diarrhoea mixtures.

H^EMATOXYLON.

H^MATOXYLON. Synonym. Logwood. [The heart-wood of
Hamatoxylon campechianum Linne (nat. ord. Leguminoxe). Habitat.
Central America ; naturalized in the West Indies.

CHARACTERS. Heavy, hard, externally purplish -black, internally brown-
ish-red, and marked with irregular, concentric circles, splitting irregularly ;
odor faint, agreeable ; taste sweetish, astringent. When chewed, it colors
the saliva dark pink. Logwood is generally met with in the form of small
chips or coarse powder of a dark brownish-red color, often with a greenish
lustre.] Resembling Logwood. Red Saunders, which is more dense and
less astringent.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Tannic Acid. (2) Hcema-
toxylin, C 16 H 14 O 6 , 12 per cent. Occurring in [sweet], colorless crystals,
which become dark -red on exposure to light. Solutions of it are used to stain
histological specimens. [(3) H&matein, C 16 H 12 O 6 , a product of oxidation
of the former, having a green, metallic lustre.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Mineral acids, lime water, and tartar emetic; metallic
salts give a blue color.

Preparation.

[Extractum Haematoxylon. Extract of Haematoxylon. By
maceration in Water, boiling, straining and evaporation.
Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF LOGWOOD.

In virtue of its tannic acid, logwood is a powerful astringent,
and for this purpose is used to control diarrhoea of all sorts. It
may be combined with other astringents, as chalk and [with]
opium [to check peristalsis.] It does not easily produce consti-
pation. It colors the urine and faeces dark red. One disadvan
tage of it is that it stains linen, if [it comes in contact with] it.



VEGETABLE DRUGS CONTAINING TANNIC ACID. 6oi

HAMAMELIS.

HAMAMELIS. [Synonym. Witchhazel. The leaves of Hamamelis
virginiana Linne (nat. ord. Hamamelaccie}, collected in autumn. Habitat.
North America, in thickets.

CHARACTERS. Short petiolate, about 10 cm. long, obovate or oval, slightly
heart-shaped and oblique at the base, sinuate-toothed, thickish, nearly smooth ;
inodorous ; taste astringent and bitter. ]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Tannic Acid, 8 per cent.
(2) A bitter principle not yet isolated., (3) Resin.

Preparation.

[Extractum Hamamelidis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Hama-
melis. By maceration and percolation with Glycerin, Alcohol and
Water, and evaporation.

Dose, y z to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF WITCHHAZEL.

Hamamelis is, because of its tannic acid, astringent and
haemostatic. The [fluid] extract is used for capillary haemor-
rhage from wounds, for bleeding from the nose, the sockets of
the teeth, the gums, or from piles, and it may be injected into
the bladder in vesical haemorrhage. For all these purposes it is
diluted with water; the fluid extract in 10 or 20 parts of water
is commonly employed. Locally applied, hamamelis, either as
the ointment [B. P., i to 10, made from the fluid extract] or
the diluted fluid [extract], is used as an astringent in bruises,
sprains, pharyngitis, and nasal catarrh. The ointment is often
used for piles. Given by the mouth, hamamelis may check
diarrhoea, dysentery, etc.; and it is reputed to be a remote
haemostatic and astringent, but this is probably incorrect.
Hazeline is a distilled extract from the leaves. [A preparation of
witchhazel in popular use is known as Pond's extract.

RHUS GLABRA.

RHUS GLABRA. Synonym. Sumach. The fruit of Rhus glabra
Linne (nat. ord. Anacardiea}. Habitat. North America, west to Colorado
and Idaho ; in barren soil.

CHARACTERS. Subglobular, about 3 mm. in diameter, drupaceous, crim-
son, densely hairy, containing a roundish-oblong, smooth putamen ; inodor-
ous : taste acidulous.



6O2 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Tannic Acid, of which
it contains from 6 to 27 per cent. (2) Gallic Acid. (3) Acid calcium and
potassium malates. (4) A red coloring matter.

Preparation.

Extractum Rhois Glabrae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Rhus
Glabra. By maceration and percolation with Glycerin and Diluted
Alcohol, and evaporation.

Dose, # to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF RHUS GLABRA.

Sumach fruit is astringent and refrigerant. The fluid extract,
when diluted, affords a very useful and effective gargle for in-
flammation and ulceration of the throat.

GERANIUM.

GERANIUM. Synonym. Cranesbill. The rhizome of Geranium
maculatum Linn6 (nat. ord. Geraniaceai). Habitat. North America, in
woods and thickets.

CHARACTERS. Of horizontal growth, cylindrical, 5 to 7 cm. long ; about
I cm. thick ; rather sharply tuberculated, longitudinally wrinkled, dark
brown ; fracture short, pale reddish-brown ; bark thin ; wood-wedges yellow-
ish, small, forming a circle near the cambium line ; medullary rays broad ;
central pith large ; roots thin, fragile ; inodorous ; taste strongly astringent.

COMPOSITION. (I) Tannic Acid, 12 to 17 per cent. (2) Gallic Acid.
(3) Pectin.

Preparation.

Extractum Geranii Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Geranium.
By maceration and percolation with Glycerin and Diluted Alcohol, and
evaporation.

Dose, ! 4 to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF GERANIUM.

Geranium is one of the best indigenous astringents, and is of
great use in diarrhoea and dysentery, and in the various haemor-
rhages.

RUBUS.

RUBUS. Synonym. Blackberry. The bark of the root of Rubus vil-
fosus Aiton, Rubus canadensis Linne, and Rubus trivialis Michaux (nat. ord.
Rosacea}. Habitat. North America, in fields and thickets.



VEGETABLE DRUGS CONTAINING TANNIC ACID. 603

CHARACTERS. In thin, tough, flexible bands, outer surface blackish or
blackish-gray, inner surface pale brownish, sometimes with strips of whitish,
tasteless wood adhering ; inodorous ; taste strongly astringent, somewhat
bitter.

COMPOSITION. (i) Tannic Acid, 10 to 13 per cent. (2) Gallic Acid,
0.4 per cent. (3) Villosin, a bitter crystalline glucoside, soluble in Alcohol.

Preparations.

1. Extractum Rubi Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Rubus. By
maceration and percolation wiuY Glycerin, Alcohol and Water, and
evaporation.

Fluid Extract of Rubus is used to make Syrupus Rubi.
Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

2. Syrupus Rubi. Syrup of Rubus. Fluid Extract of Rubus,
250 ; Syrup, 750.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF BLACKBERRY.

The preparations made from blackberry root are tonic and
slightly astringent. They are used for diarrhoea; blackberry
brandy is a common domestic remedy.

RUMEX.

RUMEX. Synonym. Yellow Dock. The root of Rumex crispus

Linne, and of some other species of Rumex (nat. ord. Polygonacea}. Hab-
itat. Europe ; naturalized in North America, in grassy places and along road-
sides.

CHARACTERS. From 20 to 30 cm. long, about 10 to 15 mm. thick, some-
what fusiform, fleshy, nearly simple, annulate above, deeply wrinkled below ;
externally rusty brown, internally whitish, with fine, straight, interrupted, red-
dish, medullary rays, and a rather thick bark ; fracture short ; odor slight,
peculiar ; taste bitter and astringent.

COMPOSITION. (I) Tannic Acid. (2) Kumicin, identical with Chry-
sophanic Acid. (3) Calcium Oxalate, and other salts.

Dose, ] to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Rumicis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Rumex. By
maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, % to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF RUMEX.

Rumex is astringent, slightly tonic and alterative. It has been
used in svphilis. scorbutic disorders, and cutaneous eruptions.]



604 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

EUCALYPTI GUMMI.

EUCALYPTUS GUM [B. P., not official.] Synonym. Red Gum.
A ruby -colored exudation from the baik of Eucalyptus rostrata (nat. ord.
Myrtacea) and from other species. [Habitat. ] Australia.

CHARACTERS. An inspissated secretion forming semi- translucent and
garnet-colored grains or small masses. Tough and difficult to powder. Ad-
heres to the teeth when chewed. Taste very astringent. Soluble in water.
Resembling Eucalyptus Gum. Kino, which is darker and feebly soluble in
water.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Kinotannic Acid. (2)
Catechin. (3) Pyrocatechin.

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; [.12 to .60 gm.] in powder, or in an aqueous solu-
tion or made into a pill with mucilage of Acacia.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF RED GUM.
Red gum is, by virtue of its tannic acid, powerfully astrin-
gent and is used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Lozenges, i gr.
[.06 gm.] in each, with fruit paste, or a decoction of i in 40, as
a gargle, are employed for relaxed throats. This decoction may
also be given in 2 to 4 [fl.] dr. [8. to 15. c.c.] doses for diarrhcea.
A fluid extract (red gum, 7 ; water, 21 ; alcohol, i ;) dose, y 2 to
i fl. dr. [2. to 4. c.c.]is a useful preparation. Injected into the
nose it stops epistaxis. Mixed with i to 10 of water it may be
injected into the rectum or vagina, or may be used as a mouth
wash. Suppositories, each containing 5 gr. ; [.30 gm.] of red
gum, are prepared, and may be employed for piles.

GOTO.

GOTO BARK. [Not official..] The bark [of Drimys Winteri, Foster,
var. granatensis, Eichler. Habitat. Venezuela.

CHARACTERS. In irregular pieces, outer surface irregular as well as the
inner surface ; color cinnamon-brown ; upon fresh cross-section the bark is seen
to be filled with yellowish spots, except in the outer portions ; odor aromatic,
especially if bruised ; the powder is very pungent. Resembling Goto Bark.
Paracoto Bark, which has a less powerful odor and taste ; and is marked with
deep, whitish furrows upon its surface.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Cotoin (see p. 605). (2) A
volatile oil. (3) A resin in large amount. (4) A volatile alkaloid of a pep-
pery taste, probably propylamine. (5) Piperonylic Acid, C 8 H 6 O 4 . ] Coto is
placed here provisionally among the drugs containing Tannic Acid, until its
composition [can be ascertained.]

Dose, i to 10 gr. ; [.06 to .60 gm.]



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 605

[COTOIN.-C n H 18 0,=377.io.

CHARACTERS. A glucoside occurring as a pale yellow, amorphous powder,
or in minute, curved, white, fusible prisms. Solubility. Slightly in water;
soluble in Alcohol, Ether, and Chloroform. It has a biting taste, and its pow-
der is irritating to the nostrils.

Dose, I to 2 gr. ; .06 to .12 gm.

ACTION AND USES OF GOTO.

Goto is not astringent, but because it produces absorption,
coto bark and cotoin have established a reputation as remedies
for diarrhoea, whether infantile, in phthisis or in typhoid fever.
It also checks salivation and night-sweats. A 10 per cent, tincture
of coto has been recommended by the British Pharmaceutical
Conference. Dose, 10 m. ; .60 c.c. every 2 hours, with mucil-
age or syrup to suspend the large amount of resin which it con-
tains. It should not be combined with Mistura Cretae.]



GROUP IX.

Vegetable Demulcent Substances.

Many of these are nutritive.

Olive Oil, Soap, [Chondrus,] Glycerin, Oleic Acid, [Althaea,] Almond,

Tragacanth, Acacia, [Ulmus,] Liquorice, Linseed, [Pearl

Barley,] Sugar, Malt, Soja Bean, fCetraria, Raisins.]

OLEUM OLIV.E.

OLIVE OIL. \_Synonym. Sweet Oil. A fixed oil expressed from the
ripe fruit of Olea europaa Linn6 (nat. ord. Oleacetz). Habitat. Asia and
Southern Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, or light greenish-yellow, oily liquid, having
a slight, peculiar odor, and a nutty, oleaginous taste, with a faintly acrid after-
taste. Sp. gr., 0.91 5 to 0.918. Solubility. Very sparingly soluble in Alco-
hol, but readily soluble in Ether, Chloroform, or Carbon Bisulphide.]

COMPOSITION. The [three] constituents are (i) Olein, 72 per cent., a
fluid oil, a compound of Oleic Acid and Glyceryl, thus : CjHjfCjgHjjO,)^



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