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Spiritus Myrciae. Spirit of Myrcia. Synonym. Bay Rum. Oil
of Myrcia, 16 ; Oil of Orange Peel, I ; Oil of Pimenta, I ; Alcohol,
1 220 ; Water to 2000.

USES OF MYRCIA.

Oil of myrcia is used solely as a perfume. Bay rum is used
as a refrigerant lotion.

OLEUM SESAMI.

OIL OF SESA.MUM. Synonyms. Sesame Oil. Teel Oil. Benne
Oil. A fixed oil expressed from the seed of Sesamum indicum Linne (nat.
ord. Pedaliacetz). Habitat. India; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish or yellow, oily liquid, inodorous or nearly so,
and having a bland, nut-like taste. Sp. gr., 0.919 to 0.923.

USES OF OIL OF SESAMUM.
Benne oil is used in preparing hair oil.]



664 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

GROUP XVII.

Vegetable drugs used only as coloring agents.

Saffron, Red Saunders.
CROCUS.

SAFFRON. [The stigmas of Crocus sativus Linn6 (nat. ord. Iridea:}.
Habitat. Western Asia ; cultivated in Spain and France.

CHARACTERS. Separate stigmas, or three, attached to the top of the
style, about 3 cm. long, flattish-tubular, almost thread-like, broader and
notched above ; orange-brown; odor strong, peculiar, aromatic; taste bitterish
and aromatic.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (1) Polychroite, [C^H^O^,
an amorphous, brown-yellow Glucoside, soluble in Alcohol and water, splitting
into Sugar (Crocose), and red Crocetin, (formerly called Crocin], C^H^Oj,
soluble in Ether and Alcohol. (2) Picrocrocin, CjgHggOj,, in colorless, bitter
needles, readily soluble in Alcohol and water. (3) A volatile oil, C 10 H 16 , I
percent. (4) Fixed oil.]

IMPURITIES. Marigold, saffron petals, chalk, and oil.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to 2.00 gm.]

Preparation.

Tinctura Croci. [Tincture of Saffron. Saffron, 100 ; by macer-
ation and percolation with Diluted Alcohol to looo.
Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.J

USES OF SAFFRON.
Saffron is only used to color [pharmaceutical] preparations, but

it is expensive.

SANTALUM RUBRUM.

[RED SAUNDERS. The wood of Pterocarpus sanlalinus Linnfc
filius (nat. ord. Leguminosa:}. Habitat. Madras ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A hard, heavy, dark reddish-brown, coarsely splintery
wood, deprived of the light-colored sap-wood ; usually met with in chips, or
as a coarse, irregular, brownish-red powder, nearly inodorous and nearly taste-
less.] Resembling Red Saunders. Logwood, which is less dense.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are [(i) Santa/in, C 15 H 14 O & , in
red needles. (2) Santal, C 8 H 6 O S , in colorless scales. (3) Pterocarpin,
C^HjgOg. (4) Homopterocarpin, C 24 H M Oj, in colorless crystals.]

Red Saunders is contained in Tinctura Lavandulae Composite.

USES OF RED SAUNDERS.

Red Saunders is used to color preparations, [but is of no value
medicinally.]



SUBSTANCES WHOSE ACTION IS MECHANICAL. 66$

GROUP XVIII.

Vegetable substances whose action is mechanical.

Cotton, [Pyroxylin, Cotton Seed Oil], Oil of Theobroma, [Mastic],
India-rubber, Starch, Lycopodium, Quillaja.

GOSSYPIUM [PURIFICATUM.

PURIFIED COTTON. Synonym. Absorbent Cotton. The hairs
of the seed of Gossypium herbaceum Linne, and of other species of Gos-
sypium (nat. ord. Malvacea}, freed from adhering impurities, and deprived of
fatty matter. Habitat. Tropical Asia and Africa ; cultivated in tropical and
subtropical countries.

CHARACTERS. White, soft, fine filaments, appearing under the micro-
scope as hollow, flattened and twisted bands, spirally striate, and slightly thick-
ened at the edges ; inodorous and tasteless ; insoluble in ordinary solvents, but
soluble in Copper Ammonium Sulphate solution.]

PYROXYLINUM. Pyroxylin. Synonyms. Gun Cotton. [Soluble
Gun Cotton. Calloxylin. Purified Cotton, loo ; is immersed in a mixture of
Sulphuric, 2200 ; and Nitric Acids, 1400 ; washed with a large quantity of
Water, drained and dried.

Preparations.

i. Collodium. Collodion. Pyroxylin, 30; dissolved in Ether,
750 ; and Alcohol, 250.

a. Collodium Flexile. Flexible Collodion. Collodion, 920;
Canada Turpentine, 5 ; Castor Oil, 30.

3. Collodium Cantharidatum. Cantharidal Collodion. Syn-
onym. Blistering Collodion. Cantharides, 60; by percolation with
Chloroform, evaporation and solution of residue in Flexible Collodium,
85-

4. Collodium Stypticum. See Tannic Acid, p. 593.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS.

The uses of cotton are well known. Cotton, lint and gauze
are frequently medicated, e.g., Sal Alembroth, 2 per cent. ;
Boric Acid, 5 or 10 per cent. ; Salicylic Acid, 5 per cent. ;
Carbolic Acid, 5 per cent. ; lodoform, 5, 10 and 50 per cent.

Pyroxylin is only used to make collodion. Collodion, when
painted on the skin, rapidly dries from evaporation of the ether,



666 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

and covers the skin with a thin protective film. Flexible collo-
dion has the same properties, but it does not crack, as collodion
often does. These preparations are protective to small wounds,
and are used after slight operations. If the end of the urethra
or prepuce is closed at night with collodion, nocturnal inconti-
nence may sometimes be cured.

[OLEUM GOSSYPII SEMINIS.

COTTON SEED OIL. A fixed oil expressed from the seed of
Gossypium herbaceum Linne, and other species of Gossypium (nat. ord. Mal-
vacea), and subsequently purified. Habitat. Asia and Africa ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, oily liquid, without odor, and having a
bland, nut-like taste and neutral reaction. Sp. gr. , 0.920 to 0.930. Solu-
bility. Slighly soluble in Alcohol, but readily soluble in Ether, Chloroform,
or Carbon Disulphide.

COMPOSITION. (l) Olein. (2) Palmitin. (3) Coloring matter.

Cotton Seed Oil is used in Linimentum Ammonise and Linimentum Cam-
phorae.

ACTION AND USES OF COTTON SEED OIL.

This is used simply as a bland, nutritious oil, and in lini-
ments.]

OLEUM THEOBROMATIS.

OIL OF THEOBROMA. Synonym. Cacao Butter. [A fixed oil
expressed from the seed of Theobroma Cacao Linne (nat ord. Sterculiacece}.
Habitat. South America.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish-white solid, having a faint, agreeable odor,
and a bland, chocolate-like taste. Sp. gr., 0.970 to 0.980. Solubility.
Readily in Ether or Chloroform ; also soluble in 100 parts of Alcohol.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (I) Stearin. (2) Olein. (3)
Theobromine, an alkaloid, C 7 H 8 N 4 O 2 . (4) Formic, Acetic and Butyric Acid
Glycerides. ]

USES OF OIL OF THEOBROMA.

Oil of theobroma is used to make suppositories, [and as a
source of stearic acid. It is also used by inunction to improve
the nutrition of the body.]

[MASTICHE.

MASTIC. A concrete resinous exudation from Pistacia Lentiscus Linne
(nat. ord. Anacardiea). Habitat. Mediterranean basin.

CHARACTERS. Globular or elongated tears, of about the size of a pea,
sometimes covered with a whitish dust, pale yellow, transparent, having a



SUBSTANCES WHOSE ACTION IS MECHANICAL. 667

glass-like lustre and an opalescent refraction ; brittle ; becoming plastic when
chewed ; of a weak, somewhat balsamic, resinous odor, and a mild terebin-
thinate taste. Solubility. Completely in Ether, and, for the most part, solu-
ble in Alcohol. Resembling Mastic. Acacia, which is larger, rougher, and
more opaque.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) A resin, C^H^O.,, Mas-
tichic Acid, 90 per cent.; soluble in Alcohol. (2) Masticin, a resin, insolu-
ble in Alcohol. (3) Volatile oil, C 10 H 16 , I to 2 per cent.

I MPURIT Y. Sandarac.

Preparation.

Pilulse Aloes et Mastiches. See Aloes, p. 498.

ACTION AND USES OF MASTIC.

Mastic is a mild stimulant, mostly used as a masticatory, for
filling decayed teeth, and for cements and varnishes.

ELASTICA.

INDIA-RUBBER. Synonym. Caoutchouc. The prepared milk-
juice of various species of Hevea (nat. ord. Euphorbiacetz), known in com-
merce as Para Rubber. Habitat. In tropical countries.

CHARACTERS. In cakes, balls, or hollow, bottle-shaped pieces, externally
brown to brownish-black, internally brownish or of lighter tint ; very elastic.
Solubility. Insoluble in water, diluted acids, or diluted solutions of alkalies;
soluble in Chloroform, Carbon Bisulphide, Oil of Turpentine, Benzin, and
Benzol. When heated to about 257 F. ; 125 C., it melts, remaining soft
and adhesive after cooling. Odor faint, peculiar ; nearly tasteless.

COMPOSITION. (i) A solid Hydrocarbon, C^H^. (2) Fat. (3) Vola-
tile oil. (4) Coloring matters. On combining it with 10 per cent, of Sulphur,
Vulcanized Rubber is obtained ; with 50 per cent., and hardening by pressure
Vulcanite or Ebonite is produced.

USES OF INDIA-RUBBER.

India-rubber is used for making plasters, bougies, pessaries,
and syringes.]

AMYLUM.

STARCH. [The fecula of the seed of Zea Mays Linne (nat. ord. Gra-
tmnea}. Habitat. Tropical Asia and Africa ; cultivated in tropical and sub-
tropical countries.

CHARACTERS. In irregular, angular masses, which are easily reduced to
a fine powder ; white, inodorous, and tasteless; insoluble in Ether, Alcohol,
or cold water. Under the microscope appearing as granules, nearly uniform



668 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

in size, more or less angular in outline, with indistinct striae and with a distinct
hilum near the centre.

COMPOSITION. Its ultimate composition is C 6 H 10 O 5 , but it consists of a
mixture of various modifications of Starch-cellulose and Starch-granulose.]

Preparation.
[Glyceritum Amyli. See Glycerin, p. 609.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF STARCH.
Starch is chiefly employed for its mechanical properties, on
account of which it is used as a basis for dusting powders and
insufflations. The glycerite is a basis for suppositories. The
mucilage (i to 40 of water, gradually added and then boiled
and stirred for a few minutes) is a basis for ointments, and may
be used to suspend insoluble powders or oils ; it is very [conve-
nient] as a basis for enemata, but does not keep well and is
therefore not suitable as a vehicle for a mixture.

LYCOPODIUM.

LYCOPODIUM. [5y0yw.r. Vegetable Sulphur. Club Moss. The
spores of Lycopodium clavatum Linne, and of other species of Lycopodium
(nat. ord. Lycopodiacea}. Habitat. Europe, Asia, and North America, in
dry woods.

CHARACTERS. A fine powder, pale yellowish, very mobile, inodorous,
tasteless, floating upon water and not wetted by it, but sinking on being boiled
with it, and burning quickly when thrown into a flame. Under the micro-
scope the spores are seen to be sphsero-tetrahedral, the surfaces marked with
recticulated ridges, and the edges beset with short projections.

COMPOSITION. (i) Fixed oil, 47 to 49 per cent. (2) Cane Sugar, 2 per
cent. (3) A volatile base, Methylamine, in minute quantities.

IMPURITIES. Pollen, starch and sand.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF LYCOPODIUM.

Lycopodium has a great power of absorbing oils and oleo-
resins. It is excellent as a basis of pills, especially as it protects
hygroscopic substances, for it is powerfully repellant to water.
It is useful as a dusting powder, and also as a basis for insuffla-
tions.

QUILLAJA.

QUILLAJA. Synonyms. [Panama Bark. Soap Bark. The inner
bark of Quillaja Saponaria Molina (nat. ord. Rosacece). Habitat. Chili and
Peru.



VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES ACTING ON METABOLISM. 669

CHARACTERS. Flat, large pieces, about 5 mm. thick; outer surface
brownish-white, ofien with small patches of brown cork attached, otherwise
smooth ; inner surface whitish, smooth ; fracture splintery, checkered with
pale, brownish bast fibres, imbedded in white tissue ; inodorous ; taste per-
sistently acrid ; the dust very sternutatory.]

COMPOSITION. (I) Saponin, about 9 per cent., \_(see p. 448) a mixture of
the Glucosides, Quillaic Acid, C 19 H 30 O 10 , and Sapotoxin, C 17 H 26 O 10 .]

Dose, ]^ to y 2 dr. ; [i. to 2. gm.]

Preparation.

Tinctura Quillajae. [Tincture of Quillaja. Quillaja, 200 ; by
boiling with Water, straining and washing, addition of Alcohol, 350 ;
filtration and addition of Water to 1000.

Dose, l / 2 to 2 fl. dr.; 2. to 8. c.c.]

ACTION AND USES OF QUILLAJA.

The tincture of quillaja, on account of its soapy nature, is
largely employed to make a lather for shampooing, and may be
used to aid the diffusion of oils and other insoluble bodies, but
the fact that it contains the active body saponin is an objection
to its employment for emulsifying medicines for internal ad-
ministration. On the other hand, because of the saponin, it
might probably be used more largely as an expectorant. Those
who have employed it speak very favorably of it, especially in
cases in which the object is to promote free expectoration of
mucus which is accumulating in the chest.



GROUP XIX.
Vegetable substances [acting on Metabolism],

Guaiacum [Xanthoxylum], Sarsaparilla, [Menispermum, Stillingia,

Lappa,] Sassafras, Hemidesmus, [Calendula, Scutellaria,

Tonga], Bael Fruit, Oleum Gynocardiae.

GUAIACUM.

GUAIACI LIGNUM. Guaiacum Wood. Synonym. Lignum vitae.
The heart-wool of Guaiacum officinale [Linn6, and of Guaiacum sanctum
Linne (nat. ord. Zygophyllea). Habitat. West Indies, North and South
America.



6/O ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

CHARACTERS. Heavier than water, hard, brown or greenish-brown, resin-
ous, marked^ with irregular, concentrated circles, surrounded by a yellowish
alburnum, splitting irregularly ; when heated, emitting a balsamic odor ; taste
slightly acrid. Guaiacum Wood is generally used in the form of raspings or
turnings, which should be greenish-brown, containing few particles of a
whitish color, and should acquire a dark bluish-green color on the addition of
Nitric Acid.]

COMPOSITION. The principal constituent is the Resin (see below), 20 to
25 per cent.

\Guaiacum Wood is used to make Decoctum Sarsaparillae Compositum.]

Dose, X t> z dr. [* to 4- ? m< ]

GUAIACI RESINA. Guaiac. {Synonym. Gum Guaiac. The resin
of the wood of Guaiacum officinal? Linne (nat. ord. Zygophyllea).

SOURCE. By melting the resin of the heartwood by fire.

CHARACTERS. In irregular masses, or subglobular pieces, externally green-
ish-brown, internally of a glassy lustre, and, in recent Guaiac, usually reddish-
brown, transparent in thin splinters, fusible, feebly aromatic, the odor becom-
ing stronger in heating ; taste somewhat acrid ; powder grayish, turning green
on exposure to air.] Guaiacum Resin on dry distillation yields Cresol and
Guaiacol, also found in Creosote (set p. 334). Resembling Guaiacum Resin.
Myrrh, Scammony, Benzoin, Aloes, and Resin, but these have no greenish
tinge.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are three resins (l) Guaiaconic
Add, C, 9 H M O 6 (70 per cent.). (2) Guaiadc Acid, resembling Benzoic Acid.
(3) Guaiaretic Add, [C 20 H M O 4 (about 10 per cent.).] These are insoluble
in water, soluble in alkalies, but precipitated on neutralization.

INCOMPATIBLES. Mineral acids and spirit of nitrous ether.

[Guaiac Resin is contained in Pilulre Antimonii Composite.]

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; [.30 to a.oo gm.]

Preparations.

[i. Tinctura Guaiaci. Tincture of Guaiac. Guaiac, 200. By
maceration with Alcohol, and filtration to 1000.
Dose, j to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]

2. Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata. [Ammoniated Tincture of
Guaiac. Guaiac, 200 ; by maceration with Aromatic Spirit of Ammo-
nia, and filtration to 1000.

Dose, y 2 to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.]

ACTION OF GUAIAC.

External. [The tincture of guaiac is used for the detection
of blood stains.]



VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES ACTING ON METABOLISM. 6/1

Internal. Guaiacum resin gives rise to an acrid feeling in
the throat and a sensation of heat in the epigastrium. It in-
creases the secretions and movements of the intestine and
stomach. Large doses are gastro-intestinal irritants, causing
vomiting and purging. It reflexly stimulates the heart.

THERAPEUTICS OF GUAIAC.

Internal. Guaiacum resin is so [disagreeable] and its value
so doubtful that it is rarely ordered. It is used empirically,
sometimes successfully, for chronic sore throat, especially if the
subject has had syphilis. Lozenges (13 gr. [.20 gm.] of the
resin with a fruit basis) are preferred. The mixture [B. P.,
Guaiacum resin, 6 ; sugar, 6 ; tragacanth, i ; cinnamon water,
240 ; dose, ^ to i fl. oz., 15. to 30. c.c.] is said to be a more
efficacious preparation than that of the tincture. Thirty grains
[2. gm.] of the powder itself may be placed on the back of the
throat and swallowed. Guaiacum is a mild purgative, and it has
been given as a pill in chronic constipation ; this property ac-
counts for its presence in compound [cathartic] pills. Lately it
has been strongly recommended by Garrod as a means of ward-
ing off attacks of gout. For this purpose 12 gr., [.75 gm.] of
the powdered resin may be taken in a cachet for an indefinite
period, even several years. It is well to follow it by a draught
of effervescent lithium citrate. It was formerly employed in

chronic rheumatism.

[XANTHOXYLON.



XANTHOXYLON. 5y0yw. Prickly Ash Bark. The bark of Xan-
thoxylum americanum Miller, and of Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis Linne
(nat. ord. Rutacea). Habitat. North America.

CHARACTERS. Xanthoxylum americanum (Northern Prickly Ash) is in
curved or quilled fragments, about I mm. thick ; outer surface brownish gray,
with whitish patches, and minute, black dots, faintly furrowed, with some
brown, glossy, straight, two-edged spines, linear at the base, and about 5 mm.
long ; inner surface whitish, smooth ; fracture short, non-fibrous, green in the
outer and yellowish in the inner layer ; inodorous ; taste bitterish, very pun-
gent.

Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis (Southern Prickly Ash) resembles the pre-
ceding, but is about 2 mm. thick, and is marked by many conical, corky pro-
jections, sometimes 2 cm. high, and by stout, brown spines, rising from a



672 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

corky base. Resembling Xanthoxylum. Aralia sfiinosa, which is nearly
smooth externally, and beset with slender prickles in transverse rows.

COMPOSITION. It contains (i) An acrid, green oil. (2) A resin, crys.
talline, white and tasteless. (3) An acrid, soft resin. (4) A bitter substance,
probably an alkaloid. (5) Tannic acid, in small quantity.

Dose, 10 to 30 gr. ; .60 to 2.00 gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Xanthoxyli Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Xanthoxy-
lum. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, 10 to 30 m. ; .60 to 2.00 c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF PRICKLY ASH BARK.
Xanthoxylum has about the same action as guaiac. It pro-
duces, when swallowed, a sensation of heat. It enjoys some
reputation as a remedy for chronic rheumatism, and has been
used in syphilis and chronic hepatic disorders. For patients
suffering from chronic syphilis who do not tolerate either mer-
cury or the iodides, McDade's formula may be employed. This
is equal parts of the fluid extracts of sarsaparilla, stillingia, lappa,
phytolacca root and tincture of xanthoxylon. The dose is from
i to 4 fl. dr., 4. to 15. c.c., thrice daily. The bark, used as a
masticatory, is a popular remedy for tooth-ache.]

SARSAPARILLA.

SARSAPARILLA. [The root of Smilax officinalis Kunth, Smilax
medica Chamisso et Schlechtendal, Smilax papyracea Duhamel, and of other
undetermined species of Smilax (nat. ord. Liliacea). Habitat. Tropical
America, from Mexico to Brazil.

CHARACTERS. About 4 or 5 mm. thick, very long, cylindrical, longitudi-
nally wrinkled, externally grayish-brown or orange-brown ; internally showing
a whitish and mealy, or somewhat horny, cortical layer, surrounding a circular
wood-zone, the latter enclosing a broad pith ; nearly inodorous ; taste mucila-
ginous, bitter, and acrid.] Resembling Sarsaparilla. Senega, which is
twisted and keeled ; Hemidesmus, which is cracked transversely.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Parillin [also named
Smilacin, Parillinic Acid and ParigHn, about 0.2 per cent., an acrid gluco-
side, soluble in hot water and Alcohol, insoluble in Ether], closely resembling
Saponin. (2) Resin. (3) Trace of a Volatile Oil. [(4) Calcium Oxalate
and other salts. ]

INCOMPATIBLES. Alkalies.

Dose, Yi to I dr. ; [2. to 4. gm,]



VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES ACTING ON METABOLISM. 6/3

Preparations.

I. [Decoctum Sarsaparillae Compositum. Compound Decoction
of Sarsaparilla. Sarsaparilla, loo; Sassafras, 20; Guaiacum Wood,
20 ; Glycyrrhiza, 20 ; Mezereum, 10. By boiling, maceration in Water
and straining to 1000.

Dose, i to 4 fi. oz. ; 30. to 120. c.c.

2. Extractum Sarsaparillae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Sar-
saparilla. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and Water, and
evaporation.

Dose, ^2 to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.

3. Extractum Sarsaparillae Fluidum Compositum. Com-
pound Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla. Sarsaparilla, 750 ; Glycyrrhiza,
120 ; Sassafras, loo; Mezereum, 30. By maceration and percolation
in Glycerin, Alcohol and Water, and evaporation, to 1000.

Dose, y 2 to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.

4. Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus. Compound Syrup of
Sarsaparilla. Fluid Extract of Sarsaparilla, 200. ; Fluid Extract of
Glycyrrhiza, 15 ; Fluid Extract of Senna, 15 ; Oil of Sassafras, ^ Oil
of Anise, y 1 ^ ; Oil of Gaultheria, ^ ; Sugar, 650. By mixing, filtering,
dissolving the Sugar, and straining with Water to looo.

Dose, y 2 to i fl. oz. ; 15. to 30. c.c.]

ACTION AND THERAPEUTICS OF SARSAPARILLA.

Sarsaparilla is not known to have any physiological action.
It is never given alone, therefore we are ignorant of its therapeu-
tical effects. Probably it has none.

[MENISPERMUM.

MENISPERMUM. Canadian Moonseed. Synonym. Yellow Par-
ilia. The rhizome and roots of Menispermum canadense Linn6 (nat. ord.
Menispermacea:\ Habitat. North America, in moist thickets.

CHARACTERS. Rhizome several feet long, about 5 mm. thick, brown or
yellowish -brown, somewhat knotty, finely wrinkled, longitudinally and beset
with numerous thin, rather brittle roots ; fracture tough, woody ; internally
yellowish, the bark rather thick, the wood rays broad, porous, and longest on
the lower side ; pith distinct ; nearly inodorous ; taste bitter.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Afenispine, awhile alka-
loid, insoluble in Benzol and alkalies. (2) Berberine (see p. 640). (3)
Tannic acid. (4) Resin.

Dose, 5 to 30 gr. ; .30 to 2.00 gm.

43



6/4 ORGANIC MATERIA MEDICA.

Preparation.

Extractum Menispermi Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Menisper-
mum. By maceration and percolation with Alcohol and water, and
evaporation.

Dose, 5 to 30 m. ; .30 to 2.00 c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF CANADIAN MOONSEED.
The action and uses of menispermum are similar to those of

sarsaparilla.

STILLINGIA.

STILLINGIA. Synonyms. Queen's Root. Queen's Delight. The
root of Slillingia sylvatica Linne (nat. ord. Euphorbiacea'). Habitat. South-
ern United States, in sandy soil.

CHARACTERS. About 30 cm. long, and nearly 5 cm. thick, subcylindri-
cal, slightly branched, compact, wrinkled, tough, grayish-brown, breaking with
a fibrous fracture, showing a thick bark and porous wood, the inner bark and
medullary rays having numerous yellowish-brown resin-cells ; odor peculiar,
unpleasant ; taste bitter, acrid, and pungent.

COMPOSITION. (i) Sylvacrol, an acrid resin, soluble in Alcohol and
Chloroform. (2) Probably a glucoside. (3) Resin. (4) Volatile Oil. (5)
Tannic Acid.

Dose, ]4, to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Stillingiae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Stillingia.
By maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, % to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.

ACTION AND USES OF STILLINGIA.

Stillingia is in large doses emetic and cathartic, but in smaller
ones, alterative. It is a valuable remedy in syphilis and in the
cutaneous and hepatic diseases which are benefited by so-called

alterative medicines.

LAPPA.

LAPPA. Synonym. Burdock. The root of Arctium Lappa Linne
and some other species of Arctium (nat. ord. Composita:). Habitat. Europe
and Northern Asia ; naturalized in North America, in waste places.

CHARACTERS. About 30 cm. or more long, and in its thickest portion,
from I to 2 cm. thick ; nearly simple, fusiform, fleshy, longitudinally wrinkled,
crowned with a tuft of whitish, soft, hairy leaf-stalks ; grayish-brown, inter-
nally paler ; fracture somewhat horny ; bark rather thick, the inner part and
the wood radially striate, the parenchyma free from starch, often with cavi



VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES ACTING ON METABOLISM. 6/5

ties lined with white remains of tissue ; odor feeble and unpleasant ; taste
mucilaginous, sweetish and somewhat bitter.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Possibly a glucoside. (2)
Inulin. (3) Resin. (4) Tannic Acid, in small quantity.

Dose, y 2 to i dr. ; 2. to 4. gm.

Preparation.

Extractum Lappae Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Lappa. By
maceration and percolation with Diluted Alcohol, and evaporation.
Dose, y z to i fl. dr. ; 2. to 4. c.c.



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