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c.c.]. Dose, 2 to 8 fl. dr.; [8. to 30. c.c.]. It is frequently
desirable to give cod liver oil with iron. In that case the fol-
lowing preparation, in which the oil is emulsified with an alkali,
will be found useful : Cod liver oil, 4 fl. dr.; [15. c.c.]; iron
and ammonium citrate, 5 gr.; [.30 gm.]; potassium carbonate,
3 gr.; [.20 gm. ; saccharin,] * gr. [.015 gm.]; oil of caraway,
^ m. ; [.015 c.c.] ; water to i fl. oz. ; [30. c.c.].


[MILK. Not official. The fresh milk of the cow, Bos Taurus. (Ord.
Ruminantia. ) Habitat. Domesticated. ]


PREPARATION. Take half a pint [240. c.c.] of skimmed milk; heat it
to about 96 F. ; [35.5 C. ] and put into the warmed milk a piece of rennet
an inch [2.5 cm.] square, or a teaspoonful [4. c.c.] of essence of rennet.
Put the milk in a fender, or over a lamp, until it is quite warm. As soon as it is
set, remove the rennet, break up the curd into small pieces with a knife, and
let it stand for ten or fifteen minutes; the curd will then sink. Then pour
the whey into a saucepan and boil quickly. Measure one-third of a pint [160.
c.c.] of this whey, and dissolve in it, while it is hot, 1 10 gr. [7. gm.] of Sugar
of Milk. When this third of a pint [160. c.c.] of whey is cold, add to it two-
thirds of a pint [320. c.c.] of new milk and two teaspoonfuls ; [8. c.c.] of
cream and stir. The food should be made fresh every twelve hours, and
warmed as required. Care should be taken to select an essence of rennet
which does not make the milk taste.

Artificial human milk is invaluable as a food for infants whose
mothers cannot suckle them. Many cases of infantile diarrhoea,


indigestion, and sickness can be cured by substituting this milk
for the usual milk and water, or infants' food. Some large dairy
firms supply it, but it is cheaper to make it at home, and the
above directions are easily carried out. When bought it is often
sterilized and sold in air-tight bottles. It should be remembered
that a long-continued diet of sterilized milk may, in children,
cause rickets.

PEPTONIZED MILK. (Not official.)

PREPARATION. Mix a pint [480. c.c.] of milk with 5 fl. oz. [150. c.c.]
of water. Heat to 140 F. "[60 C.], and add Liquor Pancreatis, [B. P.] I
fl. dr. [4. c.c.]; and Sodium Bicarbonate, 20 gr. ; [1.20 gm.]. Leave the
mixture at the ordinary temperature of the room for three hours, or if kept at
about 135 F. [57.2 C.] for about half an hour, then heat for a moment to
boiling point. If too much pancreatic solution is used the milk is bitter. [This
preparation should be kept on ice until required.]

Peptonized milk is used in many conditions in which it is
thought that the gastric digestion is too feeble to digest ordinary
milk, or in which it is desired, as sometimes, in typhoid fever,
for instance, to avoid the curdling of milk in the stomach. Milk
should always be peptonized before being introduced into an
enema. An usual nutrient enema consists of the yolk of an egg
and milk up to four fluid ounces [120. c.c.]. This mixture may
be peptonized in just the same way and with the same quantity
of peptonizing agents as the pint [480. c.c.] of milk. Thirty
grains; [2. gm.] of common salt should be added to the enema
before use.

KUMYSS. (Not official). [This is frequently written, Koumiss.]
PREPARATION. Dissolve 4 dr. [15 gm.] of grape sugar in 4 fl. oz. [120.
c.c.] of water and 20 gr. [1.20 gm.] of yeast in 4 fl. oz. [120. c.c.] of cow's
milk. Pour both into a bottle holding a quart [960. c.c.], which is then filled
up with milk, corked, wired, and put in a cool place and frequently shaken for
four days.


Kumyss contains a little alcohol and is extremely useful as a
stimulant food in convalescence, in phthisis, and other conditions
of exhaustion. [It is also used for the same purposes as milk ; it


is usually more agreeable to the patient and is often borne by the
stomach when all other food is vomited. The above is a very
good substitute for the kumyss drunk by the Tartars, who prepare
it by fermenting mare's milk.]


EXTRACT OF MEAT. (Not official). This preparation has for
its object the obtaining the nutritive matters of the flesh of animals in a per-
manent concentrated state.

SOURCE. Equal parts of meat and cold water. Straining, evaporation
and straining.

CHARACTERS. Reddish-brown in color, of a slightly acrid taste, and
frequently of a disagreeable odor.

COMPOSITION. 100 parts of meat yield 25 of extract. It is rich in ni-
trogenous principles, but contains neither fat nor gelatin. The method of
Liebig has been followed, with variations, by a large number of manufacturers.
The product, however, by no means represents the nutritive qualities of the
meat itself, because the albumin and fibrin are largely wanting, besides an
endeavor is put forth to get rid of the gelatin and fat. Of late the attempt has
been made to retain these important nutritive principles. The beef meal
which was used by Debove in his method of forced feeding (gavage) was
practically desiccated beef; but it did not have its highest nutritive value be-
cause it was, to a considerable extent, composed of insoluble matters. The
more recent preparations are based upon the classical studies of Wurtz which
showed that in the juice of the Carica papaya (nat. ord. Passiflora) was a
principle, called papain, capable of converting albuminoids into soluble albu-
moses and peptones. The fact that a similar vegetable digestive principle
exists in the juice of the pine-apple and allied plants of the nat. ord. Brome-
liacea, as was first shown by Marcano, has been utilized in the manufacture of
the Mosquera-Julia beef meal, where the process of digestion is carried on
before desiccation, or it may be made as a jelly. The advantages of a vege-
table over an animal pepsin, the greater acceptability to weak stomachs, the
avoidance of the unpleasant taste and the disagreeable odor, and absence of
bitterness are very important. By this method the preparation contains only
ten per cent, of water, has four times the amount of albuminoid matter pre-
sent in average lean beef, one-half of which is already in an assimilable form,
and about three times as much fat, in addition. Besides, it is very convenient
for administration.


Extract of meat is useful as a nutrient and a stimulant in re-
lieving prostration and fatigue. The solution seasoned with cap-
sicum is valuable in alcoholic excess and delirium tremens. In



the infantile bowel disturbances, when milk must be forbidden,
it is often indicated. In phthisis it will frequently sustain the
patient ; in the aged it will support life without taxing the di-
gestive powers. The amount to be used should be regulated by
the age and condition of the patient.]


[Animal Emollients.
Lard, Spermaceti, Egg.]


LARD. [The prepared internal fat of the abdomen of Sus scrofa Linne
(class Mammalia; order Pachydermata), purified by washing with water,
melting, and straining. Habitat. Domesticated.

CHARACTERS. A soft, white, unctuous solid, having a faint odor free
from rancidity, and a bland taste. Solubility. Insoluble in water; very
slightly soluble in Alcohol ; readily soluble in Ether, Chloroform, Carbon
Bisulphide or Benzin. Sp. gr., about 0.932 at 59 F. ; 15 C.]

COMPOSITION. (i) Olein, 60 per cent. (2) Stearin. (3) Palmitin.
Adeps Induratus (Indurated Lard), which is ordinary lard deprived of a portion
of its oil by pressure, may be used in [hot climates] when the high temperature
renders ordinary lard too soft for use in ointments.


1. [Adeps Benzoinatus. See Benzoin, p. 656.

2. Ceratum. Cerate. White Wax, 300 ; lard, 700.

3. Ceratum Resinae. See Resin, p. 523.

4. Unguentum. Ointment Lard, 800 ; Yellow Wax, 200.

OLEUM AD I PIS. Lard Oil. A fixed oil expressed from Lard at a
low temperature.

CHARACTERS. A colorless, or pale yellow oily liquid, having a peculiar
odor, and a bland taste. Sp. gr., 0.910 to 0.920.

COMPOSITION. (i) Olein. (2) Palmitin. (3) Stearin.]


Lard is an emollient, and is used as a basis for ointments when
it is wished that the active ingredient should be absorbed, for


lard melts at the temperature of the body, especially if bandaged
on. The [benzoinated] lard has the advantage of not quickly

becoming rancid.


SPERMACETI. [A peculiar, concrete, fatty substance, obtained from
the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus Linne ^class Mammalia ; order
Cetacea. Habitat. Pacific and Indian Oceans.

CHARACTERS. White, somewhat translucent, slightly unctuous masses of
a scaly-crystalline fracture and a pearly lustre ; odorless, and having a bland,
mild taste. It becomes yellowish and rancid by exposure to air. Sp. gr.,
about 0.945. Solubility. Insoluble in water, and nearly so in cold Alcohol ;
also in Ether, Chloroform, Carbon Bisulphide, fixed and volatile oils ; only
slightly soluble in cold Benzin.]

COMPOSITION. It is mainly Celylic Alcohol, CjjHjjOH, which in combi-
nation with Palmitic Acid, HC 16 H 31 O,,, forms a fat, Cetin, CjjHjjCjgHjjOj.


[i. Ceratum Cetacei. Spermaceti Cerate. Spermaceti, 100
White Wax, 350 ; Olive Oil, 550.

2. Unguentum Aquae Rosas. See Rose, p. 556.]


Spermaceti is used as an emollient and as a basis for ointments

[and cerates].


YOLK OF EGG. The yolk of the egg of Callus Bankiva, var. do-
mestica Temminck (class Aves ; order Gallina). Habitat. Java and Cochin
China ; domesticated.

COMPOSITION. (i) Vitellin, 16 per cent. (2) Fat, 30 per cent. (3) In-
organic Salts, Cholesterin, Lecithin, and coloring matter.

Glyceritum Vitelli. See Glycerin, p. 608.


Yolk of egg is used to make emulsions and is nutritive and


EGG ALBUMIN. Not official. The liquid white of egg of Callus
Bankiva^ var. domestica. Habitat. Java and Cochin China ; domesticated.



Egg albumin is an antidote to poisoning by corrosives and
irritants, especially corrosive mercuric chloride, copper sulphate,
lead salts and silver nitrate. Like the yolk it is nutritive and


[Animal Coloring Agents.


COCHINEAL. [Synonyms. Cochineal Bug. Red Scale Insect. The
dried female of Coccus cacti Linne (class Insecta ; order Hemiptera) . Habitat.
Mexico and Central America ; upon Opuntia cochinillifera, Miller and
other species.

CHARACTERS. About 5 mm. long, of a purplish-gray or purplish-black
color ; somewhat oblong and angular in outline ; flat or concave beneath ;
convex above ; transversely wrinkled ; easily pulverizable, yielding a dark red
powder; odor faint ; taste slightly bitterish.]

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (l) Carminic Acid, [C 17 H, 8
O 10> 10 per cent., a glucoside. ' (2) Coccerin, a wax. (3) Fat, consisting of
myristin, and fatty acids.] Sulphuric acid and several other reagents precipi-
tate from its' decoction the well-known coloring matter carmine.

Cochineal is contained in Tinctura Cardamomi Composita.


Cochineal is only used as a coloring agent. [The B. P. directs
a tincture to be made by maceration of cochineal, i; alcohol (45
per cent.), 10.]

[Animal Drugs whose action is Mechanical.

Suet, Curd Soap, Stearic Acid, Wool Fat, Isinglass, Sugar of Milk,
Wax, Gelatin, Cantharides, Ichthyol.]


SUET. [Synonym. Mutton Suet. The internal fat of the abdomen of
Ovis Aries Linne (class Mammalia ; order Ruminantia}, purified by melting
and straining. Habitat. Domesticated.


CHARACTERS. A white, solid fat, nearly inodorous, and having a bland
taste when fresh, but becoming rancid on prolonged exposure to the air.
Solubility. Insoluble in water or cold Alcohol ; soluble in about 60 parts of
Ether, and slowly in 2 parts of Benzin.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (i) Stearin. (2) Palmitin.
(3) Olein. (4) Hircin.

Suet is contained in Unguentum Hydrargyri.

Suet is used chiefly in cerates.]


CURD SOAP [B. P., not official.] Soap made with sodium [hydrate]
and a purified animal fat consisting principally of Stearin. It is chiefly Sodium
Stearate, but contains some Sodium Palmitate and about 30 per cent, of water.


Curd soap is used as a basis [for plasters, liniments, pills and
suppositories. Emplastrum Saponis consists of curd soap, 10;
lead plaster, 36; resin, 12. Emplastrum Saponis Fuscum
(brown soap plaster) is curd soap, 20 ; yellow wax, 25 ; olive
oil, 40; lead oxide, 30; vinegar, 320.]


STEARIC ACID. HC 18 H 35 O 2 =283.38.

SOURCE. An organic acid, in its commercial, more or less impure form,
usually obtained from the more solid fats, chiefly tallow from the ox, Bos
Taurus Linn6 ; (class Mammalia; order Ruminantia), Habitat. Domes-
ticated. By boiling with soda-lye, the Stearin is decomposed, Sodium Stear-
ate being formed with the liberation of Glycerin. C 3 H 6 (C 18 H 35 O 2 ) 3 -f 3NaOH
=C 3 H 5 (OH) 3 -|-3NaCj 8 H 35 O 2 . The soap is decomposed by heating with
water and Sulphuric Acid, setting free the fatty acids which are removed and
purified with hot Alcohol. On cooling, Stearic Acid will separate.

CHARACTERS. A hard, white, somewhat glossy solid, odorless and taste-
less, and permanent in the air. Solubility. Insoluble in water ; soluble in
about 45 parts of Alcohol at 59 F. ; 15 C., readily soluble in boiling Alcohol,
and in Ether.


Stearic acid is used in the manufacture of glycerin supposi-
tories. In combination with zinc and copper, as stearates of those
metals, unofficial preparations have been introduced and used


with success in the treatment of various diseases of the skin and

mucous membranes.]


WOOL FAT. [B. P., not official.] The purified cholesterin fat ob-
tained as a bye-product in the dressing of sheep's wool.

SOURCE. Sheep's wool, washed with cold water, then subjected to heat
and pressure, yields impure wool fat. This is purified by melting, washing
with alkali, and then washed with an acid while it is heated.

CHARACTERS. Semi-transparent, pale yellow, tenacious body. Ignited,
it burns with a sooty flame. Melts between 100 and 112 F. ; [37.7 and
44.4 C.] ; odor like sheep's wool. Solubility. Freely in Chloroform and in
Ether, partially in Alcohol. Insoluble in water, but on vigorous stirring takes
up \]^ times its weight.

COMPOSITION. Before the separation of the fatty acids it consists of (l)
Cholesterin and Isocholesterin, 70 per cent. (2) Fatty acids, 30 per cent.


HYDROUS WOOL-FAT. Synonyms. Lanolin. [CEsypum. The
purified fat of the wool of sheep (Ovis Aries, Linne ; class Mammalia ; order
Ruminantia), mixed with not more than 30 per cent, of water. Habitat.

SOURCE. Sheep's wool is. treated with a weak soda solution, and the
solution acidulated. The remaining wool is treated with Benzin, the liquid
distilled, and the residue deprived of color by oxidizing agents, or sunlight.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish-white or nearly white, ointment-like mass,
having a faint, peculiar odor. Solubility. Insoluble in water, but miscible
with twice its weight of the latter, without losing its ointment-like character.

COMPOSITION. Its chief constituents are (I) Cholesterin, C 26 H 43 (OH).
(2) Ethers of Stearic, Palmitic, Oleic, Valerianic and other acids.]

Hydrous wool-fat when gently rubbed in the skin is more
quickly absorbed than most fats, hence it is a useful basis if we
wish to administer substances as, for example, mercury by
inunction. [It is undoubtedly soothing to the skin, and often
makes an excellent basis for ointments expected to act especially

upon the skin.]


ISINGLASS. The swimming-bladder of Acipenser Huso Linne, and
of other species of Acipenser (class Pisces ; order Sturiones). Habitat.
Caspian and Black Seas and tributary rivers.

CHARACTERS. In separate sheets, sometimes rolled, of a horny or pearly


appearance ; whitish or yellowish, semi-transparent, iridescent, inodorous,
and insipid. Solubility. Almost entirely soluble in boiling water and in boil-
ing diluted Alcohol. A solution of Isinglass in 24 parts of boiling water
forms, on cooling, a transparent jelly.

COMPOSITION. (i) Gelatin (Gluten], 98 per cent. (2) Insoluble mem-
brane, about 2 per cent.

Dose, freely.


Emplastrum Ichthyocollae.' Isinglass plaster. Synonym.
Court plaster. Isinglass, to ; Alcohol, 40 ; Glycerin, I ; Hot Water
sufficient for solution. To be applied with a brush upon taffeta, pre-
viously coated on the back with Tincture of Benzoin.


Isinglass is an emollient and nutritive substance, and is chiefly
used externally as a protective. A better court plaster has gold-
beaters' skin as a base.]


SUGAR OF MILK. Synonym. Lactose. C, 2 H 22 O n +H 2 O[=359.i6.
A peculiar, crystal line sugar, obtained from the whey of cow's milk by evapo-
ration, and purified by re-crystallization (Bos Taurus Linne ; class Mammalia;
order Kuminantia). Habitat. Domesticated.

CHARACTERS. White, hard, crystalline masses, yielding a white powder
feeling gritty on the tongue, odorless and having a faintly sweet taste. Per-
manent in the air. Solubility. In about 6 parts of water; insoluble in Al-
cohol, Ether or Chloroform.]

Sugar of Milk is used in [Pulvis Ipecacuanhae et Opii, and Trituratio

Dose, indefinite.]


Sugar of milk is used as a vehicle for triturations of substances,
because being very hard it thoroughly divides them, and also it
is but slightly deliquescent. For these reasons it is used as a dil-
uent to get extracts to the required strength. It is employed
to sweeten infants' foods. [It is a non-nitrogenous, bland article
of diet and has been used in consumption and other wasting dis-.
eases. According to See, it is a diuretic which may be employed
to advantage in cardiac dropsy.]



[CERA FLAVA. Yellow Wax. A peculiar, concrete substance, pre-
pared by Apis mellifica Linn6 (class Insecta ; order Hymenoptera}.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish to brownish-yellow solid, having an agree-
able, honey-like odor, and faint balsamic taste. Sp. gr., 0.955 to 0.967.
Solubility. Insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in cold Alcohol. It is com-
pletely soluble in Ether, Chloroform, and in fixed and volatile oils.

COMPOSITION. The principal constituents are (I) Hydrocarbons (pro-
bably C 27 H M and C^H^) about 12 per cent. (2) Cerin or Cerotic Acid,
C 27 H 54 Oj. (3) Myricin or Myrical Palmitate, C 30 H 61 ,C 16 H 31 O 2 , the principal
constituent. (4) An Alcohol, CjjH 62 O, in small quantities. (5) Ceiylic Al-
cohol, C 27 H 56 O.

Yellow Wax is used in Ceratum Cantharidis, Ceratum Resinse, Unguen-
tum, and Unguentum Picis Liquidae.

CERA ALBA. White Wax. Made by bleaching yellow wax by ex-
posure to moisture, air and light.

CHARACTERS. A yellowish-white solid, somewhat translucent in thin
layers, having a slightly rancid odor,, and an insipid taste. Sp. gr., 0.965 to

COMPOSITION. As of yellow wax.

White Wax is used in Ceratum, Ceratum Camphone, Ceratum Cetacei
and Unguentum Aquae Rosse.]


Yellow and white wax are only used as bases for many plas-
ters, [cerates] and ointments.


GELATIN. [B. P., not official]. The air-dried product of the action
of boiling water on gelatinous tissues, as skin, tendons, ligaments, and bone.

CHARACTERS. In translucent sheets or shreds. The solution in hot water
is colorless and inodorous ; it solidifies to a jelly on cooling. It is insoluble
in Alcohol and Ether. Its aqueous solution is precipitated by Tannic Acid.]


Gelatin is useful as a basis for suppositories, pessaries, bougies,
capsules, lozenges, and as a coating for pills. Glycogelatin
(gelatin, 2 ; glycerin, 5 ; orange flower water, 5 ; colored with
carmine) is an excellent basis for throat pastilles. Each should
weigh 30 gr. [2. gm.]. Almost any drug can be incorporated
in such pastilles. Medicated gelatin is often melted and painted
on the skin in cutaneous diseases.



CANTHARIDES. [Sy0j<wj. Spanish Flies. Blister Beetles. The
Cantharis vesicatoria De Geer (class Insecta ; order Coleoplera.) Habitat.
Southern and Central Europe, mainly on Oleaceae and Caprifoliacae.

CHARACTERS. About 25 mm. long and 6 mm. broad ; flattish cylindrical,
with filiform antennae, black in the upper part, and with long wing-cases and
ample, membranous, transparent, brownish wings ; elsewhere of a shining,
coppery-green color. The powder is grayish-brown, and contains green
shining particles. Odor strong and disa'greeable ; taste slight, afterwards

COMPOSITION. The chief constituents are (i) Cantkaridin, C 10 H 12 O 4 ,
0.4 to I per cent., the active principle, a crystallizable body forming colorless
plates, soluble in Alcohol, Ether, Acetic Ether, Glacial Acetic Acid, Chloro-
form, and oils. It is found especially in the generative apparatus, the eggs,
and the blood. (2) A volatile oil giving the odor and said to have the same
action as Cantharidin. (3) A green oil, the coloring principle, closely allied
to chlorophyll. (4) [Various extractives and salts.]


[i. Ceratum Cantharidis. Cantharides Cerate. Cantharides,
320; Yellow Wax, 180; Resin, 180 ; Lard, 220; Oil of Turpentine,

Cantharides Cerate is contained in Emplastrum Picis Canthari-
datum. See Burgundy Pitch, p. 522.

2. Collodium Cantharidatum. See Pyroxylin, p. 665.

3. Tinctura Cantharidis. Tincture of Cantharides. Canthar-
ides, 5 ! by percolation with Alcohol to 1000.

Dose, i to 15 m. ; .06 to i.oo c.c.]


External. Cantharides is a powerful irritant ; but it is
slower in its action than most [irritants]. If any of its prepara-
tions are applied to the skin, no effect is noticed for two or three
hours ; then a tingling, burning pain is perceived. Soon the part
becomes red from vascular dilatation, the dnig now producing its
rubefacient effect. The next stage is the formation of several
vesicles. These soon run together to form one large bleb full of
clear serum. Not only is cantharides an irritant and vesicant,
but it is a powerful counter-irritant, probably dilating by re-
flex action the vessels of the deep-seated organs under the point
of application.


Cantharidin can be absorbed by the skin in sufficient quantity
to produce internal effects.

Internal. Cantharides is hardly used internally in medicine,
as it is such a powerful irritant.

Gastro-intestinal tract. It produces severe gastro-intesti-
nal irritation, the patient suffering from abdominal pain, diar-
rhoea and vomiting. There may be a burning pain in the throat ;
the motions and vomited matters may contain blood. These
symptoms naturally cause much general depression.

Genito -urinary tract. The active principle is absorbed into
the blood, and a few hours after the gastro-intestinal symptoms
have set in the patient complains of great pain in the loins
and strangury that is to say, there is an urgent desire to [urin-
ate] ; the effort is very painful from vesical tenesmus, and the
quantity of urine passed is very small ; it may contain albumin

and blood.


External. Cantharides is the basis of many preparations
the object of which is to stimulate the growth of hair, such as
the following: Acetum cantharidis [B. P., cantharides, i; gla-
cial acetic acid, 5 ; water], i; glycerin, i; spiritus rosmarini,
i; water, 10. Cantharides is very largely employed to raise a
blister, and it is of all drugs the most commonly used counter-
irritant. It is applied to the chest in pleurisy, over the pericar-
dium in pericarditis, over the inflamed nerves in neuritis, over
the mastoid process in disease of the ear, over joints with chronic
effusion into them, over the stomach when there is gastric pain,

Online LibraryWilliam Hale-WhiteMateria medica, pharmacy, pharmacology and therapeutics → online text (page 61 of 67)