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(2) Pahnitin, 28 per cent. , a solid oil, a compound of Palmitic Acid, and
Glyceryl, C 3 H 5 (C 16 H 31 O^ 3 . The formula for Oleic Acid is HC^H^O., ; and
for Palmitic, HC, 6 H 31 O 2 . [(3) Arachin, C M H 40 O 2 .

IMPURITIES. Cotton seed and other oils, especially Sesame.

Dose, freely.]



606 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Olive Oil is contained in [Emplastrum Plumbi, Emplastrum Ferri, Env.
plastrum Picis Burgundicse, Ceratum Cetacei, Unguentum Diachylon, and
Unguentum Veratrinae. ]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF OLIVE OIL.

External. Olive oil is used to facilitate jthe rubbing of
parts ; for this purpose it is employed in massage. It is a com-
mon soothing protective to burns [being used in place of linseed
oil in Linimentum Calcis (see p. 157)], and may be mixed with
poultices to prevent their [adhering] to the skin. If rubbed in
vigorously, it can be absorbed through the epidermis, and might
be thus used as a food when nourishment cannot be given by the
mouth.

Internal. For its soothing protective qualities it may be
swallowed after corrosive poisons have been taken. It is an excel-
lent mild laxative, and can be given with food for this purpose.
Some persons like it ; with others it excites nausea and vomiting.
An olive oil enema (olive oil, 15 ; with or without warm mucil-
age of starch, 18) ; [or a soap enema (soap, i ; warm water,
32)], is often used to open the bowels when a mild non-irritat-
ing injection is required. A gall stone placed in pure olive oil
at the temperature of the body is slowly dissolved, because cho-
lesterin, which is the chief constituent of gall stones, is soluble
in olive oil. It is also soluble in oleic acid and in animal soaps.
Many patients suffering from gall stones derive much benefit from
taking olive oil. This is chiefly because the oil or some of its
constituents are excreted by the bile, and to a much less extent
because the intestinal peristalsis set up by the olive oil extends
to the bile ducts. From 2 to 8 fl. oz. [60. to 240. c.c.] should
be taken daily. It may be mashed with fish or potato. Some
[patients] take it better if a [small quantity] of menthol and a
drachm [4. c.c.] of brandy are added to each half pint [240. c.c.]
of oil. Eunatrol, or pure sodium oleate, which is given a special
name to distinguish it from the ordinary impure forms, has been
successfully used in cases of gall stones. Thirty to forty grains
[2.00 to 2.40 gm.] may be given daily. It is best prescribed
as 5 gr. [-3 g m -] P ills -



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 6o/

Olive oil is a food, but it is not often used in this country as
such. The history of fats and oils in the body is discussed in

works on physiology.

SAPO.

SOAP. Sodium Oleate, NaC 18 HjjOj. [Synonyms. White Castile
Soap, Hard Soap.

SOURCE. Soap is prepared from Soda and Olive Oil. C J H 5 (C 18 H JJ Oj) s -(-
3NaOH=2NaC 18 H 33 O. i (Hard Soap)-fC 3 H 5 (OH) s (Glycerin).

CHARACTERS. A white or whitish solid, hard, yet easily cut when fresh,
having a faint, peculiar odor free from rancidity, a disagreeable, alkaline taste,
and an alkaline reaction. Solubility. Soluble in water and in Alcohol, more
readily with the aid of heat.

Soap is contained in Pilulae Aloes, Pilulae Aloes et Asafoetidae, Pilulae
Asafcetidae, Pilulae Opii, and Pilulas Rhei.]

Preparations.

[i. Emplastrum Saponis. Soap Plaster. Soap, 100; Lead
Plaster, 900 ; by solution in Water and evaporation.

2. Linimentum Saponis. Soap Liniment. Synonym. Opo-
deldoc. Soap, 70; Camphor, 45; Oil of Rosemary, 10; Alcohol,
750 ; Water to 1000.

Soap Liniment is contained in Linimentum Chloroform!.]

SAPO MOLLIS.

SOFT SOAP. Potassium Oleate. [Synonyms. Sapo Viridis. Green
Soap. A soap prepared from Potassa and fixed oils, generally from Olive
Oil.

SOURCE. By heating Linseed Oil, 400; adding to this Potassa, 90; dis-
solved in Water, 450 ; and Alcohol, 40 ; until the mixture is soluble in boiling
Water without the separation of oily drops.

CHARACTERS. A soft, unctuous mass, of a yellowish-brown or brownish-
yellow color. Solubility. In about 5 parts of hot Water to a nearly clear
liquid ; also in 2 parts of hot Alcohol, without leaving more than 3 per cent,
of insoluble residue.

Preparation.

Linimentum Saponis Mollis. Liniment of Soft Soap. Syn-
onym. Tinctura Saponis Viridis. Soft Soap, 650 ; Oil of Lavender
Flowers, 20; Alcohol, 300; Water to 1000. By filtration. ]

USES OF SOAP.

Hard soap may be used for medicated soaps. The prescriber
should state the percentage of the drug, e.g., ichthyol, tar,



608 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

sulphur, he wishes the soap to contain. The dispenser planes
the soap into thin shavings, dries them at 100 F. [37.8 C.],
powders them in a mortar, then thoroughly mixes and beats up
the soap powder, the drugs, and one part of alcohol (60 per cent. )
to 8 parts of soap powder. The whole is put into a soap press
and stamped. [Soaps are used for cleansing. The plaster is
protective against bed-sores. The liniment is used as a cutane-
ous stimulant. That of soft soap is employed for psoriasis, lichen
and eczema.] Hard soap forms a basis for many pills. Either
soap is frequently made into a lather- with about a pint [500.
c.c.] of water at 100 F. [37.8 C.] and used as a purgative
enema. Soft soap is much preferred; about i fl. oz. [30. c.c.]
is commonly used. All enemata, but perhaps especially those
made with hard soap, may produce an erythematous rash, prob-
ably due to the solution and consequent absorption of some

faecal toxin.

[CHONDRUS.

CHONDRUS. Synonyms. Irish Moss. Carragheen. The entire
plant of Chondrus crisfus Stackhouse, and Gigartina mamillosa J. Agardh
(class Alga). Habitat. Atlantic Ocean.

CHARACT/ERS. Yellowish or white, horny, translucent; many-times
forked ; when softened in water, cartilaginous ; shape of the segments varying
from wedge-shape to linear ; at the apex emarginate or two-lobed. It has a
slight sea-weed odor, and mucilaginous, somewhat saline taste.

COMPOSITION. (i) Mucilaginous Compounds, 90 per cent. (2) Albu-
minoids. (3) Chlorides, sulphates and phosphates, with traces of bromides
and iodides.

Dose, 2 to 4 dr. ; 8. to 15. gm.

ACTION AND USES OF IRISH Moss.

Irish Moss is not only a demulcent, but as well, when made
into a jelly, is a useful article of diet. It is also used in making
preparations of bone marrow.]

GLYCERINUM.

GLYCERIN. [C,H 5 (OH) 8 91.79. A triatomic alcohol. Synonym.
Glycerol.

SOURCE. A liquid obtained by the decomposition of vegetable or animal
fats or fixed oils (see pp. 13 and 605), and containing not less than 95 per
cent, of absolute Glycerin.



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 609

CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless liquid, of a thick, syrupy consistence,
oily to the touch, odorless, very sweet and slightly warm to the taste. When
exposed to the air, it slowly abstracts moisture. Sp. gr., not less than 1.250.
Solubility. In all proportions, in Water or Alcohol ; also soluble in a mixture
of 3 parts of Alcohol and I part of Ether, but insoluble in Ether, Chloroform,
Carbon Bisulphide, Benzin, Benzol, and fixed or volatile oils.

Glycerin is contained in Elixir Phosphor!, Liquor Ferri et Ammonii Ace-
tatis, Mucilago Tragacanthae, Massa Hydrargyri, Pilulae Phosphori, in the
Glycerita and in many Extracta, Extracta Fktida, Syrupi and Tincturse.]

Dose, 5 to 60 m. ; [.30 to 4.00 c.c.]

Preparations.

1. [Glyceritum Amyli. Glycerite of Starch. Starch, lo ; Water,
10 j Glycerin, 80.

Dose, freely.

2. Glyceritum Vitelli. Glycerite of Yolk of Egg. Synonym.
Glyconin. Fresh Yolk of Egg, 45 ; Glycerin, 55.

Dose, freely.

3. Glyceritum Acidi Carbolici. See Carbolic Acid, p. 329.

4. Glyceritum Acidi Tannici. See Tannic Acid, p. 593.

5. Glyceritum Boroglycerini. See Boric Acid, p. 273.

6. Glyceritum Hydrastis. See Hydrastis, p. 640.

7. Suppositoria Glycerini. Suppositories of Glycerin. Glycerin,
60 ; Sodium Carbonate, 3 ; Stearic Acid, 5 gni. By solution with heat,
pouring into ten moulds, and wrapping in tin-foil, when cold. Each
suppository contains 90 gr. ; 6. gm. of Glycerin.

Dose, as required.]

ACTION OF GLYCERIN.

External. As glycerin is an excellent solvent for numerous
[substances], such as iodine, bromine, alkalies, tannic acid,
many neutral salts, alkaloids, salicin, etc., it is a good vehicle
for applying these substances to the skin and to sores. It does
not evaporate nor turn rancid, and is powerfully hygroscopic.

Internal. In man the only visible effect produced by its
administration is purging. This occurs with quite small doses
if it is given by the rectum, but large doses are necessary if given

39



6lO ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

by the mouth. It is absorbed from the alimentary canal, and is
to a slight extent a food, for some of it is oxidized in the body.
Sometimes ite administration leads to the appearance in the urine
of a body which reduces cupric oxide and gives the fermentation
test for sugar. There has been much dispute as to whether
glycerin can control nitrogenous metabolism, but it appears that
it cannot in any way save the waste of nitrogenous tissues. It
probably has some influence on the amount of glycogen in the
liver. It has also been thought to prevent artificial glycosuria,
but this is doubtful.

Very large doses in animals cause the urine to be dark from
the presence of the coloring matter of the blood, although there
are no corpuscles in it ; they also lead to loss of muscular
strength, lethargy, dryness of mucous membranes, collapse and
death.

THERAPEUTICS OF GLYCERIN.

External. Glycerin is much employed as a basis for appli-
cations to the skin and the eye. It is commonly used for chapped
hands and slight excoriations. It is readily absorbed when
rubbed into the skin, therefore it is a convenient vehicle for the
absorption of substances by the skin. Belladonna mixed with
glycerin is often rubbed in when we desire its local anodyne
action (see p. 379.) [Glycerin as well as boroglycerin (see p.
273) is used extensively in various local applications in the treat-
ment of diseases of women].

Internal. As glycerin is sweet, it is an excellent flavoring
agent. It is demulcent, and is used as a vehicle for applying
substances, such as tannic acid, to the throat. It is rarely given
by the mouth for any medicinal virtue. It has been administered
for dyspepsia, for diabetes, and as a nutritive agent, but in each
case without any good result. One to two fl. dr, [4. to 8. c.c.]
injected [into] the rectum, or a glycerin suppository, form an
excellent means of opening the bowels in simple constipation,
especially when the faeces are in the sigmoid flexure and rectum.
The result is prompt, often occurring within less than half an
hour. No pain nor constitutional disturbance is produced.



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 6 1 I



ACIDUM OLEICUM.

OLEIC ACID. HCjgH^O^^aSi.sS.

SOURCE. An organic acid, prepared in a sufficiently pure condition by
cooling commercial Oleic Acid to about 41 F. ; 5 C., then separating and
preserving the liquid portion.] In case [that it is obtained from] Olive
Oil the reaction is C S H 5 (C 18 H 33 O. ! ) 3 +3H 2 O=3HC 18 H 33 O 2 +C3H 5 (OH 3 )
(Glycerin).

CHARACTERS. [A yellowish or brownish-yellow, oily liquid, having a
peculiar, lard-like odor and taste ; becoming darker and absorbing Oxygen on
exposure to air. It becomes semi-solid at 40 F. ; 4.4 C. Sp. gr., about
0.900. Solubility. Insoluble in water; soluble in Alcohol, Chloroform,
Benzol, Benzin, Oil of Turpentine, and fixed and volatile oils.]

IMPURITIES. It is rarely pure, usually containing Stearic and Palmitic
Acids.

\_Oleic Add is used to prepare Oleatum Hydrargyri, Oleatum Veratrinse,
and Oleatum Zinci. There is some doubt whether the pharmacopoeial oleates
are chemical combinations or simple solutions.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF OLEIC ACID.

Oleic acid is used as a solvent for remedies which it is desired
to apply by means of cutaneous inunction, for it more readily
penetrates the skin than fats and oils. [Oleates are made from
the alkaloids, not from their salts. If metals are employed, the
oxides only are chosen.] Copper oleate is also used for ring-
worm and indolent sores.

ALTHAEA.

[ALTHAEA. Synonym. Marshmallow. The root of Altfuza officinalis
Linne (nat. ord. Malvacece). Habitat. Europe, Western and Northern Asia ;
naturalized in the Eastern United States and in Australia, in salt marshes}
culivated in Europe.

CHARACTERS. In cylindrical or somewhat conical pieces, from 10 to 15
cm. long, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, deeply wrinkled ; deprived of the brown,
corky layer and small roots ; externally white, marked with a number of
circular spots, and of a somewhat hairy appearance from the loosened bast-
fibres ; internally whitish and fleshy. It breaks with a short granular and
mealy fracture, has a faint, aromatic odor, and a sweetish, mucilaginous taste.

Resembling Althcea. Young and peeled Belladonna roots, but these have
no hair-like bast-fibres upon the surface.

COMPOSITION. (i) Asparagin, I per cent. (2) Bassorin, a mucilage,
35 per cent. (3) Sugar, 8 per cent. (4) Pectin, 10 per cent.



6l2 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Preparation.

Syrupus Althaeae. Syrup of Althaea. Althoca, 50 ; Alcohol, 30 ;
Glycerin, loo ; Sugar, 700 ; Water to 1000.
Dose, freely.

ACTION AND USES OF MARSHMALLOW.

Marshmallow is used as a demulcent, for irritation and inflam-
mation of mucous membranes.]

AMYGDALA.

AMYGDALA AMARA. Bitter Almond. The seed of Prunus
Amygdalus, var. amara [De Candolle (nat. ord. Rosacea:}. Habitat. Western
Asia ; naturalized in the Mediterranean basin ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. About 25 mm. long, oblong-lanceolate, flattish, covered
with a cinnamon-brown, scurfy testa, marked by about sixteen lines emanating
from a broad scar at the blunt end. The embryo has the shape of the seed, is
white, oily, consists of two plano-convex cotyledons, and a short radicle at the
pointed end, and has a bitter taste. When triturated with water, Bitter
Almond yields a milk-white emulsion, which emits an odor of Hydrocyanic
Acid.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Oleum Amygdala \_Ex-
pressum (see p. 613), 45 per cent., the same fixed oil as in the sweet variety.]
(2) Emu/sin. (3) Amygdalin, [C 20 H 27 NO n , a crystalline glucoside, having
a sweetish bitter taste,] which yields Oleum Amygdala Amarce. [It is very
important to distinguish it from the Oleum Amygdala Expressum, which is
harmless. The oil of bitter almond is usually very poisonous from admixture
of Hydrocyanic Acid ; for if moisture has had access to the glucoside Amyg-
dalin, on which in the presence of water, the emulsin in the almond acts as a
ferment, the volatile oil of bitter almond (benzaldthyde), glucose and Hydrocy-
anic Acid are formed.] C 20 H 27 NO 11 -|-2H 2 O=[C 2 H 6 O] (the volatile oil) -+-
HCN-f-2C 6 H 12 O 6 . The oil when separated from the [Hydrocyanic] Acid is
not poisonous, and is used to flavor sweets. An artificial oil of bitter almond
called Nitrobenzol is often substituted, and has caused death.

Bitter Almond is contained in Syrupus Amygdalae.

[OLEUM AMYGDALA AMARCE. Oil of Bitter Almond.

SOURCE. A volatile oil obtained from Bitter Almond by maceration with
water, and subsequent distillation.

CHARACTERS. A clear, colorless or yellowish, thin, and strongly refrac-
tive liquid, having a peculiar, aromatic odor, and a bitter and burning taste.
Sp. gr., 1. 060 to 1.070. Boiling point, about 356 F. ; 180 C. Optically
inactive. Solubility. In 300 parts of water, and in Alcohol or Ether in all
proportions ; also soluble in Nitric Acid at ordinary temperatures without the
evolution of nitrous vapors.

Dose, to y t m. ; .01 to .03 c.c.



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 613

Preparations.

1. Aqua Amygdalae Amarae. Bitter Almond Water. Oil of
Bitter Almond, I ; Distilled Water, 999. By solution and filtration.

Dose, 2 to 4 fl. dr. ; 8. to 15. c.c.

2. Spiritus Amygdalae Amarae. Spirit of Bitter Almond.
Synonym. Essence of Bitter Almond. Oil of Bitter Almond, 10;
Alcohol, 800 ; Distilled Water, to 1000.

Dose, 15 to 45 m. ; i. to 3. c.c.]

AMYGDALA DULCIS. Sweet Almond. Synonym. Jordan Al-
mond. [The seed of Prumis Amygdalus, var. dulcis De Candolle (nat. ord.
Jiosacetf.) Habitat. Western Asia ; naturalized in the Mediterranean basin ;
cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Closely resembling the bitter almond (see Amygdala
Amara), but having a bland, sweetish taste, free from rancidity. When tri-
turated with water, it yields a milk-white emulsion, free from the odor of
Hydrocyanic Acid.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Oleum Amygdala Ex-
pressum (see below), 56 per cent., a fixed oil. (2) Emulsin, and other albu-
minous bodies.

IMPURITY. The bitter almond, giving an odor of [Hydrocyanic] Acid
when rubbed with water.

Preparations.

[i. Emulsum Amygdalae. Emulsion of Almond. Synonyms.
Mistura Amygdalae. Milk of Almond. Sweet Almond, 60 ; Acacia,
10 ; Sugar, 30 ; Distilled Water, 1000.

Dose, indeterminate.

2. Syrupus Amygdalae. Syrup of Almond. Sweet Almond,
140; Bitter Almond, 40; Sugar, 200; Orange Flower Water, loo;
Water, 130 ; Syrup to 1000.

Dose, indeterminate.]

OLEUM AMYGDALAE [EXPRESSUM. Expressed Oil of Al-
mtond.

SOURCE. A fixed oil expressed from Bitter or Sweet Almond.

CHARACTERS. A clear, pale straw-colored or colorless, oily liquid,
almost inodorous, and having a mild, nutty taste. Sp. gr., 0.915 to 0.920.
Solubility. Only slightly soluble in Alcohol ; soluble in Ether and in Chloro-
form in all proportions.

Expressed Oil of Almond is contained in Emulsum Chloroformi and
Unguentum Aquae Rosae.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]



6 14 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF ALMOND.

The sweet almond is demulcent. Its most important medi-
cinal use is that it is made into flour to replace starchy food in
cases of diabetes. Biscuits are made of the flour. These are
very palatable, are a good nutritive food, and contain very little
starch. The only objection to them is their price. With a little
care they can be made at home. The flour of other nuts, as
Brazil nuts, has been used, but it is not nearly so palatable. The
almond [emulsion] is a very pleasant vehicle for the suspension of
insoluble substances, and its powder [B. P., sweet almond, 8;
sugar, 4 ; acacia, i] is a palatable basis for powders. The [ex-
pressed] oil of almond might be used for the same purposes as
olive oil. It is pleasanter, but very expensive.

TRAGACANTHA.

TRAGACANTH. A gummy exudation from [Astragalus gummifer
Labillardiere, and from other species of Astragalus (nat. ord. Leguminostz) .
Habitat. Western Asia.

CHARACTERS. In narrow or broad bands, more or less curved or con-
torted, marked by parallel lines, or ridges, white or faintly yellowish, translu-
cent, horn-like, tough, and rendered more easily pulverizable by a heat of
122 F. ; 50 C. Very sparingly soluble in cold water, but swells into a gela-
tinous mass, which is tinged violet (not so deep as the color given by starch
by tincture of iodine.] Resembling Tragacanth. Squill, which is thicker
and opaque.

IMPURITIES. Other gums.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are ( i) Bassorin CH 10 O 5 , a gum
33 per cent., only slightly soluble in water, unfermentable. (2) Arabin, 53
per cent., which resembles, but is not identical with the Arabin of Acacia.
Precipitated by lead acetate. (3) A little starch.

[ Tragacanth is contained in several Trochisci.]

Preparation.

Mucilago Tragacanthae. [Mucilage of Tragacanth. Tragacanth,
6; Glycerin, 18; Water to 100. By heating, maceration and straining.
Dose, indeterminate.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF TRAGACANTH.

Tragacanth is a demulcent, and as such may be soothing when
applied to a sore throat. Its chief use is to suspend insoluble



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 615

bodies, as resins, oils, and insoluble powders. The mucilage is
better for this purpose than the compound powder [(B. P., not
official), tragacanth, i; acacia, i; starch, i; sugar, 3;], which,
because of its starch, is liable to ferment.

ACACIA.

[ACACIA. Synonym. Gum Arabic. A gummy exudation from Acacia
Senegal Willdenow (nat. ord. Leguminosce). Habitat. Eastern Africa,
principally Kordofan ; Western Africa, near the river Senegal.

CHARACTERS. In roundish tears of various sizes, or broken into angular
fragments, with a glass-like, sometimes iridescent fracture, opaque from
numerous fissures, but transparent and nearly colorless in thin pieces ; nearly
inodorous ; taste insipid, mucilaginous ; insoluble in Alcohol, but soluble in
water, forming a thick, mucilaginous liquid. Solubility. Slowly but com-
pletely soluble in 2 parts of water ; insoluble in Alcohol.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent is Arabin, C 12 H M O n ; combined
with Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium. This is not affected by lead acetate.

IMPURITIES. Starch, and gum resins.

INCOMPATIBLES. Alcohol, sulphuric acid, borax, ferric salts and lead
subacetate.

[Acacia is contained in Emulsum Amygdalae, Pulvis Gretas Compositus,
and in some Trochisci.]

Preparations.

1. Mucilago Acaciae. [Mucilage of Acacia. Acacia, 340;
Water, to 1000.

Mucilage of Acacia is contained in Mistura Glycyrrhizae Composite
and Syrupus Acaciae.
Dose, freely.

2. Syrupus Acaciae. Syrup of Acacia. Mucilage of Acacia, 25 ;
Syrup, 75.

Dose, freely.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF ACACIA.

Acacia is demulcent. It is used to suspend insoluble sub-
stances, as oils, resins, and insoluble powders. A fluid ounce
[30. c.c.Jof most oils or resinous tinctures requires 3 fl. dr. [12.
c.c.] of mucilage of acacia for suspension, but copaiba requires
10 fl. dr. [40. c.c.]. A disadvantage of it is that it is liable to
undergo acetous fermentation, which greatly diminishes its emul-
sifying powers. This may be overcome, to some extent, by



6l6 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

making it with tolu or clove water. It may give rise to indi-

gestion and diarrhoea.

ULMUS.

[ELM. Synonym. Slippery Elm Bark. The inner bark of Ulmus
fulva Michaux (rial. ord. Urticacea). Habitat. North America, west to
Louisiana and Nebraska, in woods.

CHARACTERS. In flat pieces, varying in length and width, about 3 mm.
thick, tough, pale brownish white, the inner surface finely ridged ; fracture
fibrous and mealy ; the transverse section delicately checkered ; odor slight,
peculiar ; taste mucilaginous, insipid.

COMPOSITION. It contains (i) Mucilage. (2) Some Tannic Acid.

Dose, 2 dr. ; 8. gm., or more.

Preparation.

Mucilago Ulmi. Mucilage of Elm. Elm, 6 ; Boiling Water,
100. By digestion and straining.
Dose, freely.

ACTION AND USES OF SLIPPERY ELM BARK.

Slippery Elm bark is an excellent demulcent. It is especially
recommended in dysentery, diarrhoea and diseases of the urinary
passages. It is often employed to make poultices, especially for
use upon children, because it is lighter than flaxseed.]

GLYCYRRHIZA.



GLYCYRRHIZA. [Sj'wowyw. Liquorice Root. The root of Gly-
cyrrhiza glabra Linne, and of the variety glandulifera (Waldstein et Kittai-
bel) Reger et Herder (nat. ord. Leguminosce). Habitat. Southern Europe
and Western Asia ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. In long, cylindrical pieces, from 5 to 25 mm. thick,
longitudinally wrinkled, externally grayish-brown, warty ; internally tawny-
yellow ; pliable, tough ; fracture coarsely fibrous ; bark rather thick ; wood
porous, but dense, in narrow wedges ; medullary rays linear ; taste sweet,
somewhat acrid. The underground stem, which is often present, has the same
appearance, but contains a thin pith. The drug derived from the variety
glandulifera (so-called Russian Liquorice), consists usually of roots or root-
branches, I to 4 cm. thick, 15 to 30 cm. long, frequently deprived of the corky
layer, the wood rather soft, and usually more or less cleft.] Resembling
Liquorice. Pyrethrum and Taraxacum, which are not sweet.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are ( I ) Glycyrrhizin [C 24 H M
O 9 , about 6 per cent.], a yellow amorphous glucoside, probably in combina-
tion with Ammonia. With acids this yields a very bitter substance, Glycyrrhe-



VEGETABLE DEMULCENT SUBSTANCES. 6l/

fin, and glucose. (2) Asparagin, [about 3 per cent. (3) Glycyramin. (4)
An acrid Resin.] (5) Starch.

\_Glycyrrhiza is used in Decoctum Sarsaparilke Compositum, Extractum
Sarsaparillae Fluidum Compositum, Massa Hydrargyri, Pilulae Ferri lodidi,
Pulvis Morphinae Compositus, Tinctura Aloes, and Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae.]

Liquorice or its preparations are contained in many preparations, gener-
ally to cover their nauseous taste. They [conceal] very well that of Aloes



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