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Archives of Maryland



Council of Maryland

April I, 1778— October 26, 1779

Published by Authority of the State, under the Direction
OF THE Maryland Historical Society




Maryland Historical Society






Rooms of the Maryland Historical Society.

Baltimore, November lo, 1901.

To the Maryland Historical Society:

Gentlemen :

We have the honor to submit the Twenty-first Volume of the Mary-
land Archives, being the Proceedings and Correspondence of the
Council of Maryland from April i, 1778, to October 26, 1779.


Clayton C. Hall,
Henry Stockbridge, Jr.
Bernard C. Steiner,



The following volumes have been published :


Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, 1637/ 8-1664, ^^^3

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly, i 666-1 676, - 1884

Proceedings of the Council, 1636-1667, 1885


Judicial and Testamentary Records of the Provincial Court,

1637-1650, 1887

Proceedings OF THE Council, 1 667-1 687/8, 1887


Correspondence OF Governor Horatio Sharpe, I, 1753-1757, - 1888

Proceedings AND Acts OF THE General Assembly, 1678-1683, - 1889

Proceedings OF THE Council, 1 687/ 8-1 693, 1890


Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, II, 175 7-1 761, - 1890

Archives of Maryland. v



1650-1657, I89I


Journal of the Maryland Convention, Julv 26-AuG. 14, 1775 \
Journal and Correspondence of the Counch. of Safety, Aug.!- 1892
29. 1775-Jui.Y 6, 1776, )


Journal and Correspondence of the Counch, of Safety, July 7-

Dec. 31, 1776, 1893

Proceedings and Acts of THE General Assembly, 1 684-1 692, - 1894

Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, III, 1761-1771, 1895

Proceedings of THE Council, 1671-1681, 1896


Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Safety, Jan. ^

i-March 20, 1777, Journal and Correspondence of the \ 1897
State Council, March 20, 1777-MARCH 28, 1778, J

Proceedings OF the Council, 1681-1685/6, 1898

Muster Rolls and Other Records of Service of Maryland

Troops in the American Revolution, 1899

Proceedings and Acts of the General Assembly of Maryland,

September, 1693-JuNE, 1697, ^899

Proceedings of THE Council, 1 693- 1 697, 1900


Journal and Correspondence of the Council of Maryland,

April i, 1778-OcTOBER 26, 1779, 1901


The trying winter of 1777-8 passed without any attempt on the part
of Howe to molest the army, weakened by sickness and desertion, in
cantonments at Valley Forge. In March, Count Pulaski, a distinguished
Polish officer who had offered his services to the patriotic cause and
been appointed brigadier general, undertook the formation of an
independent corps of horse and foot, known as Pulaski's Legion, or
"the Maryland Legion" (p. 341). He established his headquarters in
Baltimore, and the Legion was made part of the Maryland contingent
in the Continental service.

During this winter a treaty of alliance had been concluded between
the United States and France, and in the spring a French fleet under
Count d'Estaing arrived to cooperate with the Americans, bringing
with them an ambassador, Alexander Gerard, accredited to the States.

On June 27, Sir Henry Clinton, who had succeeded Howe, evacuated
Philadelphia, and moving towards New York was met by the Americans
at Monmouth Court House, New Jersey. In the engagement which
followed, the misconduct of Major General Charles Lee threw the
American forces into confusion, and a great disaster was averted only
by the prompt action of Washington, who ordered Ramsay and his
Marylanders to check the British advance until he could re-form his line.
When order was restored, the enemy were driven from the field, but
the victory cost the life of the gallant Ramsay.

American affairs were still in a very critical state. Much apathy pre-
vailed among the people, who cherished the delusion that the war was
nearly over; a feeling largely due to hand-bills which Howe had circu-
lated containing drafts of Acts of Parliament, making certain concessions
which it was hoped would allay all discontents (p. 43). The public
finances were in a frightful state owing to the repeated issues of paper
with no provision for its redemption. As a natural consequence this
currency almost lost its purchasing power. In April, 1779, we find the
Council offering twenty pounds a hundred for flour. Discontent was
rife in the army, and Congress was paralysed by factions. But the
Governor and Council of Maryland were indefatigable in their exertions
to fill up the quota of the State and provide for the wants of the
soldiers, and the pages of this volume show their ceaseless activity.

viii Preface.

Fortunately the State had but little trouble within her own borders.
There were some small depredations by the British in the lower
counties, and some disturbances by Tories in Worcester, Somerset,
Queen Anne's and Kent; but these, as well as a mutinous rising in
Delaware, threatening the Stores at Charles Town, were easily dealt
with. This exemption gave Maryland the opportunity of raising large
supplies of bread-stuffs and provisions for the Continental army and for
shipment to the West Indies. Readers of these pages who find so much
more space devoted to purchases of flour, pork, bacon, osnaburgs,
denims, powder and lead, than to accounts of military operations, should
remember that it was in this way, quite as much as in the field, that
independence was won.

Clinton, profiting by Howe's example, avoided pitched battles, and
undertook, an expedition, under Gen. Prevost and Col. Campbell, to
invade the southern States. Savannah fell in December 1778, and all
Georgia was soon reduced. Descents — mere plundering forays — were
made on the Bay shores of Virginia, and fears arising that Baltimore
would be the next point of attack, measures were taken to put that city
in a state of defence. The enemy, however, made no attempt, but
returned with their plunder to New York.

The year 1779 was distinguished by the brilliant storming of Stony
Point by Gen. Wayne on July 15, followed by the capture of the garrison
at Paulus Hook, on the 19th, in both which actions the Marylanders took

On October 9, the gallant Pulaski fell in an unsuccessful attempt to
retake Savannah by a combined force of French and Americans.

Erratum. On p. 45 (heading of letter) "Gov. Henry" should read
"J. Henry."





Wednesday r' April 1778 C. B.

Present as on Yesterday

Ordered that the western Shore Treasurer pay to John
Smoot eleven Pounds two Shillings and six Pence due him on
Account Passed

That the said Treasurer Pay to Samuel Harvy Howard,
Twenty seven Pounds one Shilling and nine Pence due him
on Account passed

That the said Treasurer Pay to Col° Henry Hollingsworth
one hundred and seventy one Pounds nine Shillings and eleven
Pence due per Account Passed by the Committee of Claims

Robert Wilson of Dorchester County and Samuel Perci-
field of Ann Arundel County took the Oath of Fidelity and
Support to this State according to the late Act and Certificates

Tho' Read Comm' of the Brig. Baltimore, receipt of 2 short
3 pounders 4 long 3 pound' with their Carriages which were
sent to Baltimore & also 4 short 3 pounders the property of
this State received for the use of the Congress

Thursday 2^^ April 1778

Present as on Yesterday

Ordered That the western shore Treasurer pay to Charles
Wallace six hundred Pounds on Account

Levin Frazer, Joel Higginbottom of the Galley Independ-
ence, David Ferguson of the Galley Conqueror, John Jackson
of Dorchester County Nathan S' Clair of Balt° County and
Caleb Healy of Prince Georges County took the Oath of Fidelity
and Support to this State according to the late Act and Certi-
ficates given

Capt. Furnival, From the Conversation we have had with
you we think it will be best for you to Contract for good Leather
Breeches for your non Commissioned Officers and Privates
they agreeing to a part Payment themselves out of their Pay
so that the Public is not burthened with more than six pounds
a pair the Breeches ought to be good to which we desire you
will be Particularly Attentive

4 yottrnal and Correspondence

c. B. Ordered that the Commissary of Stores deliver to Capt.
Fernandes eight pair of Shoes for the first Regiment

That the said Commissary Deliver to Lieut. Keltic of the
4'"^ Maryland Regiment as much Cloth as will make a Coat
Twilled flannel sufficient for a Waistcoat and a Pair of Breeches
one piece Brittanies one pair Shoes and Trimmings sufficient
to be charged accordingly

Ordered That the Western shore Treasurer pay to Cornelius
Mills one hundred and twenty Pounds Balance of Account for
Recruiting per Account examined and Passed by the Com-
mittee of Claims

That the said Treasurer Pay to Richard Barnes Esquire
eighty eight Pounds ten Shillings and three Pence due to
himself twenty one Pounds thirteen Shillings and ten pence
and twenty six Pounds one Shilling and seven pence due to W
B Smoots Company of Militia per Accounts passed by the
Committee of Claims

c. c. [Council to J. Randall.]

In Council 2^ April 1778

With this you will receive an Invoice of Cloathing sent in
the Baltimore Galley with some Recruits from this Place, and
we expect, will arrive under the Care of the Officers who go
with the Recruits. You will observe a Difference in the shirts
sent, some of them are much better than others and, if the
Officers are in as much Want as we fear some of them are,
they may probably incline to have a Camp Shirt or two of
them, they are of the same Kind of Linen with which we furn-
ished some of the Gen' last year. The worsted Stockings,
such of the Thread as are fit, the Brittanies, the Russia Drab
and Serge Denim, are designed for the Officers. We wish
we could send them a better Supply, we have some Russia
Sheeting and have desired a considerable further Quantity to
be purchased ; the Swanskin may be delivered out to such of
the Officers as want it for Jackets & Breeches.

It will be very troublesome and inconvenient to get the
Clothier General to price the Goods, especially as we are
obliged to send then in small Quantities. We shall therefore en-
deavor to get the Assembly to fix at once the Proportion of
the Cost to be sunk and, as it is designed that the Officers
shall have of the Cloathing for their respective use only we
expect the Goods will be very low priced.

We have expected for a good while past to hear that the
Cloathing from Kent County had reached you and shall write

of the Council of Maryland, 177^-1779. 5

to M' Forman on the Subject. You'll send us an Account as c. c.
soon as you can of the Quantities (jf Cloathin^ received, the
price will not be so material, the Quantities delivered and
what yet is deficient.

We are &^'
The Thread is just sufficient ]
to make up the Brittanies and v
designed for that Purpose j

To M'- John Randall.

[Smallwood to Johnson.] Original

Wilmington April 2"^ 1778.
D' Sir

Col° HoUingsvvorth pursuant to Instructions from the Board
of War has called on me for a guard to escort the removal of
the Stores out of the Peninsula below to some place of greater
security, back in the Country, which is a very Necessary
Measure as those parts are Subject to, and even threatned
with an Invasion, which there are disaffected enough to coun-
tenance and even Intercept those stores without the aid of any
Considerable drafts from the Enemy's forces, the present
weakness of this Garrison will not. admit of a draft sufficient
to aid Col° Hollingsworth to effect this purpose, and he has
little reason to expect any aid from the Militia of this state I
have therefore recommended him to apply to you for a Com-
pany or two of Militia to assist him in this pursuit

Many of the Troops here are in great want of Cloathing
particularly Shirts & breeches, which you will Please give
orders to have forwarded, & direct the recruits to be marched
here with all possible dispatch, to strengthen the Regiments
at this post which is much expos'd and daily threatned with a
stroke from the Enemy both by Land & Water. We are not
more weak in men than Officers, having but five Field Offi-
cers in Garrison, and want Captains in as great a degree,
which shews the Expediency of calling in the Officers on
furlough & recruits Immediately; We have the strongest assur-
ance that General Howe is drawing his forces to a point,
having ordered the troops from Rhode Island and four Reg'^
from New York great part of the Latter arrived some days
ago at Philad* and the former are daily expected under the
Convoy of Lord Hov»'e, this ought to rouse the States to the
most Vigorous Exertions in pushing forward their respective
Quota's should be glad to know if you have had the Officers
debited with the money I advanced them for the recruiting

6 Journal a7id Correspondence

c. c. service a Memorandum of which I lodged with you on my
Original departure from Annapolis & whether I am charged & Col°
Richardson Credited for 660 dollars which were returned to
me by one of his Officers, which I think I made an Entry of in
the memorandum book lodged with you. my books &
papers being lodged back in the Country prevents my sending
my Ace' in, but if I mistake not Richmond lodged a Copy with
the Council of Safety which was not Closed, as there were
some entries to be made against the State & some to their
Credit which he was not furnished with as my acco'^ were left
in Philad'' on my return to Maryland last Winter, when I
marched to New York in the state service my pay was 80
dollars -p month & I only rec'* 50 from the Continent does the
state make up the deficiency or do I loose it. I also owe the
state 35^ or \^£ I don't recollect which for a horse which I
purchas'd on the Expedition to the Eastern shore for M"^
Elliot my Quarter Master to discharge the duties of that
department which I took on my own risque & Credited the
State for the sum these & some other Charges & Credits may
not be in the Copy delivered in by Richmond but as soon as
I can have access to my papers will transmit my ace' in full and
shou'd be glad to be favour'd with the state ace' against me
that a final settlement may be made — I have the Honor to be
with sincere reguard

Your very Obed' Hble Serv'

W Smallwood
Governor Johnson

c. B. Friday 3^* April 1778

Present as on Yesterday

Commission of a Letter of Marque & Reprisal issued to
Henry Geddes Master of the Sloop Rising Sun mounting 2
Car. Guns & 4 Carbines navigated by 8 Men Belonging to
Archibald Buchanan & C° Bait. Town dated 20 Oef 1777

Ordered That the western shore Treasurer pay to Capt.
Joshua Miles five hundred Dollars out of the money sent by
Congress for the Recruiting Service and to be charged to the
6'*' Maryland Regiment

That the said Treasurer pay to John Wilmott one hundred
and twenty six Pounds seven Shillings and six pence to be
delivered over to Isaac Guist Quarter Master due to Sundries
for Wagon hire per Accounts examined and allowed by the
House of Delegates

That the said Treasurer pay to Edward Abell eighty six
Pounds two Shillings and nine Pence due to him per Ace'
passed by the Com. of Claims

of the Council of Maryland, i 778-1 779. 7

Commission issued to William Barrow appointed Surveyor c. u.
of Dorchester County in the room of Jonathan Patridge who
has resigned

Doct. Johnson is desired to sell four hundred Pounds weight
of the Bark lately imported in Capt. Conway at four Pounds
per pound and to receive the money and pay it into the
Treasury not disposing of more to any one private family than
two Pounds or to any one Practicing Phisican more than eight

The Governor and Council of the State of Maryland do by
Virtue of a Resolve of the General Assembly passed the 22^
December 1777 hereby impower Joshua Johnson Merchant
heretofore of the City of London but now supposed to be in
the Kingdom of France to apply to the Court of France or the
Court of Spain or in his Discretion to Individuals either in
France Spain or Holland for the several Articles therein
enumerated as also for twenty Tons of Lead or for money
wherewith to Purchase all or any of the said Articles, And the
Governor and Council do hereby pledge the Faith of this
State to the Court or Person or Persons who shall give the
said Credit for a due and faithful Payment within the Time
and in the Manner within mentioned — But in Case the said
Joshua Johnson should be absent from France then the Gov-
ernor & Council do hereby impower such Person as shall be
nominated by Doct. Benjamin Franklin or the Agent or
Commissioner for the Time being of the Congress residing at
the Court of France to do the Business in the same Manner
as it might be done by the said Joshua Johnson if he was
present and Pledge the faith of this State for the due Payment,
in like manner as if the matter had been transacted by the
aforesaid Joshua Johnson

[Council to R. Dallam.] c c.

In Council 3*^ April 1778.

Capt. Joshua Miles informs us that he has seven Recruits
of the sixth Regiment who want Cloaths. If you have not
sent away what you have collected, deliver to each, one
Blanket, a Coat, Jacket and pair of Breeches, two Shirts two
pair of Stockings and a Pair of Shoes and reserve also
enough to fit out half a Dozen Recruits more, in the same
Manner, to whom, on their being inlisted, deliver them, taking
Receipts from their Officers and returning the Cloaths delivered
in your Account.

We are &"

Col° Richard Dallam.

8 Journal and Correspondence

^- ^- [Council to D. Jenifer.]

In Council 3"^ April 1778

We shall take Care to send you some Money by the first
good Opportunity Charles Landsdale is sick and a Stranger

138 rides for him, so that it is improper to send it by the Post.
The Quantity of Bacon you hope to get, though not very
great, will help. We have lately received a pretty strong
Reinforcement of Shoes and Stockings, so that you need not
go to any extravagant Price for the immediate bringing yours

We are &"
Daniel Jenifer Esq"^

[Gov. Johnson to Assembly].

3** April 1778.
Gentlemen of the General Assembly.

The Council and I thought proper to lay before you the
Copy of a Letter wrote by us the 26"" of March to L' Col°

139 Smith and his Answer of the i^' Instant received yesterday.
The Fact avowed and more especially the Sentiments contained
in the Col' Letter renders the Matter, we think, of Conse-
quence enough for your Consideration

The General Assembly.

c. B. Saturday, 4''' April, 1778

Present as on yesterday.

Ordered that the Commissary of Stores deliver to Capt.
Davidson of the second Regiment as much of the twilled
flannel as will make two pair of Breeches and one Waistcoat
and Serge Denim for one pair of Breeches & charge it accord-

That the said Commissary deliver to Captain Campbell
Sundry Cloathing for the use of his Officers per List sent.

Samuel Sharpe is Appointed Agent for Purchasing Pro-
visions in Talbot County in the room of Col. Peregrine
Tilghman who resigns being incapable of Acting from his

Ordered That the western shore Treasurer pay to Col.
Peregrine Tilghman two thousand Dollars to be delivered over
to Samuel Sharpe Agent for Purchasing Provisions out of the
money sent by Congress for that purpose to be accounted for.

That the said Treasurer pay to Aquila Hall Esq' Sixty two

of the Council of Maryland, 1 778-1 779. 9

Pounds for the use and to be delivered over to James Steel c.
due him per Acco' pass*" by C. C.

That the said Treasurer Pay to Andrew Grcbble Jun"" one
hundred and twelve Pounds ten Shillings due to him per Ace'
passed by the Com. of Claims

[Council to S. Sharp.] c. c.

In Council Annapolis 4''' April 177B

Inclosed you have a Commission as Agent to purchase
Provisions in Talbot County, you will also receive by Col"
Tilghman, two thousand Dollars, for that purpose. It is
essential to the Service that we should be regularly furnished ,^0
with a monthly Return of your Purchase agreeable to the Act,
and we request you will have what Provisions you may pur-
chase sent on immediately either to Baltimore or the Head of
Elk. The Barrelled Pork and Beef which you may get must
be well examined and if there's Doubt of its keeping you
must by all Means have it put into proper Order and, if neces-
sary Salt added.

We are &"

M' Samuel Sharp

[Council to Delegates.]

April 4"^ 1778
The Governor and Gentlemen of the Council request the
Favor of the Gentlemen of the House of Delegates to inform
them of the Names of the Magistrates who have qualified and
of the Hundreds in their respective Counties
Gen'" of the House of Delegates.

[J. Henry to Gov. Johnson.]

York Town Ap' s"' 1778
Dear Sir

I acquainted you in my former letter that the Delegates had
obtained from Congress the loan of one hundred thousand
Dollars. I expected when I wrote you, that I would have
been able to have sent you the money in a day or two but the
great Demands on the Treasury has prevented me — In the
course of this week you may expect the whole or at least some
part of it.

lo Journal and Correspondence

c. c. Congress yesterday ratified the Treaties of Alliance and
Commerce between France and these States. You will soon
have a Copy sent to the State M' Chase writes you fully upon
this subject.

I am Sir with great respect

Y'' J Henry Jun"^

c. B. Monday 6 April 1778

Present as on Saturday

M"^ Kent from the House of Delegates delivers to the
Governor the following Resolve

By the house of Delegates April 4''' 1778 Resolved that
the Governor and the Council be requested to apply to
Congress for such Number of effective Arms and Accoutri-
ments as they can conveniently spare for the use of this State
not exceeding ten thousand stand and ten field pieces; Pro-
vided such Arms, Accoutriments and field pieces can be pro-
cured on such Terms as the Governor and the Council shall
think reasonable; and this State will be answerable for the

By Order G Duvall CI H. D.

Which said Resolve was thus endorsed — By the Senate
April 4. 1778. Read the first Time and Ordered to lie on
the Table. By order R Ridgely CI. Sen. By the Senate
April 6* 1778. Read the second Time and Assented to By
order R Ridgely CI Sen.

c. c. [Council to W. Richardson.]

In Council Annapolis 6'*' April 1778.

M' Winters informs us that John Hartley and William Aires
both of them Englishmen and Gun-Finishers have lately been
inlisted into your Regiment and that if they are taken from
him, he must break up his Gun Manufactory: he adds that
theres little Probability if these Men are carried into the Ser-
142 vice, that they will continue in it longer than they may have a
favorable Opportunity of deserting to the Enemy. We are of
Opinion that the general Service would be better promoted
by leaving those Men with Winters, either continuing them as
inlisted and he discharging their Pay &" with additional
Wages, as may be agreed by him and them or discharging
them, and we request of you that something of the Kind may
be fallen on for. In the present Scarcity of Arms, we should be

of the Council of Maryland, 1778- 1779. 11

sorry that a Shop of so much Value to the PubUc should be c. c.
discontinued. We are &"

Col° William Richardson

[Gov, Johnson to Assembly.]

April 6'^' 1778.
Gentlemen of the General Assembly.

From the Letters received from Worcester and Somerset
Counties, which I have laid before you and the Conversations
I have had with People from thence as well as from the Insurrec-
tions some Time since, I am apprehensive that unless decisive
Measures are speedily taken the Balance in Somerset County,
will be in Favor of our Enemies & Toryism. If that should
be the Case and our Friends are left under Apprehension of
suffering instantly all the Cruelties which brutal Rage can

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