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Burdock is considered to be a diuretic and a diaphoretic alter-
ative. It has been recommended in the treatment of various
chronic skin diseases, especially in psoriasis and acne.]


SASSAFRAS. [The bark of the root of Sassafras variifolium (Salis-
bury) O. Kuntze (nat. ord. Laurine<z). Habitat. North America from
Eastern Texas and Kansas eastward to Florida and Ontario ; in woods.

CHARACTERS. In irregular fragments, deprived of the gray, corky layer,
bright rust-brown, soft, fragile, with a short, corky fracture ; the inner surface
smooth ; strongly fragrant; taste sweetish, aromatic, and somewhat astringent.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A volatile oil (see below),
about 5 per cent. (2) Sassafrid, a peculiar decomposition product of Tannic
Acid. (3) Resin. (4) Tannic Acid. ]

Sassafras is contained in [Decoctum Sarsaparillae Compositum, and Ex-
tractum Sarsaparillae Fluidum Compositum.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; [i. to 4. gm.]

[SASSAFRAS MEDULLA. Sassafras Pith. The pith of Sassafras
variifolium (Salisbury) O. Kuntze (nat. ord. LaurinecE).

CHARACTERS. In slender, cylindrical pieces, often curved or coiled,
light, spongy, white, inodorous and insipid. Macerated in water it forms a
mucilaginous liquid, which is not precipitated on the addition of Alcohol.


Mucilago Sassafras Medullae. Mucilage of Sassafras Pith.
Sassafras Pith, 2 ; Water, loo. By maceration and straining.
Dose, freely.

OLEUM SASSAFRAS. Oil of Sassafras. A volatile oil distilled
from Sassafras.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish or reddish-yellow liquid, having the charac-
teristic odor of Sassafras without the odor of Camphor, and a warm, aromatic


taste. It becomes darker and thicker by age and exposure to the air. Sp. gr.,
1.070 to 1.090. Solubility. Soluble, in all proportions in Alcohol, in Glacial
Acetic Acid, and in Carbon Bisulphide.

Oil of Sassafras is contained in Syrupus Sarsaparillse Compositus.

Dose, i to 5 m. ; .06 to .30 c.c.]


The external and internal action of sassafras is, so far as is
known, the same as that of volatile oils generally. [The mucilage
is somewhat stimulant in its action, and is an excellent vehicle.]


HEMIDESMUS. [B. P., not official.] The dried root of Hemides-
mus Indicus (nat ord. Asclepiadacece). Synonym. Indian Sarsaparilla.
[Habitat. India. ]

CHARACTERS. Cylindrical, twisted, longitudinally furrowed; [15. cm.]
long ; their yellowish-brown corky layer easily separable from the rest of the
bark, which is annularly cracked. Odor fragrant, taste sweetish, slightly
acid. Resembling Hemidesmus. Sarsaparilla, Ipecacuanha, and Senega, but
they have no cracks.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) [Coumarin] (2) Hemi-
desmine. (3) Tannic Acid.


Syrupus Hemidesmi. [B. P., not official. Syrup of Hemi-
desmus]. Hemidesmus, 4 ; Sugar, 28 ; Boiling Water, 16.
Dose, YT, to i fl. dr. ; [2. to 4. c.c.]


Hemidesmus is used chiefly in India, and for the same pur-
poses as Sarsaparilla. It is doubtful whether it has any particular
action. The syrup may be given as a flavoring agent.


CALENDULA. Synonym. Marigold. The florets of Calendula
officinalis Linn6 (nat. ord. Composite). Habitat. Levant and Southern
Europe ; cultivated.

CHARACTERS. Florets about 12 mm. long, linear and strap-shaped, deli-
cately veined in a longitudinal direction, yellow or orange-colored, three-
toothed above, the short hairy tube enclosing the remnants of a filiform style
terminating in two elongated branches ; odor slight and somewhat heavy ;
taste somewhat bitter and faintly saline.


COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) A peculiar principle,
Calendulin, which is regarded as analogous to Bassorin. (2) An amorphous
bitter principle. (3) Gum.

Dose, 15 to 60 gr. ; i. to 4. gm.


Tinctura Calendulae. Tincture of Calendula. Calendula, 200.
By maceration and percolation with Alcohol to 1000.
Dose, i to 4 fl. dr.; 4. to 15. c.c.


Marigold was formerly supposed to be antispasmodic, sudo-
rific and emmenagogue, but now it is believed to have no thera-
peutic value.


SCUTE.L.LA.RI A. Synonym. Skullcap. The herb of Scutellaria
lateriflora Linne (nat. ord. Labiata). Habitat. North America ; west to
Alabama, New Mexico and Oregon, in damp thickets.

CHARACTERS. About 50 cm. long, smooth ; stem quadrangular, branched ;
leaves opposite, petiolate, about 5 cm. long, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong,
serrate ; flowers in axillary, one-sided racemes, with a pale blue corolla, and
bilabiate calyx, closed in fruit, the upper lip helmet-shaped; odor slight ; taste

COMPOSITION. (i) A bitterish principle. (2) Volatile oil, a trace.

Dose, i to 2 dr. ; 4. to 8. gm.


Extractum Scutellarise Fluidum. Fluid Extract of Scutel-
laria. By maceration and percolation with .Diluted Alcohol and evap-

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.


Scutellaria has little medicinal effect. It is used as a nervous
sedative ; formerly it was given in decoction for epilepsy.


TONGA. The bark of Raphidorphora vitiensis (nat. ord. Aracea) and
Premna taitensis (nat. ord. Verbenacea']. Habitat. Fiji Islands.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Tongine, a volatile alka-
loid. (2) A volatile oil.

Dose, ^ to i dr. ; i. to 4. gm.



Tonga as a fluid extract; dose, ^ to i fl. dr. ; i. to 4. c.c.,
undoubtedly relieves some cases of intractable neuralgia. Com-
bined with salicylates it is of great value for the treatment of so-
called muscular rheumatism. In large doses it is purgative.]


BAEL FRUIT. [B. P., not official.] The dried half-ripe fruit of
sEgle marmelos (nat. ord. Rutacece}. [Habitat.'] Malabar and Coromandel.

CHARACTERS. Roundish fruit the size of a large orange, usually imported
in fragments of the hard, woody rind, with adherent dried pulp and seeds.

COMPOSITION. [Tannic Acid in small quantity.

Preparation, not official.

Extractum Belae Liquidum. Fluid Extract of Bael Fruit.
Bael Fruit, 16; water, 17.

Dose, i to 2 fl. dr. ; 4. to 8. c.c.]


The imported bael fruit is probably useless. In India the ex-
tract of the fresh fruit is used for the treatment of diarrhoea and
dysentery. It contains but little tannic acid, and its mode of
action is not known.


CHAULMOOGRA OIL. [Not official.] The expressed oil from the
seed of Gynocardia odorata (nat. ord. Bixinea). [Habitat. East India.]

CHARACTERS. [This is a whitish substance which is solid at 107 F.,
42 C. , and is of an acid reaction. Sp. gr. , at above temperature, 0.930.]
Solubility. In ether, chloroform, and alcohol.

COMPOSITION. Chiefly Gynocardic Acid, [C U H M O S ,] a yellowish oily
body with a burning taste.

Dose, 5 to 20 m. ; [.30 to 1.20 c.c.] in capsules.


Chaulmoogra oil has been much used in leprosy, for the bacilli
present in the blood have diminished in number during its ad-
ministration, but it does not cure the disease. An ointment (3
to 8 of lanolin) has been used as a stimulant in chronic eczema


and psoriasis. [It has been largely employed as a local applica-
tion for bruises, sprains and stiffness by athletes.]


[The drugs in this section which act similarly will be grouped together.
In Appendix II. a list of these drugs, arranged according to their Natural
Orders, will be found.]


[Animal Drugs acting chiefly on the Nervous System.]

MUSK. The dried secretion from the preputial follicles of Moschus
moschiferus [Linn6 (class Mammalia; order Ruminantia). Habitat.
Central Asia.

CHARACTERS. In irregular, crumbly somewhat unctuous grains, dark
reddish-brown, having a peculiar, penetrating and persistent odor, and a bitter-
ish taste. It is contained in oval or roundish sacs about 4 to 5 cm. in diam-
eter, on one side invested with a smoothish membrane, on the other side
covered with stiff, appressed, grayish hairs, concentrically arranged around two
orifices near the centre. Solubility. About IO per cent, of Musk is soluble in
Alcohol, the tincture being light brownish-yellow, and on the addition of
water becoming slightly turbid. About 50 per cent, of Musk is soluble in
water, the solution being deep brown, faintly acid, and strongly odorous.

COMPOSITION. (I) Ammonia. (2) An acid. (3) Cholesterin. (4) Fats
and Oils. (5) Wax. (6) Gelatinous and albuminous principles. The odor-
iferous principle has not been isolated,] but it is probably a product of decom-
position, being constantly formed ; complete drying destroys the odor, but it
returns after water is added.

IMPURITIES. Dried blood, [resin, lead and other substances.]

Dose, 2 to 10 gr. ; [.12 to .60 gm.]


[Tinctura Moschi. Tincture of Musk. Musk, 50; Alcohol,
450 ; Water, 450 ; by maceration and filtration with Diluted Alcohol,
to looo.

Dose, % to i fl. dr. ; x. to 4. c.c.]


Musk is a very powerful diffusible stimulant, especially to
the heart and nervous system. It also stimulates the respiratory


centre. How it acts is not known. Occasionally it produces
headache and nausea.


It has been used, and apparently with great success, in the
collapse and prostration of long continued severe diseases, such
as typhoid fever and pneumonia. Various functional nervous
diseases, as hysteria, are occasionally treated with it. Its high
price limits its use. It is usually given as a pill.


[Animal Purgatives.

Oxgall and Honey.]

[OXGALL. Synonym. Fel Tauri. The fresh bile of Bos Taurus
Linn6 (class Mammalia; order Ruminantia}. Habitat. Domesticated.

CHARACTERS. A brownish-green or dark-green, somewhat viscid liquid,
having a peculiar, unpleasant odor, and a disagreeable, bitter taste. Sp. gr.,
1.018 to 1.028.]
Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; [.30 to i.oo gm.]


[Fel Bovis Purificatum. Purified Oxgall.

SOURCE. Evaporate Oxgall, 300, to 100 ; add Alcohol, ioo.
Decant, filter, and after distillation of the Alcohol, evaporate.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish-green, soft solid, having a peculiar
odor, and a partly sweet and partly bitter taste. Solubility. Very
soluble in water and in Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.]


[Oxgall when added to albuminous solutions delays their de-
composition. It aids in the absorption of fats. If given by the
mouth it is mostly absorbed from the intestine and acts as a chol-



Oxgall has been used as a cholagogue purgative in cases of
constipation, in which the pale color of the faeces indicates a
deficient secretion of bile. [It has also been used as an anti-
septic in typhoid fever and in intestinal fermentation.] An
enema of twenty grains [1.20 gm.] or more dissolved in an
ounce or two [30. to 60. c.c.] of water is very useful in case of
impacted faeces, in which the rectum is so full that there is not
sufficient room for a larger enema. [One to two ounces ; 30. to
60. gm. of oxgall in a pint ; 500 c.c., of water would be much
more likely to be successful. According to Fraser bile has some
antitoxic power with reference to the poisons produced by patho-
genic micro-organisms.]


[HONEY. A saccharine secretion deposited in the honey-comb by Apis
mellifica Linne (class Insecta ; order Hymenoptera). Habitat. Domesti-

CHARACTERS. A syrupy liquid of a light yellowish to pale yellowish-
brown color, translucent when fresh, but gradually becoming opaque and
crystalline, having a characteristic, aromatic odor, and a sweet, faintly acrid

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Dextrose or Grape Sugar.
(2) Glucose or Fruit Sugar. (3) Wax. (4) Volatile oil. (5) Formic Acid,
a minute quantity. ]


Mel Despumatum. Clarified Honey. Melt Honey in a water-
bath, and strain while hot, adding 5 per cent, of Glycerin.

Clarified Honey is contained in Confectio Rosae and Mel Rosae.
[Dose, freely.]

Honey is a demulcent, relieving dryness of the mouth and
facilitating swallowing. Oxymel, [clarified honey 8, acetic acid
i, water i], is a useful preparation. It is a common ingredient
of cough mixtures. Honey is a mild laxative, and may be given
to children for this purpose.



[Animal Digestants.

Pepsin and Pancreatin.]

PEPSIN. [A proteolytic ferment or enzyme obtained from the glandular
layer of fresh stomachs from healthy pigs, (Sus scrofa Linn ; class Mam-
malia ; order Pachydermata), and capable of digesting not less than 3000
times its own weight of freshly coagulated and disintegrated egg albumin.
Habitat. Domesticated.

SOURCE. The mucous membrane of a pig's stomach, dissected off and
finely chopped, is macerated in water acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid for
several days, with frequent stirring. The strained liquor is decanted and So-
dium Chloride mixed with it. After several hours the floating mixture is
skimmed from the surface and placed in cotton cloth to drain, and finally sub-
mitted to strong pressure to get rid of the saline solution.

CHARACTERS. A fine white, or yellowish-white, amorphous powder, or
thin, pale yellow or yellowish, transparent or translucent grains or scales, free
from any offensive odor, and having a mildly acidulous or slightly saline taste,
usually followed by a suggestion of bitterness. It slowly attracts moisture
when exposed to the air. Solubility. Soluble, or for the most part soluble, in
about 100 parts of water, with more or less opalescence ; more soluble in water
acidulated with Hydrochloric Acid ; insoluble in Alcohol, Ether or Chloroform.

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; .30 to 4.00 gm.


Pepsinum Saccharatum. Saccharated Pepsin. Pepsin, lo ;
Sugar of Milk, 90. By trituration. Saccharated Pepsin should digest
300 times its own weight of freshly coagulated and disintegrated egg

Dose, 5 to 60 gr. ; .30 to 4.00 gm.]


Pepsin may be given to help gastric digestion in those in
whom from old age or long illness the secretion of gastric juice
is deficient. Thus, for example, it is useful in convalescence
from acute illness or in cases of cancer of the stomach. It is of
no use as an aid to the digestion of fatty or carbo-hydrate food.
It should be given in a powder or a pill directly after meal* and
should be followed in about half an hour by a dose of


chloric acid. The pepsin should be tested before use, as many
preparations in the market are inert powders.

Pepsin may be used to predigest albuminous food, either for
administration by the mouth or the rectum. Often this is better
than giving pepsin internally, for morbid processes may be going
on in the stomach which prevent digestion. The rectum has
very feeble powers of digestion, and therefore nutrient enemata
or suppositories should always be predigested. It is found that
for predigestion pancreatin (see below) is usually a more reliable
preparation than pepsin. Both should be employed with judg-
ment, for there is a likelihood that if artificial digestion be used
too long, the digestive functions of the stomach may [become
incapable of action] from want of use.

The following directions for peptonizing meat may be fol-
lowed. Take one pound [450. gm.] of lean meat, reduce to a
fine pulp, add six times its weight of water containing 0.2 per
cent, of hydrochloric acid and i2ogr. [8. gm.] of pepsin. Di-
gest at 120 F. [48. C.] in a porcelain digester for five or six
hours with frequent stirring. Then neutralize with sodium car-
bonate, boil and filter. Evaporate the filtrate on a water bath
till it is of the consistency of a soft extract.

Peptonized meat suppositories are often very valuable. To
make one suppository 30 gr. [2. gm.] of the above -extract is
mixed with 40 gr. [2.40 gm.] of oil of theobroma, and moulded
in a conical mould.


PANCREATIN. Synonym. Zymine. A mixture of the enzymes
naturally existing in the pancreas of warm-blooded animals, usually obtained
from the fresh pancreas of healthy pigs (Sus scrofa Linng ; class Mammalia;
order Pachydermata}. Habitat. Domesticated.

SOURCE. Macerate the cut-up pancreas in water acidulated with Hydro-
chloric Acid for forty-eight hours, add a saturated solution of Sodium Chloride,
allow to stand until the Pancreatin rises to the surface ; skim this, drain in
a muslin filter, wash with a less concentrated solution of salt until nearly dry ;
then rub up with Sugar of Milk, dry thoroughly without heat, and dilute with
Sugar of Milk, until 10 gr. ; .60 gm. , will just emulsify 2 fl. dr.; 8. c.c. of Cod
Liver Oil.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish, yellowish-white, or grayish, amorphous


powder, odorless, or having a faint, peculiar, not unpleasant odor, and a some-
what meat-like taste. Solubility. Slowly and almost completely soluble in
water, insoluble in Alcohol.

Dose, 5 to 15 gr. ; .30 to i.oo gm.]


Pancreatin has the power of converting starch into sugar, al-
bumin and fibrin into peptones, and first curdling and then pep-
tonizing milk. It will not act in an acid medium nor above
140 F. [60 C.]. The directions for peptonizing milk are
given on p. 688. [It is used as an artificial agent to assist the
digestion of invalids and of old persons, or those prostrated by
fever or exhaustion. Also by means of this, food may be par-
tially or wholly digested previous to administration. It should
be used in combination with an alkali, as sodium bicarbonate,
in the proportion of i to 4. Nutritive enemata should be
thoroughly pancreatized.]

[Animal Drugs which are also Foods.

Cod Liver Oil, Milk, Extract of Meat.]

COD LIVER OIL. Synonym. [Oleum Jecoris Aselli. A fixed oil
obtained from fresh livers of Gadus Morrhua Linne, and of other species of
Gadus (class Pisces: order Teleostia ; family Gadida.} Habitat. North
Atlantic Ocean. An oil obtained from the Candle fish ( Thaleichthys Pacificus]
is found in the markets under the name of Eulachon Oil and is sometimes sold
as Cod Liver Oil.

SOURCE. The fresh livers are slowly heated, and the oil is decanted from
the water, and sometimes deprived of the solid fat by partial freezing.

CHARACTERS. A pale yellow, thin, oily liquid, having a peculiar, slightly
fishy, but not rancid odor, and a bland, slightly fishy taste. Sp. gr., 0.920 to
0.925. Solubility. Scarcely soluble in Alcohol, but readily soluble in Ether,
Chloroform, or Carbon Bisulphide ; also in 2.5 parts of Acetic Ether.

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Olein, 70 per cent., which
is a fluid fixed oil, and is Glycerin Oleate the most abundant constituent of
Cod Liver Oil. (2) Palmitin, with some Stearin, 25 per cent. (3) Free


fatty acids, as Oleic, Palmitic, Stearic. (4) Gaduin, CjjH^Og, a peculiar
principle, very insoluble in ordinary menstrua. (5) Morrhuol, a crystalline
substance of uncertain composition, containing Phosphorus, Iodine and Bro-
mine. (6) Traces of Iodine and Bromine. (7) Biliary principles. The so-
called alkaloids of Cod Liver Oil are decomposition products, ptomaines or
cadaveric alkaloids, and are found in larger quantities in the brown oils. Their
existence in fresh oil obtained from healthy livers has not been demonstrated.]
Dose, i to 4 fl. dr. ; [4. to 15. c.c.]


External. Cod liver oil is a bland unirritating oil. If it is
desired to administer it in cases in which it is rejected by the
stomach, it may be rubbed into the skin. The oil is certainly
absorbed when applied in this way.

Internal. Gastro-inte stinal tract. Cod liver oil, even more
than other oils, is liable to cause indigestion, nausea, and sick-
ness. Large doses may set up diarrhoea. It is more readily
absorbed than other oils. Loops of intestine have been isolated
in the lower animals, and into each loop different oils have been
injected. The intestines are returned to the abdominal cavity,
and after some time the animal is killed and the loops are
opened. It is always found that the cod liver oil has been more
rapidly absorbed than any other oil. The facility with which
cod liver oil is absorbed is also shown by the fact that it often
cannot be recognized in the faeces, although equal quantities of
other oils taken by the mouth are passed tinaltered. Some
authorities believe that the superior absorbability of cod liver oil
depends on the biliary principles contained in it, but this is
doubtful ; others think that it is because the presence of free
acids facilitates saponification and emulsion. Certainly it con-
tains more free fatty acids than other oils, and it also emulsifies
much more easily.

Tissues. Not only is cod liver oil more readily absorbed than
other oils, but it is a better food. All oils lead to an increased
formation of fat, but cod liver oil is the most powerful in this
respect. It reduces the color of a solution of potassium per-
manganate more readily than other oils that is to say, it is more
readily oxidized. Thus, as it is more easily absorbed and more


easily oxidized, we have a partial explanation of its peculiar value
in increasing the weight of the body ; but the general belief is
that these two facts do not wholly explain the action of cod liver
oil, and that it has some peculiar specific action not yet under-
stood, especially upon those suffering from phthisis for whom it
is a very valuable drug. [If it is true, as has been stated, that
iodine may occur in the proportion of i to 2000 of the oil, the
influence of this remedy is not to be ignored.]


External. The smell of cod liver oil is so disagreeable that
it should not be rubbed in externally unless this treatment be
absolutely necessary.

Internal. Cod liver oil is of the greatest service in all varie-
ties of tuberculous disease, the centra-indications being high
temperature, severe haemoptysis and dyspepsia, vomiting, or
diarrhoea, whether primary or induced by the oil. Patients
often improve in every way under its influence. With the same
exceptions it may be administered with great advantage in
rickets, and in any chronic disease associated with loss of flesh,
such as suppuration, convalescence from acute disease, tertiary
syphilis and starvation. It is often of benefit in the chronic
bronchitis and the chronic eczema of childhood. It is frequently
given with success in neuralgia, general feebleness, despondency
and other nervous conditions. Formerly it was often prescribed
for chronic rheumatism. Many persons cannot, or imagine they
cannot, take it on account of its [unpleasant] taste. There are
in the market several preparations of cod liver oil in which, by
careful preparation, the disagreeable taste is almost abolished.
Ten minims [.60 c.c.] of pure ether, with a [minim] or two [.06
to .12 c.c.] of oil of peppermint or cloves, will, when mixed
with a dose of cod liver oil, often render it more palatable.
Sometimes it is taken in [soft] capsules, or made into a jelly with
isinglass, or a little salt is put into the mouth after the oil is
taken, or the mouth is rinsed out with brandy beforehand.
Sometimes it is taken in coffee, but perhaps the best way is to
form an emulsion of it. A very nutritious one is made by rub-


bing together equal parts of [extract of malt] and cod liver oil,
and in this the oil can hardly be tasted [but it is likely to re-

The British Pharmaceutical Conference advises rne following
emulsion : Cod liver oil, 8 fl. oz. [240. c.c.]; the yolk of two
eggs; tragacanth in powder, 16 gr. [i. gm.]; elixir of [saccharin
(saccharin,] 24 gr.; [1.50 gm.] ;. sodium bicarbonate, 12 gr.
[.75 gm.] ; alcohol, i fl. dr. [4. c.c.]; disti-lled water, 7 fl. dr.
[28. c.c.]), i fl. dr. [4. c.c.]; tincture of benzoin, i fl. dr. ;
[4. c.c.] ; spirit of chloroform, 4 fl. dr.;[i5- c.c.]; oil of bitter
almond, 8 m. ; [.50 c.c.]; distilled water to 16 fl. oz.; [500.

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 60 of 67)