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with short branches, somewhat annulate and longitudinally wrinkled ; exter-
nally brownish-gray ; fracture short, waxy, bright reddish-yellow, with a thick -
ish bark, about ten narrow wood-wedges, broad medullary rays, and large pith.
Roots thin, brittle, with a thick, yellow bark and subquadrangular, wo xly
centre. Odor slight ; taste bitter. ]

COMPOSITION. It contains (i) Berberine, [C M H 1T NO 4 , an alkaloid ex-


isting as yellowish prismatic crystals, and is found in many plants (Berberis,
Calumba, Coptis, Menispermum, Xanthorrhiza, Xanthoxylum, etc. ), chiefly in
the orders Berberaceiz, Menispermacece, and Ranimculacea. It is identical
with Buxine, the alkaloid of Buxus sempervirens, and Pelosine, that of Chon-
dodendron tormentosurn (Pareira). (2) Hydrastine, C 21 H 21 NO 6 , a colorless
alkaloid, soluble in Alcohol and Ether.] (3) Canadine, C 21 H 21 NO 4 , in white

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4.00 gm.]


i. [Extractum Hydrastis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Hydras-
tis. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, Glycerin and water,
and evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 60 m. ; .30 to 4.00 c.c.

2. Tinctura Hydrastis. Tincture of Hydrastis. Hydrastis, 200 ;
by maceration and percolation with diluted Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, YZ to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. to 8. c.c.

3. Glyceritum Hydrastis. Glycerite of Hydrastis. Hydrastis,
by percolation and maceration with Alcohol, distil off the Alcohol, add
Water, filter, and to the nitrate add an equal volume of Glycerin.

Dose, 5 to 60 m. ; .30 to 4.00 c.c.

chlorate. C U H U NO 2 HC1^224.97. The Hydrochlorate of an artificial al-
kaloid derived from Hydrastine, the latter being obtained from Hydrastis.

SOURCE. By acting upon Hydrastine by oxidizing agents, as when Man
ganese Dioxide and Sulphuric Acid are used together, or when Platinic
Chloride is employed.

CHARACTERS. Light yellow, amorphous granules, or a pale yellow, crys-
talline powder, odorless, and having a bitter, saline taste ; deliquescent on
exposure to damp air. Solubility. In 0.3 part of water, and in 3 parts of
Alcohol ; with difficulty soluble in Ether or Chloroform.

Dose, T \ to \ gr. ; .005 to .01 gm.]


Hydrastis, in moderate doses, acts as a gastric bitter, promot-
ing the appetite, stimulating the gastro-intestinal secretions, and
peristalsis. It increases the flow of bile. It contracts the pe-
ripheral arterioles chiefly, if not entirely, from its action on the
vaso-motor centre in the medulla. In moderate doses it dimin-
ishes the rate and depresses the force of the cardiac contraction,
but the contraction of the arterioles causes a rise of blood-pres-



sure. It is said to increase uterine contractions and to produce
abortion, but this is doubtful. In poisonous doses it still more
depresses the heart, causing a great fall of blood-pressure ; it
produces convulsions similar to those of strychnine, and kills by
paralysis of respiration. Its action is mainly due to the alkaloid
hydrastine. It has been stated that this, before it acts, is oxi-
dized into hydrastinine, but against this is the fact that it is ex-
creted unchanged in the urine.


External. Hydrastis is employed empirically as a local
stimulating application in chronic inflammations, such as un-
healthy ulcers. It is used also as a lotion in hyperidrosis, acne,
and seborrhcea. Any of the preparations may be employed, if
diluted with water.

Internal. The chief use of hydrastis is that it is empirically
administered for chronic inflammations of mucous membranes.
It is said to be especially valuable for uterine affections, partic-
ularly menorrhagia and dysmenorrhoea. It is given to stop uter-
ine haemorrhage and to arrest the growth of uterine tumors. For
all these diseases hydrastinine hydrochlorate has been much used.
Hydrastis is also employed in the chronic gastritis of drunken-
ness, and to a rather less degree in other forms of chronic gastro-
intestinal catarrh. As an injection or lotion it is employed (any
preparation diluted with an equal part of water) for chronic nasal
catarrh, otorrhoea, leucorrhcea, gonorrhoea, and as a mouth wash
in aphthous stomatitis, chronic pharyngitis, etc. Some authors
claim that it is useful for the same diseases of the heart as are
benefited by digitalis. As an antiperiodic, hydrastis is inferior
[but next in value to] quinine.


COTTON ROOT BARK. The bark of the root of Gossypium
herbaceutn Linne, and of other species of Gossypium (nat. ord. Mahacea').
Habitat. Subtropical Asia and Africa ; cultivated in the United States.

CHARACTERS. In thin, flexible bands or quilled pieces; outer surface
brownish-yellow, with slight longitudinal ridges or meshes, small, black, cir-
cular dots, or short, transverse lines, and dull, brownish-orange patches, from


the abrasion of the thin cork ; inner surface whitish, of a silky lustre, finely
striate ; bast-fibres long, tough, and separable into papery layers ; inodorous ;
taste very slightly acrid and faintly astringent.

COMPOSITION. (I) A yellow Resin. (2) A fixed Oil. (3) Tannic
Acid. (4) Yellow coloring- matter.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.


Extractum Gossypii Radicis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Cotton Root Bark. By maceration and percolation with Glycerin and
Alcohol, and evaporation.

Dose, ]^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.


Cotton Root Bark has the same action as ergot, and is an
emmenagogue and an abortifacient. It is used as an uterine
haemostatic in the treatment of menorrhagia and metrorrhagia
from various causes, and particularly from uterine fibroids.


CAULOPHYLLUM. Synonyms. Blue Cohosh. Squaw Root. The
rhizome and roots of Caulophyllum thalictroides (Linne) Michaux (nat. ord.
Berberidacece}. Habitat. North America, southward to Kentucky, in rich

CHARACTERS. Rhizome of horizontal growth, about 10 cm. long, and
about 6 to 10 mm. thick, bent ; on the upper side with broad, concave stem ;
scars and short, knotty branches ; externally grayish-brown, internally whitish,
tough and woody. Roots numerous, matted, about lo cm. long, and I mm.
thick, rather tough ; nearly inodorous ; taste sweetish, slightly bitter and some-
what acrid.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (i) Caulophylline, an alkaloid,
which is colorless, odorless and almost tasteless, and crystallizes with difficulty.
(2) Saponin, (see p. 448). (3) Resins, 12 per cent. (4) Tannic Acid.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.


Caulophyllum is used to increase the force of uterine contrac-
tions ; it has been employed as a remedy for deficient labor-pains,
and is believed to be useful in dysmenorrhoea.


bark of Viburnum prunifolium Linne (nat. ord. Caprifoliacece). Habitat.
United States, westward to Kansas and Mississippi ; in thickets.


CHARACTERS. In thin pieces or quills, glossy purplish-brown, with scat-
tered warts and minute black dots ; when collected from old wood, grayish-
brown; the thin, corky layer easily removed from the green layer; inner
surface whitish, smooth ; fracture short ; inodorous, somewhat astringent and

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (l) A brown, bitter Resin.
(2) Viburnin, a greenish yellow, bitter principle. (3) Valerianic Acid. (4)
Tannic Acid. (5) Oxalates, Citrates and Malates.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.


Extractum Viburni Prunifolii Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Vi-
burnum Prunifolium. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and
Water, and evaporation.

Dose, ^ to I fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

VIBURNUM OPUL.US. Synonyms. Cramp Bark. High Bush
Cranberry. The bark of Viburnum Opulus Linne (nat. ord. Caprifoliacea).
Habitat. North America, from New Brunswick westward, and southward to
Pennsylvania, in low grounds.

CHARACTERS. In flattish or curved bands, or occasionally in quills, some-
times 30 cm. long, and from I to 1.5 mm. thick, outer surface ash-gray,
marked with scattered somewhat traversely elongated warts of a brownish
color, due to abrasion, and more or less marked with blackish dots, and chiefly
in a longitudinal direction with black, irregular lines or thin ridges ; under-
neath the easily-removed corky layer of a pale brownish or somewhat reddish-
brown color ; the inner surface dingy -white or brownish; fracture tough, the
tissue separating in layers ; inodorous ; taste somewhat astringent and bitter.

COMPOSITION. The same as of Viburnum Prunifolium.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.


Extractum Viburni Opuli Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Vibur-
num Opulus. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water,
and evaporation.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.


Viburnum is believed to be an antispasmodic, diuretic and
tonic. It is especially used in the nervous diseases of pregnancy
and to prevent miscarriage. It has considerable reputation as a
remedy for spasmodic dysmenorrhcea, in the treatment of after-


pains, and in menorrhagia. This remedy has been in extensive
use for more than twenty years and is undoubtedly of value.


APIOL. (Not official. ) C 12 H M O 4 =22i.48. A substance obtained from
the fruit of Petroselinum sativum (nat. ord. Umbelliferce}. Synonym.
Parsley. Habitat. Southern Europe ; cultivated.

SOURCE. The fruit is exhausted Avith Petroleum Benzin, the solvent
evaporated, the residue treated with strong Alcohol, on the evaporation of
which Apiol is left.

CHARACTERS. A colorless liquid resembling a fixed oil, but not saponi-
fiable, becoming turbid without congealing at 12 C. ; 10.4 F., having an acid
reaction, the odor of parsley, and a pungent taste. Sp. gr., 1.070. Solu-
bility. Easily in Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, and Glacial Acetic Acid.

Dose, 10 to 15 m ; .60 to i.oo c.c., (in capsules.)


Apiol in large doses acts as a cerebral and circulatory stim-
ulant. It is useful in amenorrhoea, scanty menstruation and dys-
menorrho2a when administered immediately before the expected
period and these conditions are due to a want of ovarian activity ;
that is, where direct emmenagogues are required.]



[The sole value of this drug is that it is generally a specific for gout.]

[COLCHICI RADIX. Colchicum Root. The corm of Colchicum au-
tumnale Linne (nat. ord. Liliacea:). Synonym. Meadow Saffron. Habitat.
Southern and Central Europe.

CHARACTERS. About 25 mm. long, ovoid, flatfish and with a groove on
one side ; externally brownish and wrinkled ; internally white and solid ; often
in transverse slices, reniform in shape, and breaking with a short, mealy frac-
ture; inodorous ; taste sweetish, bitter and somewhat acrid.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Colchicine, [C M H 25 NO,,
about 0.5 percent., the active principle; a bitter alkaloid, usually amorphous,
but may be obtained in prismatic crystals, soluble in water and Alcohol, and
Chloroform,] but changed by most acids into Cokhiceine, [Cj^H-^NOg.] (2)


Veratrine (see p. 444), in traces combined with Gallic Acid. (3) Starch.
(4) Sugar. (5) Gum.

INCOMPATIBLES. All astringent preparations, tincture of iodine, and
tincture of guaiacum.

Dose, 2 to 8 gr. ; .12 to .50 gm.,] in powder.

Prep a rations.

[i. Extractum Colchici Radicis. Extract of Colchicum Root.
By maceration and percolation with Acetic Acid and Water, and evap-

Dose, ^ to 2 gr. ; .03 to .12 gm.

2. Extractum Colchici Radicis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Colchicum Root. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and
Water, and, evaporation.

Dose, 2 to 8 m. ; .12 to .50 c.c.

5. Vinum Colchici Radicis. Wine of Colchicum Root. Col-
cbicum Root, 400 ; by percolation with Alcohol, 150 ; and with White
Wine to 1000.

Dose, 5 to 15 m. ; .30 to i.oo c.c.]

COLCHICI SEMEN. Colchicum. Seed. The seed of Colchicum
autumnale [Linn6 (nat. ord. Liliaceai}.

CHARACTERS. Subglobular, about 2 mm. thick, very slightly pointed at
the hilum; reddish brown, finely pitted, internally whitish; very hard and
tough; inodorous; taste bitter and somewhat acrid.] Resembling Colchicum
seed. Black mustard seed (see p. 524.)

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) The same as of the conn
[root], but the proportion of the active alkaloid Colchicine is [smaller (0.3
per cent.). (2) A fixed oil, 6 to 8 per cent.]

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; [.06 to .30 gm.]


[i. Extractum Colchici Seminis Fluidum. Fluid Extract of
Colchicum Seed. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and
Water, and evaporation.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.

2. Tinctura Colchici Seminis. Tincture of Colchicum Seed.
Colchicum Seed, 150 ; by maceration and percolation with Alcohol and
Water to 1000.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.

3. Vinum Colchici Seminis. Wine of Colchicum Seed. Col-
chicum Seed, 150; by maceration with Alcohol, 150; and with White
Wine to 1000.

Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.]



External. When applied to the skin colchicum acts as an
irritant, causing hyperaemia and smarting, and the dust inhaled
gives rise to sneezing.

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. In moderate medicinal
doses colchicum produces no effect on most persons beyond
slightly increasing the secretion of bile, but with others it causes
loss of appetite, and a little purging, nausea and colic. In
larger doses it gives rise, in all persons, to great abdominal pain,
vomiting and profuse diarrhoea with the passage of blood. It is
in fact a powerful gastro-intestinal irritant. There is also
great prostration, the pulse becomes small, rapid, and thready,
the skin cold and bedewed with sweat, and the respiration slow ;
death is due to collapse. It is probable that these results are not,
to any great extent, owing to the effect of colchicine on the heart
or respiration, but that they are merely the consequence of the
severe gastro- enteritis, which, it is well known, will cause fatal
collapse. These effects are produced if colchicine is injected
subcutaneously, a circumstance which shows that this alkaloid i&
an active principle of the drug, and that it is excreted into the
intestine. It is a curious fact that after a certain point, increas-
ing the quantity does not lead to an increase of the symptoms.
In animals the action on the heart is not marked, but diarrhoea
and vomiting are severe.

Nervous system. Medicinal doses have no effect. Even a
fatal dose does not impair consciousness. Cold-blooded animals
bear much larger proportionate doses than warm, but in all, after
large quantities, sensation is paralyzed, and ultimately the spinal
motor centres are powerfully depressed, death taking place from
respiratory paralysis. Colchicine is said to act on muscles like

Kidney. The most discordant statements have been made
about the action of colchicum on the urine, but it has not been
definitely shown that either the quantity or composition, even
in the amount of uric acid, is altered. After death by poisoning,
the alkaloid is found in the blood and in most of the organs of
the body.



Colchicum is hardly ever used except for gout. Given during
the attack, it most markedly relieves the pain ; in smaller doses
given between the attacks it diminishes their severity. It is often
very useful for dyspepsia, eczema, headache, neuritis, conjuncti-
vitis, bronchitis, and other conditions which, when occurring
in those suffering from gout, are probably related to it. How
it acts is not known. Occasionally it is combined with other
cholagogues, especially if i- is desired to give these remedies to a
person who is the subject of gout. If any symptoms of gastric
or intestinal irritation appear, its use must be discontinued for a
time. As it is a cardiac depressant, those who take it should keep
the bowels well open, lest it accumulate in the body. Hence it
is commonly combined with magnesium sulphate. The seed is
said to be [less] active than the corm. [A well-known formula
is : extract of colchicum root, calomel, powdered aloes, pow-
dered ipecacuanha, of each i gr., .06 gm., with j to y 2 gr. ;
.015 to .03 gm. of extract of mix vomica. ]


The Stearoptens.

The three bodies in this group are white solids, all very closely related to
volatile oils, all are antiseptic (two very powerfully so) and two at least, and
probably all three, are local anaesthetics.

Camphor, Thymol, Menthol.


CAMPHOR. [Synonyms. Gum Camphor, Laurel Camphor, C,0H ]6 O
=151.66. A stearopten (having the nature of a ketone) obtained from Cin-
namomum Camphora) (Linne) Nees et Ebermaier (nat. ord. Laurinetz), and
purified by sublimation. Habitat. China and Japan.

SOURCE. The branches and chipped wood are exposed to the vapors of
boiling water, the volatilized Camphor is condensed, drained and pressed from
the adherent volatile oil (Oil of Camphor), and subsequently refined by subli-
mation in vessels of glass or iron. Camphor is now obtained by tapping the
trees and collecting the exudation.


CHARACTERS. White, translucent masses, of a tough consistence and a
crystalline structure, readily pulverizable in the presence of a little Alcohol,
Ether, or Chloroform, having a penetrating, characteristic odor, and a pun-
gently aromatic taste. Sp. gr., 0.995. Burns with a smoky flame. Volatil-
izes slowly at ordinary temperatures. Sublimes entirely when heated. Solu-
bility. Very sparingly soluble in water, but readily soluble in Alcohol, Ether,
Chloroform, Carbon Bisulphide, Benzih, and in fixed and volatile oils. When
Camphor is triturated in about molecular proportions with Menthol, Thymol,
Phenol, or Chloral hydrate, liquefaction ensues.]

COMPOSITION. Camphor is an oxidation product of Pinene (see Oil of Tur-
pentine, [p. 515]), and may also be derived from Cymene found in Oil of Car-
away [see p. 551] and Oil of Eucalyptus [see p. 527]. The [official] cam-
phor is called Laurel Camphor, and is dextro-rotary. Borneol, known as
Borneo, [Sumatra or Barus] Camphor, see p. 557, is often in commerce sub-
stituted for the official camphor, which it closely resembles, is derived from
Dryobalanops \_Camphora\ and known from the official variety by sinking
in water is C IO H 18 O ; that is to say, an alcohol. The common form of Borneol
is dextro-rotary, but laevo-rotary and inactive varieties are known.

[Camphor is contained in Linimentum Belladonnae, Linimentum Sinapis
Compositum, Linimentum Saponis, Tinctura Opii Camphorata and Pulvis Mor-
phinx 1 Compositus.]

Dose, 3 to 20 gr. ; [.20 to 1.20 gm.]


1. [Aqua Camphorae. Camphor Water. Camphor, 8 ; by tri-
turation vijith Alcohol, 5 ; and precipitated Calcium Phosphate, 5 ; ad-
dition of Water, and filtration to 1000.

Dose, y 2 to 2 fl. oz. ; 15. to 60. c.c.

2. Linimentum Camphorae. Camphor Liniment. Synonym.
Camphorated Oil. Camphor, 200 ; Cotton Seed Oil, 800.

3. Spiritus Camphorae. Spirit of Camphor. Camphor, 100 ;
Alcohol to 1000. By solution and filtration.

4. Ceratum Camphorae. Camphor Cerate. Camphor Liniment,
IOO; White Wax, 300 ; Lard, 600.

CAMPHORA MONOBROMATA. Monobromated Camphor, C 10
H 15 BrO=230.42.

SOURCE. By heating Bromine and Camphor, at 172 F. ; 77-7 C., solu-
tion in Benzin, and re- crystallization from hot Alcohol. C 10 H 16 O-|-2Br=C 10
H 15 BrO-f-HBr.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, prismatic needles or scales, having a mild,
camphoraceous odor and taste, permanent in the air, unaffected by light, and


neutral to litmus paper. Solubility. Almost insoluble in water; freely solu-
ble in Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, hot Benzin, and fixed and volatile oils ;
slightly soluble in Glycerin. It is also soluble without decomposition in cold,
concentrated Sulphuric Acid, from which it separates again unaltered, when
the solution is poured into water.

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; .12 to .60 gm.

ACIDUM CAMPHORICUM. (Not official. ) Camphoric Acid.

C io H i64= I 99-44-

SOURCE. From Camphor by oxidation with Nitric Acid.

CHARACTERS. White, acicular, odorless crystals having a faintly acid
taste. Solubility. Nearly insoluble in cold, readily soluble in hot water,
Alcohol, Ether and oils.

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00 gm.]


External. Camphor, although not a volatile oil, acts very
much like one. Thus it is a direct cutaneous stimulant, dilating
the vessels of the skin, and at first causing a sensation of
warmth, but subsequently a slight degree of local anaesthesia.
It is a feeble antiseptic.

Internal. Gastro-intestinal tract. In the stomach it is
mildly stimulant, dilating the vessels, increasing the flow of
gastric juice and the peristalsis. Hence it is stomachic and car-
minative. It has a slight reflex stimulating effect on the heart.
In medicinal doses it has little action on the intestines.

Absorption. It is quickly absorbed, both from the intestines
and the skin, and two bodies formed in the body from it are
known. One, camphoral (one atom of H in camphor being re-
placed by OH), combines with glycuronic acid and is excreted
in the urine as campho-glycuronic acid. Another, an amido-
derivative, is also found in the urine.

Circulation. It increases the number of leucocytes in the
blood. To a slight extent the heart is excited directly by it in
addition to the reflex stimulation just mentioned. And so the
pulse becomes fuller and stronger ; the rate is not much affected.
The face may be flushed.

Respiration. Probably some camphor or some derivative
from it is excreted by the bronchial mucous membrane, the vas-


cularity and secretion of which it consequently stimulates. It
has the reputation of being a feeble expectorant.

Skin. It is a mild diaphoretic. This effect is believed to
be due to the action of the drug on the central nervous system.
Probably some of the camphor is excreted by the skin, for the
sweat may smell of it.

Nervous system. Different people are differently susceptible
to the effects of camphor. Five to ten grains [.30 to .60 gm.]
will in some persons produce a feeling of exhilaration, or in
others a sense of comfort and quietness. Larger doses cause
excitement, giddiness, a slow pulse, and ultimately headache,
burning pain in the stomach, faintness, confusion of ideas, de-
lirium, violent convulsions, insensibility, a small, feeble pulse,
and finally death from collapse. It is a mild antipyretic.

Sexual organs. Camphor is reputed to be an aphrodisiac, but
this is probably incorrect.


External. Its stimulating effects make camphor a favorite
ingredient of many liniments. It is constantly rubbed into the
skin in some form or another as a mild irritant or counter-irritant
in, for example, chronic rheumatism, chronic inflammatory indu-
rations, and the slighter chest complaints of children ; and also
in myalgia, neuralgia, lumbago, and sciatica, in which cases, be-
cause of its property of causing local anaesthesia, it relieves pain.
In addition to the pharmacopoeial preparations, a Chloroformum
Camphorse (camphor, 2, dissolved in chloroform, i) may be
used. The liquid preparations with chloral [hydrate,] carbolic
acid, and thymol are excellent local anodynes for neuralgia, and
may be dropped into a tooth to relieve toothache.

Internal. Camphor is used as a carminative, especially in
neurotic subjects. It is a common remedy for a cold in the head,
and is probably beneficial on account of its stimulation of the
circulation and its slight antipyretic and diaphoretic effects.
Many expectorant mixtures contain camphor. It has been given
as an antispasmodic in hysteria and allied conditions, and some
state that it is of use in cholera. [Monobromated Camphor re-


sembles, but is not identical with, the bromides in its therapeu-
tical action, being used as a nervous sedative. Camphoric acid
is successfully administered for colliquative sweating, e.g., that
of pulmonary tuberculosis. The daily amount of from 15 to 75
gr. ; i. to 5. gm., should be given in the evening in divided
doses at short intervals, either dry upon the tongue or in starch

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 57 of 67)