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[Rhamnus Purshiana], Ammonium Chloride, Hyoscyamus, Senega, Senna,
Turpentine, and very bitter substances, as Quinine Sulphate.


1. Extractum Glycyrrhizae. [Extract of Glycyrrhiza. Syno-
nym. Extract of Liquorice.

CHARACTERS. In flattened, cylindrical rolls, from 15 to 18 cm.
long, and from 15 to 30 mm. thick ; of a glossy, black color. It
breaks with a sharp, conchoidal, shining fracture, and has a very sweet
peculiar taste. Not less than 60 per cent, of it should be soluble in
cold water.

Extract of Glycyrrhiza is contained in Trochisci Ammonii Chloridi
and Trochisci Glycyrrhizse et Opii.

Dose, freely.

2. Extractum Glycyrrhizae Purum. Pure Extract of Gly-
cyrrhiza. By maceration and percolation with Water of Ammonia and
Distilled Water, and evaporation.

Pure Extract of Glycyrrhiza is used to make Mistura Glycyrrhizae

Dose, freely.

3. Extractum Glycyrrhizae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Gly-
cyrrhiza. By maceration and percolation with Water of Ammonia,
Alcohol and water, and evaporation.

Dose, freely.

4. Glycyrrhizinum Ammoniatum. Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin.
SOURCE. Glycyrrhiza, by maceration and percolation with Water

of Ammonia and Water ; precipitation with Sulphuric Acid, solution
with Water of Ammonia, and drying.

CHARACTERS. Dark -brown or brownish-red scales, without odor,
and having a very sweet taste. Solubility, Readily in Water and in

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.]

5. Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus. See Senna, p. 493.

6. [Mistura Glycyrrhizae Composita. Compound Mixture of
Glycyrrhiza. Synonym. Brown Mixture. Pure Extract of Glycyr-


rhiza, 30; Sugar, 50 ; Mucilage of Acacia, 100 ; Camphorated Tincture
of Opium, 120; Wine of Antimony, 60 ; Spirit of Nitrous Ether, 30;
Water, to 1000.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]


Liquorice is an excellent demulcent for sore throats. It is
used to [conceal] the taste of [disagreeable] medicines, and as a
basis for pills. The compound liquorice powder is laxative by
virtue of its senna [although liquorice itself has distinct laxative
properties. Brown Mixture is much used in dispensary practice
as an expectorant.]


[LINSEED. Synonym. Flaxseed. The seed of Linum usitatissimum
Linne (nat ord. Linea). Habitat. Levant and Southern Europe ; cultivated
and spontaneous in most temperate countries.

CHARACTERS. About 4 or 5 mm. long, oblong-ovate, flattened, obliquely
pointed at one end, brown, glossy, covered with a transparent, mucilaginous
epithelium, which swells considerably in water ; the embryo whitish or pale
greenish, with two large, oily, plano-convex cotyledons, and a thin perisperm ;
inodorous ; taste mucilaginous, oily and bitter.

COMPOSITION. (i) A viscid, fixed oil, 30 to 35 per cent in the embryo.
(2) Mucilage; 15 per cent, in the epithelium. (3) Proteids, 25 per cent (4)
Amygdalin, a minute quantity. ]

OLEUM LINI. [Linseed Oil. Synonym. Oil of Flaxseed. A fixed
oil expressed from Linseed without the use of heat.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish or yellow, oily liquid, having a slight, pecu-
liar odor, and a bland taste. When exposed to the air it gradually thickens,
and acquires a strong odor and taste. Sp. gr., 0.930 to 0.940. Solubility.
In about 10 parts of Alcohol, and in all proportions in Ether, Chloroform,
Benzin, Carbon Bisulphide, or Oil of Turpentine.

COMPOSITION. Its most characteristic principles are (i) Linolein. (2)
Myristin. (3) Palmitin. (4) Albumin, a large percentage, to which its
drying properties are due. )

Dose, y-t to 2 fl. oz. ; 15. to 60. c.c.]


A flaxseed poultice [4 to 10 of boiling water with constant
stirring and the .basin being kept hot] is a very common means
of applying warmth and moisture to a part. It is used to relieve


pain, and as a mild irritant to accelerate inflammation and the
bursting of an abscess, or as a counter-irritant in all sorts of deep-
seated inflammations. The poultices should not be too thick,
and should be smeared with oil to prevent their sticking to the
skin. The vascular dilatation caused by the flaxseed poultice
may be increased by adding i part of mustard to 16 of flaxseed.
[Oil of flaxseed] is applied to burns. Mixed with an equal
quantity of solution of lime it forms Carron Oil (see p. 157.)
[Flaxseed tea flaxseed, 3; liquorice, i; boiling water, 100;
infuse for two hours] is a common domestic demulcent ; the
large quantity of mucilage it contains forms a coating for the
pharynx and mouth, and thus relieves cough due to sore throat.
It is said to be slightly diuretic.


[SUGAR. C u H 22 O n =34l.2. Synonyms. Cane Sugar. Sucrose. The
refined Sugar obtained from Saccharum officinarutn Linne, and from various
species or varieties of Sorghum (nat. ord. Graminece) ; also from one or more
varieties of Beta vulgaris Linne (nat. ord. Chenopodiacece). Habitat.
Southern Asia ; cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. White, dry, hard, distinctly crystalline granules, odorless,
and having a purely sweet taste. Permanent in the air. Solubility. In 0.5
part of water, and in 175 parts of Alcohol ; but insoluble in Ether, Chloro-
form, or Carbon Bisulphide.

Dose, indefinite.


Syrupus. Syrup. Sugar, 850 ; Distilled Water, by solution with
heat, and straining to 1000.

Syrup thus prepared has the Sp. gr., 1.317. It is used for com-
pound syrups.

Dose, indefinite.]


Sugar is used as a sweetening agent. [Syrup is used as a
vehicle.] Syrupus Glucosi [(B. P., not official.) Syrup, 2;
liquid glucose of commerce, i ;] is used in pharmacy, especially
in the making of pills, as it forms a neutral basis.



PEARL BARLEY. (Not official.) The dried seed of Hordeum dis-
tichum (nat. ord. Graminacea:) divested of its integuments. Habitat.

CHARACTERS. White, rounded, with a light longitudinal furrow.

Barley water (i to 15 of boiling water) forms a pleasant de-
mulcent drink, especially if the throat be dry and sore. It is
also given for the diarrhoeas of infants.]


MALT. (Not official.) Synonym. Byne. The seed of common
barley, Hordeum distichum (nat. ord. Gramtmtft*), caused to enter the in-
cipient state of germination by artificial means, and dried. It contains the
ferment Diastase, which can convert starch into Dextrin and Maltose. Thus
IO(C 6 H 10 5 )+4H0=4C 11 H H 11 , Maltose +(C U H W O 10 ), Dextrin.

EXTRACTUM MALTI. [(Not official). Extract of Malt. By
maceration, dilution with Water, straining and evaporation in vacua of the
strained liquid.]

CHARACTERS. It is a sweet, thick, brownish liquid, like honey, forming
an emulsion with oils. [Most specimens are too viscid for prolonged use.]

COMPOSITION. This varies very much. The chief constituent is Maltose
(C^H^Oj,); there is also some Dextrin (C^H^O,,,), some Diastase (unless
destroyed by boiling), Albumin, [Inorganic] sails [contained in] barley, and
sometimes Alcohol.

[Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]


Maltose is a very valuable food, especially for persons who
are suffering from wasting diseases, and have a feeble digestion.
It is easily retained by the stomach, even when, as often is the
case in phthisis, other food, especially cod-liver oil, is rejected.
In such a case a malt extract is an excellent substitute for cod
liver oil. Maltose as a food leads to the formation of fat. The
diastase contained in the malt extract, acting upon the starch in
farinaceous food, converts it into dextrin and maltose, and thus,
if the secretion of saliva and pancreatic juice is feeble, the malt
extract to some extent supplies their place. Like the ferments
in pancreatic juice and saliva, diastase can only act in an


alkaline medium, and therefore should not be given until, at
least, two hours after a meal. [Inasmuch as diastase is a most
important constituent, all malts should be rejected which do not
contain at least 4 per cent, of diastase. The liquid malts con-
taining alcohol, which destroys this ferment, are worthless for
assisting starch digestion and are usually only beers of an inferior
quality. Malt extract, to which a suitable amount of fluid ex-
tract of rhamus purshiana has been added, is an excellent laxa-
tive.] Emulsions of cod-liver oil in it are frequently useful.
Bynol is an example of these. They should contain i part of
oil to 4 of malt. A mixture of extract of malt and iron is also
valuable (ferric pyrophosphate, 2 ; water, 3 ; dissolve and add
extract of malt, 95. Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. [4. to 15. c.c.]).


SOJA BEAN. (Not official.) The bean of So/a hispida. [Habitat.
Japan ; cultivated in Southern Asia.

COMPOSITION. Soluble Casein, 30; Albumin, 0.5 ; Insoluble Casein, 7 ;
Fat, iS ; Cholesterin, 2 ; Water, 10 ; Dextrin, 10 ; Starch, 5 ; Cellulose, 5 ;
Ash, 5 ; and a powerful amylolytic ferment. ] These are powdered and made
into a flour, from which bread and biscuits are prepared. The flour contains
but very little starch or sugar, sometimes not more than 2 or 4 per cent


Bread and biscuits made from the flour are used in the treat-
ment of diabetes as a substitute for gluten bread ; and many
patients prefer the taste. They are quite as efficacious in reducing
the amount of sugar passed in the urine.


CETRARIA. 5>woj/w. Iceland Moss. Cetraria islandica (Linne)
Acharius (class Lichenes). Habitat. Northern Hemisphere.

CHARACTERS. From 5 to 10 cm. lon^, foliaceous, irregularly branched
into fringed and channelled lobes, brownish above, whitish beneath, and
marked with small, depressed spots ; brittle and inodorous ; when softened in
water, cartilaginous, and having a slight odor ; its taste is mucilaginous and

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Lichenin, C 12 H M O 10 , 70
per cent (2) Cetraric Acid, Cj 8 H 16 O 8 , a bitter principle, 2 per cent. (3)


Lichenstearic Acid, C^H^O.,, I per cent. (4) Fumaric Acid. (5) Oxalic

IMPURITIES. Pine leaves, mosses and other lichens.


Decoctum Cetrariae. Decoction of Cetraria. Cetraria, 50. By
boiling in water and straining to 1000.
Dose, i to 4 fl. oz. ; 30. to 120. c.c.


The decoction is demulcent, and may be given in sore throat.
The moss is a food, and the jelly formed by boiling may, when
suitably flavored, be taken by diabetics.]


[RAISINS. (Not official.) The ripe fruit of Vitis vinifera (nat. ord.
Ampelida), the grape-vine, dried in the sun, or partly by artificial heat. Hab-
itat. Spain.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Grape Sugar. (2) Acid
Potassium Tartrate. (3) Other acids and salts.

Raisins are used as sweetening agents, and are demulcent.]

Vegetable Drugs which are used to kill parasites.

CLASS I. Anthelmintics for the various species of Tapeworm.
[Aspidium,] Pomegranate, Kousso, [Kamala, Pepo.]
CLASS II. Anthelmintics for the Roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides).
Santonica, [Spigelia, Chenopodium.]
CLASS III. Parasiticides used for Pediculi.
Stavesacre, Picrotoxin.

CLASS IV. Anthelmintics for the Threadworm ( Oxyuris vermicularis\
[Calumba, Quassia, Oak Bark.]

These have been described [in Groups VII and VIII, to .which reference
should be made. ]



[ASPIDIUM. Synonym. Male Fern. The rhizome of Dryopteris
Filix-mas Schott, and of Dryopteris marginalis Asa Gray (nat. ord. Filices).
Habitat. North America, Northern Asia, Europe.

CHARACTERS. From 5 to 15 cm. long, 10 to 25 mm. in thickness, and,
together with the closely imbricated, dark brown, roundish, and slightly curved
stipe-remnants, 50 to 75 mm. in diameter ; densely covered with brown, glossy,
transparent, and soft, chaffy scales ; internally pale green, rather spongy ; vas-
cular bundles about ten {Dryopteris Filix-mas) or six {Dryopteris marginalis}
in number, arranged in an interrupted circle ; odor slight, but disagreeable ;
taste sweetish, acrid, somewhat bitter, astringent, and nauseous.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Filicic acid, [CjjH^Ojj,
a white, amorphous or] crystalline body, said to be the active principle. (2) A
fixed oil, 6 to 7 per cent. (3) \_Filicin, CjjH^Ojj, a crystalline substance,
soluble in Chloroform, Benzol and fixed and volatile oils. (4) Filix-red.]
(5) Resins.

Dose, y z to i^ dr. ; 2. to 6. gm.]


[Oleoresina Aspidii. Oleoresin of Aspidium. By percolation
with Ether, distillation of the Ether, and evaporation.
Dose, % to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.]


[Aspidium] is the most certain anthelmintic we have for the
common tapeworm (Ttznta soliutti), and the Bothriocephalus
latus. It may be flavored with ginger or peppermint. The intes-
tine should first be emptied with a mild purge to ensure the worm
not being protected by food. Then the [aspidium] should be
administered, and about twelve hours afterwards another dose of
the purgative should be given to clear away the dead worm. Very
little food should be taken during the treatment, and the head
of the worm should be carefully searched for in the motion.
[Recently several cases of poisoning have been reported, pre-
sumably not due to an excessive dose, but to the fact that castor
oil was administered at the same time with it, notably increas-
ing the absorption of filicic acid.]

This remedy also kills the Anchylostoma duodenale outside the
body, and has been successfully given to persons suffering from
this parasite.



[POMEGRANATE. The bark of the stem and root of Punica
Granatum Linn6 (nat. ord. Lytkrariea). Habitat. India and Southwestern
Asia ; cultivated and naturalized in subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. In the quills or fragments, from 5 to 10 cm. long, and
from I to 3 mm. thick ; outer surface yellowish-gray, somewhat warty, or
longitudinally and reticulately-ridged ; the stem-bark often partly covered with
blackish lichens ; the thicker pieces of the root-bark more or less scaly exter-
nally ; inner surface smooth, finely striate, grayish-yellow ; fracture short,
granular, greenish-yellow ; indistinctly radiate ; inodorous ; taste astringent,
very slightly bitter.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are [(i) Pelletierine, C 8 H 13 NO,
^ per cent., a colorless, oily, aromatic alkaloid, soluble in water, Alcohol,
Ether and Chloroform. (2) Three allied alkaloids, Methyl-, Pseudo-, and
Isopellelierine. (3) Punicotannic Acid, C^H^O^, 20 percent.]

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies, lime water, metallic salts, and gelatin.

Dose, y t to \y z dr. ; [2. to 6. gm.]

Pomegranate is a powerful astringent, and the decoction
[B. P., i to 5 ; dose, ^ to 2 fl. oz. ; 15. to 60. c.c.] may be
used as a gargle for a sore throat. In large doses it is emetic and
purgative. It is an anthelmintic for the tapeworm. It is so
[disagreeable] that it is rarely used, but if employed the decoc-
tion may be given every hour for four hours before breakfast. A
purge should be administered the night before and a few hours
after breakfast. Pelletierine [dose of tannate, (not official), 3
to 6 gr. ; .20 to .40 gm.] is the active anthelmintic principle,
and is said to be very efficient for killing the common tapeworm.
Large doses of pelletierine given to animals act like curare.


KOUSSO. Synonyms. [Brayera. Kooso. The female inflorescence
of Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) Gmelin (nat. ord. Rosacece}. Habitat.

CHARACTERS. In bundles, rolls, or compressed clusters, consisting of
panicles about 25 cm. long, with a sheathing bract at the base of each branch ;
the two roundish bracts at the base of each flower, and the four or five obovate,
outer sepals are of a reddish color, membranous and veiny ; calyx top-shaped,
hairy, enclosing two carpels or nutlets ; odor slight, fragrant and tea like ; taste
bitter, acrid, and nauseous.]


COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) \_Kosin or] Koussin, a
neutral, active principle, [in yellow crystals, tasteless, soluble in Chloroform,
Benzol, Ether and Alcohol ; insoluble in water. (2) Oil. (3) Gum. (4)
Tannic Acid. (5) Two Resins.

Dose, 2 to 4 dr. ; 8. to 15. gm.]


[Extractum Cusso Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Kousso. Syn-
onym. Extractum Brayerce Fluidum. By maceration and percolation
with Alcohol, and evaporation.

Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; 4. to 15. c.c.]

Kousso is used as an anthelmintic for all species of tapeworm.
[Koussin (not official) has been given with good results. Dose,
20 to 40 gr. ; i. 20 to 2.40 gm.]


[KAMALA. Synonym. Rottlera. The glands and hairs from the
capsules of Mallotus pkilippinenns (Lamarck) Mueller Arg. (nat. ord.
Euphorbiacea:'). Habitat. India, China and Philippine Islands.

CHARACTERS. A granular, mobile, brick-red or brownish-red powder,
inodorous and nearly tasteless, imparting a deep red color to alkaline liquids,
Alcohol, Ether, or Choloroform, and a pale, yellow tinge to boiling water.
Under the microscope it is seen to consist of stellately arranged, colorless
hairs, mixed with depressed-globular glands, containing numerous red, club-
shaped vesicles. Solubility. Insoluble in hot and cold water.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Rottlerin, [C^H^Og, a
neutral principle in yellowish needles, soluble in hot Alcohol, Ether, Benzol,
and Carbon Disulphide. (2) Resins, nearly 80 per cent.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.


Kamala is an anthelmintic. It will kill the Tcenia solium,
and probably the Oxyuris vennicularis and the Ascaris lumbri-
coides. It is also purgative.]


[PUMPKIN SEED. The seed of Cucurbita Pepo Linne (nat. ord.
Cucurbitacete). Habitat.- Tropical Asia and America; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. About 2 cm. long, broadly ovate, flat, white, or whitish,
nearly smooth, with a shallow groove parallel to the edge ; containing a



short, conical radicle and two flat cotyledons ; inodorous ; taste bland and

COMPOSITION. (i) Fixed oil, 44 per cent. (2) An Acrid Resin, con-
sidered to be the taeniafuge principle. (3) Two Proteids (Myosin and Vitellin).
(4) Fatty Acids.

Dose, i to 3 oz. ; 30. to 90. gm.


Pepo administered as an emulsion is one of the most efficient
and at the same time harmless tseniafuges.]


SANTONICA. [Synonym. Levant Wormseed. The unexpanded
flower-heads of Artemisia pauciflora Weber (nat. ord. Composite}. Habitat.

CHARACTERS. From 2 to 4 mm. long, oblong-ovoid, obtuse, smooth,
somewhat glossy, grayish-green, after exposure to light brownish-green, con-
sisting of an involucre of about 12 to 18 closely imbricated, glandular scales
with a broad midrib, enclosing four or five rudimentary florets ; odor strong,
peculiar, somewhat camphoraceous ; taste aromatic and bitter.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Santonin (see below).
(2) A volatile oil, 2 per cent., consisting mainly of Cineol, C 10 H 18 O.

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; i. to 4. gm.]

SANTONINUM. Santonin. C 15 H 18 O 3 [=245.43. A neutral prin-
ciple obtained from Santonica.

SOURCE. By exhausting Santonica, mixed with Lime, with Diluted Alco-
hol, distilling off the Alcohol, and adding Acetic Acid to the residue. The
precipitated Santonin is purified by dissolving it in Alcohol, treating with
Animal Charcoal, and crystallizing.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, shining, flattened, prismatic crystals, odorless
and nearly tasteless when first put in the mouth, but afterwards developing a
bitter taste ; not altered by exposure to air, but turning yellow on exposure to
light. Solubility. Nearly insoluble in water ; soluble in 40 parts of Alcohol ;
also soluble in 140 parts of Ether, in 4 parts of Chloroform, and in solutions
of Caustic Alkalies.]

Dose, X to x f> r -I [- OI 5 to - 6 & m - (child), i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.]


Trochisci Santonini. [Troches of Santonin. Santonin, 3; Sugar,
I IO ; Tragacanth, 3 gm. ; Stronger Orange Flower Water, to make 100
troches. Each troche contains about % gr. ; .03 gm.

Dose, 2 (child) to 10 troches (adult).]



Santonin is anthelmintic, killing the roundworm, As-
f art's lumbricoides, and according to some authorities the Oxyuris
vermicularis, but this is doubtful, for it does not kill these worms
outside the body, and therefore if efficient must be changed in
the intestine. It has no action on tapeworms. Some of the
santonin is absorbed as sodium - santoninate. Medicinal doses
will usually cause the urine, if it is acid, to be a greenish-yellow
or saffron color, and if it is alkaline to be purplish-red. This
is due to the excretion in that fluid of some substance resulting
from the changes undergone by santonin in the body. It is
slightly diuretic. Often even small doses lead to xanthopsy
that is to say, everything the patient sees has a yellow tint ;
this is not the result of the staining of the tissues of the eye
yellow, but is a direct effect on some other part of the visual


Santonin is used solely to kill intestinal worms. It should be
given on an empty stomach, and should be followed in two hours
by a purgative, such as calomel, which acts on the small intestine,
for this is the part inhabited by the worms killed by santonin.
It is certainly very efficacious for the Asian's lumbricoides. The
lozenge [B. P., i gr., .06 gm. each] is not to be recommended,
for it may not dissolve, and then will probably fail to kill the
worm. A good way to give santonin is to suspend it and castor
oil in mucilage flavored with peppermint. As already mentioned,
probably it has no effect on the Oxyuris vermieularis, when
given by the mouth, but a suppository made with oil of theo-
broma, and containing 4 gr.; 25 gm. of santonin, is said to kill
this parasite.


Symptoms.} Several cases of fatal poisoning by santonin are on record.
Cerebral symptoms are very prominent. Thus convulsions, accompanied by
unconsciousness, trismus, and dilated pupils, are generally present. The sur-
face becomes cold, there is sweating, there may be trembling, the pulse and
respiration become weaker and weaker, and death takes place from cardiac
and respiratory failure.


{Treatment. Ammonia, or strychnine sulphate hypodermatically. If the
drug is given with castor oil the danger of poisoning is lessened.


SPIGELIA. Synonyms. Pinkroot. Carolina Pink. The rhizome and
roots of Spigelia marilandica Linn6 (nat. ord. Loganiacetz). Habitat.
Southern United States ; westward to Texas and Wisconsin, in rich woods.

CHARACTERS. Of horizontal growth, about 5 cm. or more long, 2 or 3
mm. thick, dark purplish brown, bent, somewhat branched, on the upper side
with cup-shaped scars ; on the lower side with numerous, thin, brittle, lighter-
colored roots, about 10 cm. long; the rhizome internally with a whitish wood
and a pith which is usually dark-colored or decayed ; odor somewhat aroma-
tic ; taste sweetish, bitter and pungent. Resembling Spigelia root. Phlox
Carolina, but the rootlets are brownish-yellow, rather coarse, straight, and
contain a straw-colored wood underneath a readily removable bark.

COMPOSITION. (i) Spigeline, a volatile alkaloid. (2) A little volatile
oil. (3) Bitter principle. (4) Resin.

Dose, i^ to 2 dr. ; i. to 8. gm.


Extractum Spigeliae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Spigelia. By
maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; i. to 8. c.c.


Spigelia is one of the most powerful anthelmintics. It may
give rise to symptoms of narcotic poisoning, which, however,
may be obviated by its combination with a cathartic like senna.


CHENOPODIUM. Synonym. American Wormseed. The fruit of
Chenopodium ambrosioides Linne, and variety anthelminticntn Gray (nat. ord.
Chenopodiacetz}. Habitat. West India and Central America ; naturalized in

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