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THYMOL.

THYMOL. C 10 H M O[=i49.66. A phenol (classified in the B. P. as a
stearopt en) occurring in the volatile oils of ( I) Thymus vul^aris Linne, (2)
Monarda punctata Linn6 (nat. ord. Labiatte], and (3) Carurn Ajowan (Rox-
burgh) Bentham et Hooker (nat. ord. Umbelliferd). Habitat. (i) Southern
Europe ; cultivated. (2) United States, west to Texas and Colorado ; in
sandy fields. (3) India, Persia, Egypt.

SOURCE. Thymol is separated from the terpenes in the volatile oils by
fractional distillation, agitated with solution of Soda to remove more of the
terpenes and cooled. The compound of Soda and Thymol is decomposed by
Hydrochloric Acid, and Thymol is re-crystallized from an alcoholic solution.

CHARACTERS. Large, colorless, translucent crystals of the hexagonal sys-
tem, having an aromatic, thyme-like odor, and a pungent, aromatic taste, with
a very slight caustic effect upon the lips. Sp. gr., as a solid, is 1.069, ^ ut
when liquefied by fusion it is lighter than water. When triturated with about
equal quantities of Camphor, Menthol, or Chloral hydrate, it liquefies. Solu-
bility. Soluble in about 1200 parts of water, and in less than its own weight
of Alcohol, Ether, or Chloroform ; also readily soluble in Carbon Disulphide,
Glacial Acetic Acid, and in fixed or volatile oils.

IMPURITIES. Paraffin, and spermaceti.

Dose, i to 3 gr. ; .20 to i.oo gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF THYMOL.

Thymol is a more powerful antiseptic than carbolic acid,
but its insolubility is a drawback. It has been used in antiseptic
surgery. A saturated solution, thymol gauze, and thymol oint-
ment are employed. It is non-irritating. It has considerable
antiparasitic powers, and solutions in alcohol or ether (i in 15)
have been used in ringworm. A solution in glycerin (i in 200)
has been recommended for sore throat. A little alcohol is very
useful for facilitating the aqueous solution of thymol. [The
odor is likely to attract house flies.] Thymol in 30 gr. ; [2.
gm.] doses has been given as an anthelmintic for the Anchylos-



THE STEAROPTENS. 653

toma duodenale. After its administration the urine may become
green.

MENTHOL.

MENTHOL. C 10 H 19 OH [=155. 66. A stearopten (having the char-
acter of a secondary Alcohol), obtained from the official oil of peppermint
(from Mentha piperita Smith), or from Japanese or Chinese oil of peppermint
(from Mentha arvensis Linne, var. piperascens Holmes, and Mentha cana-
densis Linne, var. glabrata Holmes ; nat. ord. Labiate).

SOURCE. By fractional distillation of. the volatile oil and freezing the
higher boiling product, and crystallization.

CHARACTERS. Colorless, acicular or prismatic crystals, having a strong
and pure odor of peppermint, and a warm, aromatic taste, followed by a sen-
sation of cold, when air is drawn into the mouth. Solubility. Slightly solu-
ble in water, but imparts to the latter its odor and taste. It is freely soluble in
Alcohol, Ether, Chloroform, Carbon Bisulphide, or glacial Acetic Acid.
When it is triturated with about an equal weight of Camphor, Thymol, or
Chloral hydrate, the mixture becomes liquid.]

IMPURITIES. Glass and magnesium sulphate.

Dose, ]/ z to 2 gr. ; [.03 to .12 gm.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF MENTHOL.

Menthol is chiefly employed externally, for it produces local
anaesthesia, a feeling of coldness and numbness, and thereby al-
leviates the pain of neuralgia, especially if it involves a super-
ficial nerve. It is very efficacious in some cases. The solid
menthol, [in the form of a cone,] maybe drawn [over] the skin,
or an alcoholic solution may be painted on, or a plaster ; [men-
thol, 3; yellow wax, i; resin, 15; spread upon rubber cloth]
may be applied. In very hot weather this may be too fluid, and
then more wax should be added. A solution made by heat with
oleic acid [i to 2.4] is an excellent preparation, and a good
liniment is formed of menthol, 3 ; chloroform, 4 ; olive oil, 9,
The local application often relieves itching. Menthol has been
applied locally to carious teeth, and has been inhaled with ad-
vantage [for the relief of the symptom] asthma. For teeth it is
best rubbed up with an equal part of [pure carbolic acid],
camphor or chloral hydrate. The oily liquid formed in either
case may be put in the tooth. For [the symptom] asthma it is
readily volatilized by the addition of hot water. Solutions of it



654 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

have been painted upon the throat in diphtheria. A pigment
of i to 4 in olive oil is employed for painting the larynx in
tuberculous ulceration. [It has been used internally in small
doses (iV gr.; .006 gm.) to relieve nausea and vomiting.] It is
a powerful antiseptic, and is excreted in the urine, rendering it
aseptic and giving it a pleasant smell. Menthol should be pre-
served in closed tin boxes.



GROUP XV.

Vegetable drugs acting by virtue of important acids
they contain.

Lemon juice (Citric Acid), Laurocerasus (Hydrocyanic Acid), Ben-
zoin (Benzoic Acid), Chrysarobinum (Chrysophanic Acid), [Rhus Toxi-
codendron (Toxicodendric Acid). Wild Cherry] (see p. 462) and Bitter
Almond (see p. 612), both of which yield Hydrocyanic- Acid, have already
been considered.

LEMON.

LIMONIS CORTEX. Lemon Peel. [The rind of the recent fruit of
Citrus Limonum Risso (nat. ord. Rutacea). Habitat. Northern India ; cul-
tivated in subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. In narrow, thin bands or in elliptical segments, with very
little of a spongy, white, inner layer adhering to them ; outer surface deep
lemon-yellow, and ruggedly glandular ; odor fragrant ; taste aromatic and
bitterish.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) The official oil, C 10 H J6
(see below). (2) Hesperidin, [C. H H. J6 O 1 . ! , a bitter principle.

Lemon Peelis used in Spiritus Limonis.]

OLEUM LIMONIS. Oil of Lemon. [A volatile oil obtained by
expression from fresh Lemon Peel. .

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, limpid liquid, having the fragrant odor of
lemon, and an aromatic, somewhat bitterish taste. Sp. gr., 0.858 100.859.
Solubility. In three times its volume of Alcohol ; also soluble, in all propor-
tions, in absolute Alcohol, Carbon Disulphide, or glacial Acetic Acid.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A terpene called Citrene,
or Limonene, C 10 H 16 , 90 per cent., strongly dextro-rotary. This is also found
in Orange Peel and Oil of Caraway. (2) Geranial or Citral, [C, H 16 O,] an
aldehyde derived from Geraniol found in Oil of Rose (see p. 55^). (3) Cit-
ronellal, an aldehyde of the alcohol, Citronellol.



VEGETABLE DRUGS ACTING BY THEIR ACIDS. 655

[ Oil of L emon is contained in Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, and Spiritus
Aurantii Compositus.

Preparation.

Spiritus Limonis. Spirit of Lemon. Synonym. Essence of
Lemon. Oil of Lemon, 50; Lemon Peel, 50; by maceration and fil-
tration with Deodorized Alcohol to 1000.

Spirit of Lemon is contained in Syrupus Acidi Citrici.

Dose, j to 2 fl. dr. ; 2. toS. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF LEMON.

The same as those of orange. The oil applied externally is
rubefacient.

LIMONIS SUCCUS. Lemon Juice. The freshly expressed juice of
the ripe fruit of Citrus Limonum [Risso (nat. ord. Rutacea}.

CHARACTERS. A slightly turbid, yellowish liquid, usually having an odor
of lemon due to the accidental presence of some of the volatile oil of the rind.
Taste acid, and often slightly bitter. Sp. gr., not less than 1.030.]

COMPOSITION. Lemon juice contains (I) Citric Acid [(H 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 -|-
H 2 O), about 7 per cent.,] both free, and combined to form "Potassium and
other salts. (2) Malic Acid. (3) Phosphoric Acid.

Dose, YZ to 2 fl. oz. ; [15. to 60. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF LEMON JUICE.

Lemon juice is used to relieve thirst, and to make effervescing
mixtures and drinks. Its action in the body is the same as that
of citric acid (see p. 266). Three or four ounces [90. or 120.
c.c.] of lemon juice daily are of great benefit in scurvy. Why
this is we do not certainly know. Lemon juice is probably more
efficacious than citric acid.

LAUROCERASUS.

CHERRY LAUREL. [B. P., not official.] The fresh leaves of
Prunus laurocerasus (nat. ord. Rosacece}. [ffabitat. Europe.]

CHARACTERS. Thick coriaceous, on short, strong petioles. Oblong or
ovate, [12 to 1 6 cm.] long, tapering towards each end, recurved at the apex,
distinctly but sharply serrated, dark-green, smooth and shining above, pale
beneath. Prominent midrib with, on either side of it at the base, one or two
granular depressions. Inodorous, except on bruising, when they emit a ratafia-
like odor.



656 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Laurocerusin, a gluco-
side ; it is a compound of Amygdalin and Amygdalic Acid. (2) Emulsin.
By the same changes as in the case with Bitter Almond (see p. 612), in the
presence of moisture, an oil, [Hydrocyanic] Acid and Glucose are formed.

Preparation.

Aqua Laurocerasi. [B. P., not official. Cherry Laurel Water.]
Made by distillation and standardized so that its strength is o. I per
cent, of absolute Hydrocyanic Acid.

INCOMPATIBLE. Metallic salts.

Dose, ^ to 2 fl. dr. ; [2. to 8. ex.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF CHERRY LAUREL.

Its action is the same as that of diluted hydrocyanic acid (see
p. 134). Aqua laurocerasi is not often employed ; for owing to
the volatilization of the [hydrocyanic] acid, its strength is not
constant. It is used as a flavoring agent.

BENZOINUM.

BENZOIN. Synonym. Gum Benjamin. A balsamic resin obtained
from Sty rax Benzoin [Dryander (nat. ord. Styraced). Habitat. Sumatra,
Java, probably also Siam.

CHARACTERS. In lumps consisting of agglutinated, yellowish-brown tears,
which are internally milk-white, or in the form of a reddish-brown mass,
more or less mottled from whitish tears imbedded in it. It is almost wholly
soluble in 5 parts of moderately warm Alcohol, and in solutions of the fixed
alkalies. When heated, it gives off fumes of Benzoic Acid. It has an agree-
able, balsamic odor, and a slight, aromatic taste. Solubility. In 5 parts of
Alcohol] ; easily in Ether [or Solution of] Potassa.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Benzoic Acid (set p. 657),
12 to 20 per cent. (2) Cinnamic Acid, C 9 H 8 O 2 , a trace. (3) Resin. (4)
Volatile Oil.

Preparations.

1. Adeps [Benzoinatus. Benzoinated Lard. Benzoin, 20;
Lard, 1000 ; by melting and straining.

2. Tinctura Benzoini. Tincture of Benzoin. Benzoin, 200 ;
by maceration and filtration with Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, y t to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.

3. Tinctura Benzoini Composita. Compound Tincture of
Benzoin. Synonym. Friar's Balsam. Benzoin, 120; Storax, 80 ;



VEGETABLE DRUGS ACTING BY THEIR ACIDS. 657

Balsam of Tolu, 40 ; Purified Aloes, 20 ; by digestion with Alcohol,
and filtration to 1000.

Dose, Yi to I fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]

ACIDUM BENZOICUM. Benzoic Acid. HC 7 N 5 O 2 [=i2i.7i].

SOURCE. From Benzoin by sublimation. [Toluene (toluol) is generally
the source of this substance.

CHARACTERS. White, or yellowish-white, lustrous scales or friable
needles, odorless, or having a slight, characteristic odor resembling that of
Benzoin, and of a warm, acid taste ; somewhat volatile at a moderately warm
temperature, and rendered darker by exposure to light. Solubility. When
pure, in about 500 parts of water, and in 2 parts of Alcohol. Also soluble in
3 parts of Ether, 7 parts of Chloroform, and readily soluble in Carbon Disul-
phide, Benzol, fixed and volatile oils, but sparingly soluble in Benzin.

Benzoic Acid is contained in Tinctura Opii Camphorata.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.]

AMMONII BENZOAS. Ammonium Benzoate. NH 4 C 7 H 5 O 2 [=
138.72.

SOURCE. Dissolve Benzoic Acid in Water of Ammonia and distilled
water, and evaporate, set aside to crystallize. HC 7 H 5 O 2 -|-NH 4 OH=NH 4
C 7 H 5 2 +H 2 0.

CHARACTERS. Thin, white, four-sided, laminar crystals, odorless or hav-
ing a slight odor of Benzoic Acid, a saline, bitter, afterwards slightly acrid
taste, and gradually losing Ammonia on exposure to the air. Solubility. In
5 parts of water, and in 28 parts of Alcohol. ]

INCOMPATIBLES. Ferric salts, Liquor Potassae, and acids.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; [.30 to 1.20 gm.]

SODII BENZOAS. [Sodium Benzoate. NaC 7 H 5 O 2 =i43.7i.

SOURCE. Benzoic Acid is added to a hot concentrated solution of pure
Sodium Carbonate, the solution is evaporated, cooled and allowed to crystal-
lize. 2HC 7 H 5 O 2 4-Na 2 CO 3 =2NaC 7 H 5 O 2 +CO 2 -f-H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. A white, amorphous powder, odorless, or having a faint
odor of Benzoin, and a sweetish, astringent taste ; permanent in the air. Solu-
bility. In 1.8 parts of water, and in 45 parts of Alcohol.]

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; [.30 to 4. gm.]

[LITHII BENZOAS. Lithium Benzoate. LiC 7 H 5 O 2 =i27.72.

SOURCE. By decomposing Lithium Carbonate with Benzoic Acid.
Li 2 CO s +2HC 7 Hp 2 =2LiC 7 H 5 O 2 4-CO 2 4-H 2 O.

CHARACTERS. A light, white powder, or small, shining, crystalline
scales ; odorless, or of faint benzoin-like odor, and of a cooling, sweetish taste ;
permanent in the air. Solubility. In 4 parts of water, and in 12 parts of
Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 20 gr. ; .30 to 1.20 gm.]

42



6$ 8 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

ACTION OF BENZOIC ACID.

So far as is known, the action of benzoic acid, its salts, and
benzoin, is the same. We shall therefore here describe only the
action of benzoic acid.

External. Benzoic acid is a powerful antiseptic. The
growth of many forms of bacteria is completely inhibited by a
solution of i in 1000. In a concentrated form it is a stimulant
and irritant when applied to the skin.

Internal. The chief fact about the internal action of benzoic
acid that has been worked out is that when it is given by the
mouth, hippuric acid appears in the urine. This happens
by combination with a molecule of glycocoll, HC.H 5 O.,4-C 2 H 5
NO,=C 9 H 9 NO 3 (hippuric acid)+H 2 O. The source of the gly-
cocoll is not known. The conversion takes place in the kidneys,
for after giving large doses of benzoic acid, it alone can be found
in the blood, and if the renal arteries are tied, no hippuric acid
is formed, but if only the ureters are tied it is formed. Also
benzoic acid has been successfully converted into hippuric acid
by passing blood, containing benzoic acid, but no glycocoll,
slowly through the kidneys removed directly after death. Fur-
ther researches show that the conversion is probably effected
by the renal cells. Hippuric acid has been found in the
urine of new-born children when benzoic acid has been given
to the mother shortly before delivery. If hippuric acid is given
by the mouth benzoic acid is found in the blood, but hippuric
[acid] reappears in the urine. The hippuric acid in the urine
renders alkaline urine acid, and it stimulates and disinfects
the urinary mucous membrane. Occasionally succinic as well as
hippuric acid appears in the urine.

Benzoic acid or some derivative of it is probably excreted in
the bronchial secretion, for the bronchial mucous membrane is
stimulated by the administration of benzoic acid,- the mucus
being increased in quantity and disinfected. The acid is there-
fore expectorant. The same effects are brought about if the
vapor of benzoic acid is inhaled. It is said also to be excreted
by the skin and salivary glands, and thereby to increase their
activity. It is slightly diuretic. Medicinal doses do not pro-



VEGETABLE DRUGS ACTING BY THEIR ACIDS. 659

duce any effect on the stomach, intestines, circulation, or nerv-
ous system.

Benzoic acid and its salts are antipyretic, and it is stated that
they are even more powerful than salicylic acid. How they pro-
duce a fall of temperature is not known. Metabolism is believed
to be generally increased. Sodium and ammonium benzoate in-
crease both the quantity and the solids of the bile.

THERAPEUTICS OF BENZOIC ACID.

External. Lint soaked in the compound tincture is a
favorite dressing for wounds and sores of all sorts. Its chief
advantage is the antiseptic power it possesses. Its stimulating
effect is also valuable. Benzoinated lard is a common basis for
ointments when it is wished that the active ingredient should be
absorbed, for the lard melts on the body, especially if covered
with a bandage ; the benzoin prevents the decomposition of the
lard. If the benzoin irritates, which it is likely to do if near the
eye, 3 parts of oil of cloves or 2 of oil of gaultheria to [480
parts] of lard makes a non-irritant basis which keeps indefinitely.

Internal. Lungs. Benzoin, benzoic acid and its com-
pounds are very commonly employed as stimulating, disinfecting
expectorants in cases of bronchitis or phthisis in which the ex-
pectoration is foul and scanty. The vapor from a mixture of a
pint, [500 c.c.] of water at 140 F., [60 C.] and a fluid drachm,
[4, c.c.] of compound tincture of benzoin is often inhaled for
bronchitis and laryngitis.

Urinary organs. Benzoic acid is a most valuable drug for
acidifying the alkaline decomposing urine which is formed in
pyelitis and cystitis, and for stimulating and disinfecting the
urinary tract in the same conditions. Ammonium benzoate is
so much more soluble than benzoic acid that it is to be pre-
ferred to it. Spirit of chloroform covers the taste. It may with
advantage be combined with the urinary sedatives, as tincture
of hyoscyamus. The conversion to hippuric acid has been said
not to take place when the kidney is diseased.

Benzoic acid has been used in Germany instead of salicylic
acid for rheumatic fever.



66O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHRYSAROBINUM.

CHRYSAROBIN. [A neutral principle, in its commercial, more or
less impure form, extracted from Goa or Araroba Powder, a substance found
deposited in the wood of Andira Araroba Aguiar (nat. ord. Leguminosa).
Habitat. Brazil.

CHARACTERS. A pale, orange-yellow, microcrystalline powder, odorless
and tasteless ; turning brownish-yellow on exposure to air. Solubility. Very
slightly soluble in cold water or Alcohol ; soluble in 33 parts of boiling Ben-
zol, in Chloroform, and in solutions of the alkalies.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituent of Goa powder is Chrysarobin,
C 27 H 30 O U .] Synonyms. Rhein. Chrysophan (see p. 490). In the fresh
plant it probably exists as a Glucoside, but this is slowly oxidized into Chryso-
phanic Acid, C J5 H 10 O 4 , and glucose.

Preparation.

Unguentum Chrysarobini. [Chrysarobin Ointment. Chrys-
arobin, 5 ; Benzoinated Lard, 95-]

ACTION OF CHRYSAROBIN.

External. It is a powerful irritant to the skin, which it
stains yellowish brown. Linen is stained the same color. (The
stain may be removed by a weak solution of caustic soda or
chlorinated lime. ) It is antiparasitic.

Internal. It is cathartic and very irritating to the stomach
and bowels, causing vomiting and purging. It is excreted by
the kidneys, and stains the urine yellow.

THERAPEUTICS OF CHRYSAROBIN.

It is used as an antiparasitic in ringworm, and to excite healthy
inflammation in chronic cutaneous diseases, especially psoriasis
and acne rosacea. A pigment (chrysarobin, i; solution of
gutta percha, 9 [solution of gutta percha is made by decantation
of gutta percha, i; lead carbonate, i; chloroform, 9;]) is more
cleanly than the ointment and does not stain the clothes.
Chrysarobin has also been given internally for skin diseases, but
as it is so irritating this practice is not advisable.

[RHUS TOXICODENDRON.

RHUS TOXICODENDRON. Synonyms. Poison Ivy. Poison
Oak. The fresh leaves of Rhus radicans Linne (nat. ord. Anacardiete}.
Habitat. North America, west to Wyoming and Texas ; in thickets.



VEGETABLE DRUGS USED AS FLAVORING AGENTS. 66 I

CHARACTERS. Long-petiolate, trifoliolate ; the lateral leaflets sessile or
nearly so, about 10 cm. long, obliquely ovate, pointed ; the terminal leaflets
stalked, ovate or oval, pointed, with a wedge-shaped or rounded base; the
leaflets entire and glabrous, or variously notched, coarsely toothed, or lobed,
more or less downy ; when dry, papery and brittle ; inodorous ; taste some-
what astringent and acrid. Resembling Rhus Toxicodendron. The leaves
of Ptelea trifoliata, which are similar in appearance, but have all the leaflets
sessile.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Toxicodendric Acid, a vol-
atile Acid. (2) Tannic Acid. (3) Fixed Oil.

Dose, i to 5 gr. ; .06 to .30 gm.

ACTION AND USES OF RHUS TOXICODENDRON.

The tincture of the fresh leaves (dose, iV to 2 m.; .006 to
.12 c.c.) has been used in paralysis, nocturnal incontinence of
urine and cutaneous diseases ; but the remedy is dangerous and
probably, an useless one, for these purposes. Largely diluted
it has been used as a lotion for bruises and burns.]



GROUP XVI.

[Vegetable drugs only used as Flavoring Agents.

Balm, Raspberry, Vanilla, Sage, Oil of Bay, Oil of Sesamum.]
[MELISSA.

MELISSA. Synonym. Balm. The leaves and tops of Melissa offici-
nalis Linne (nat. ord. Labiate). Habitat. Asia Minor, Southern Europe ;
naturalized in the United States ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Leaves long, petiolate, ovate, obtuse- founded or subcor-
dateatthe base, crenate, somewhat hairy, glandular ; branches quadrangular;
flowers in about four-flowered cymules, with a tubular, bell-shaped, five-
toothed calyx, a whitish or purplish bilabiate corolla, and four stamens ;
fragrant, aromatic ; somewhat astringent and bitterish.

COMPOSITION. (i) Volatile Oil, % per cent. \.i) Tannic Acid. (3)
Bitter principle.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.

USES OF BALM.
Balm is used as a flavoring agent.



662 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

RUBUS ID^EUS.

RASPBERRY. The fruit of Rubus idmus Linne (nat. ord. Rosacea}.
Habitat. Europe and Asia ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Deprived of the c >nical receptacle, and therefore hollow
at the base ; hemispherical, red, finely hairy, composed of from twenty to
thirty coalesced, small drupes, each one crowned with the withered style ;
juice red ; of an agreeable odor, and a pleasant, acidulous taste.

COMPOSITION. (i) Volatile oil, a trace. (2) Citric and Malic Acids.
(3) Sugar, about 5 per cent (4) Pectin.

Preparation.

Syrupus Rubi Idaei. Syrup of Raspberry. Fresh ripe raspberries
(filtered juice), 40 ; Sugar, 60.
Dose, indefinite.

USES OF RASPBERRY.
Raspberry syrup is used chiefly as a flavoring agent.

VANILLA.

VANILLA. The fruit of Vanilla planifolia Andrews (nat. ord. Or-
chideee). Habitat. Eastern Mexico, in hot, damp woods ; cultivated in the
tropics.

CHARACTERS. From 15 to 25 cm. long, and about 8 mm. thick, linear,
narrowed and bent or hooked at the base, rather oblique at the apex, wrinkled,
somewhat warty, dark brown, glossy-leathery, one-celled, and containing a
blackish-brown pulp, with numerous, minute seeds, and more or less acicular
crystals ; odor and taste peculiar, fragrant.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are Vanillin, C 8 H 8 O 3 , a crystal-
line principle, 1.7 to 2.75 per cent., which develops upon the ripening of the
pod. (2) Fixed Oil, II per cent. (3) Resin. (4) Sugar. (5) Mucilage.
Vanillin is the Aldehyde of Methylprotocatechuic Acid ; and can be prepared
artificially from Coniferin, Carbolic Acid, Guaiacol and Eugenol, C in H 12 Oj,
the last being found in Oil of Cloves (set p. 534).

Preparation.

Tinctura Vanillae. Tincture of Vanilla. Vanilla, 100 ; Sugar,
200 ; by maceration with Alcohol and Water to 1000.
Dose, as flavoring agent.

USES OF VANILLA.
Vanilla is used solely as a flavoring agent.



VEGETABLE DRUGS USED AS FLAVORING AGENTS. 663

SALVIA.

SALVIA. Synonym. Sage. The leaves of Safoia officinalis Linne
(nat. ord. Labiate}. Habitat. Southern Europe; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. About 5 cm. long, petiolate, ovate-oblong, obtuse or sub-
acute at the apex, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, finely crenu-
late, thickish, wrinkled, grayish green, soft -hairy and glandular beneath ; odor
aromatic ; taste aromatic, bitterish, and somewhat astringent.

COMPOSITION. It contains (l) A volatile oil, containing Salviol, C 10
H 18 O, Cineo/&nd Pinene. (2) Resin. (3) Tannic acid.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

ACTION AND USES OF SAGE.

It is used chiefly as a condiment, and it is said to be beneficial
in checking the perspiration of hectic fever.

OLEUM MYRCI..E.

OIL OF MYRCIA. Synonym. Oil of Bay. A volatile oil distilled
from the leaves of Myrcia acris De Candolle (nat. ord. Myrtacece). Habitat.
West Indies.

CHARACTERS. A yellow or brownish-yellow liquid, having an aromatic,
somewhat clove-like odor, and a pungent, spicy taste. Sp. gr. , 0.975 to
0.990. Solubility. With an equal amount of Alcohol, glacial Acetic Acid,
or Carbon Disulphide, it yields slightly turbid solutions.

Preparation.



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