William Hathorne Brooks James Gordon Carter.

A geography of Massachusetts: for families and schools. Embracing 1. A ... online

. (page 14 of 15)
Online LibraryWilliam Hathorne Brooks James Gordon CarterA geography of Massachusetts: for families and schools. Embracing 1. A ... → online text (page 14 of 15)
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New Ashford


contains


358 inhabitants.


New Marlboro' "


1668 "


Otis


1)


981


Peru


M


748


Richmond


M


923


Sandisfield


M


1646 "


Savoy


»>


852

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GEOGRAPHY OF MASSACHUSETTS.



205



Tyringhara contains
Washington "
Windsor "
Zciar '*


1443
750

1085
150


inhabitants.




BRISTOL


COUNTY.




Berkley

Dighton

IPieetown

Mfnsfield

^«aierset


contains


1060
1653
1863
1222
1116


inhabitants.



ESSEX COUNTY.

Bmerly originally belonged to Salem, with which
at is nonnected by a bridge 1500 feet long. It has
'iconsiilerable commerce, and a number oi its sea-
^men fail on foreign voyages from other ports. Ma-
riny of the inhabitants engage in mechanical era-
rploynents, and a considerable portion in agricul-
zture. Beverly has, however, been raost noted as
takinf an active and important part in the cod fish-
«ery ; \ contains a bank and 428i3 inhabitants.



Borford


contains


906


inhabitants.


Hafilion


j>


802


»


Lywi


»


4515


»>


Lynnfield


»


596


»»


Maichestcr


5>


1201


»>


Aliciileton


»


596





Saiifus


99


500





We«ham


»>


572


n



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206 GEOGRAPHY OF MASSACHUSETTS.

FRANKLIN COUNTY.



Bernardston


coQtains


912


inhabittintSp


Buckland


»


1037


99


Heath


w


1122


99


Leyden


99


674


99


Oraoge


99


829


99


Rowe


99


851


99


Shutesbary


99


1026


99


Wendell


99


958


99


Whately


99


1076


9f



MIDDLESEX COUNTY.
Pepperell contains 1439 inhabiUnts*.
Sherburne " 811 "

Stoneham " 615 '''



General review of the Stccte,

Draw the shape of Massachusetts on a large scale. How
is it bounded on the north 7 East ? South ? West 7 -Draw
the island of Nantucket Martha's Vineyard. The Eliza-
beth Islands.

Into how many counties is the State divided 7 Namo
them. In what part of the State is Berkshire County t
Draw the line separating it from the other counties of tne
State. How is Berkshire bounded on the north 7 East f
South 7 West 7

Draw Franklin County. How is it bounded on thetnorthf
East? South 7 West? |

Draw Hampshire County. How is it bounded m the
north 7 East 7 South 7 West? i

Draw Hampden County. How is it bounded on the,* north?
East 7 South 7 West 7

Draw Worcester County. How is it bounded loa tii«
north ? East 7 South 7 West f



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I



GENERAL REVIEW OF THE STATE. 207

Draw Middlesex County. How is it bounded on the
north T East ? South ? West ?

Draw Essex County. In what part of the State is it ? How
is it bounded on the north ? East ? South ? West ?

Draw Suffolk County. Draw the islands that belong to
Suffolk County. In what part of the State is Suffolk Coun-
ty?

Draw Norfolk County. How is it bounded on the north 7
East ? South ? West ?

Draw Bristol County. How is it bounded on the north 7
East 7 South ? West 7

Dk-aw Plymouth County. How is it bounded on the north?
East 7 South ? West 7

In what part of the State is Barnstable County 7 How is
the county bounded on the north 7 East 7 South ? West 7

How are Dukes County and Nantucket situated 7 Which
way from the main land of Barnstable County 7 From Bos-
ton 7

Name the principal ridges of mountains in Massachu-
setts. Where are the Green and Taghgannuck ranges 7
What arc the principal summits of the Taghgannuck range
in Massachusetts ? Mark their position, and name the
towns in which they are situated. How high is Saddle
Mountain 7

Point out on your drawing the position of the Green
Mountains in Massachusetts. What mountain constitutes
the principal summit of this range ? Mark its position 7
How high is Hoosac Mountain 7

Where is Mount Tom ? To what chain of mountains
does it belong 7 Mark the position of Mount Toby. What
natural curiosity does Mount Toby contain ? Mark the po-
sition of Mount Holyoke. To what range of mountains
does this mountain belong 7

Where is Wachusett Mountain 7 Mark its place on your
drawing. How high is it 7 What hills are there along the
eastern coast of Massachusetts 7 Mark them 7 What is
the general surface of the State ? What parts are most
mountainous, and what parts are most level 7

What are the principal rivers of Massachusetts ? Which
is the largest river in the State 7 Draw Connecticut river
as it passes through this State. What falls are on the Con-
necticut in Massachusetts 7 Mark them. How are these
falls rendered passable for boats 7

What is the ouality of the land in the valley of the Con-
necticut ? Mark the position of the principal towns you



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208 f^SOGEAPtfY OF MASSACRUSBTTB,

would pafls in going up Connecticut River in MasMchu*
setts ? For what are the several towns you have mention-
ed particularly distin^ished ?

What rivers flow into the Connecticut from the west t
Draw Deerfield River and its tributaries. What are the
names of its tributaries ? What mills and manufactories are
there on any of the streams emptying into Deerfield River ?

[Remark. If the places of the falls, mills, and factories on
^ a river are not recollected by the pupil when he is engag-
ed in the general review of the State, let him observe on
the map through what towns the river passes, and refer to
the accounts of those towns in his geography.]

What falls are there on Deerfield River t Mark their
pla^ on the river. In what town does Deerfield River
empty into the Connecticut ? What is the quality of the
land on Deerfield River ?

Draw Manhan River. In what town does it empty into
the Connecticut ?

Draw Westfield River and its branches. Which is calU
ed Little Westfield River 7 What mills and factories are
there on Westfield River and its branches 7 Mark their
places on your drawing.

What canals are there in the valley of Connecticut Riv*
er? Draw Montague Canal. Draw the canal at South
Hadley. Draw the Hsunpshire and Hampden Canal. With
what canal in the State of Connecticut does the Hampshire
and Hampden Canal communicate?

What rivers flow into the Connecticut from the east f
Draw Miller's River and its branches. What are the names
of the different branches 1 Mark them. What mills and
factories are there on Miller's River and its branches f
Mark their places. Where does Miller's River empty inte
the Connecticut 1

Draw Chickopee River and its branches. What are the
names of the principal branches of Chickopee River?
Mark them. Wliat mills and factories are there on Swift
^iver ? Mark their places. What mills and factories are
there on Ware River? Mark their places. Where do
Swifl and Ware Rivers empty into the Chickopee ? What
mills and factories are there on Chickopee River ? Mark
their places. In what town does Chickopee River empty
into tne Connecticut ?

Draw Hoosac River. Where do its principal branehes in
Massaohttsetts meet f What falls and natural curioaitiei



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GENERAL RETIEW OP THE STATE. 209

ate there on this river t What mills and factories 1 Mark
their places. Where does Hoosac River leave Massa-
chusetts 7 Into what river does it empty T

Draw the Housatonic River. Through what States does
this river flow^ and where does it empty ? What is the
quality of ihe soil in Massachusetts in the valley of the
tioasatonic 7 What are some of the principal towns on
this river 7 Mark the places of the several towns you have
named. In what town do the principal sources of the Hou-
satonic meet 7 What mills and factories are there on this
river 7 Mark their places.

What rivers flow south from Worcester Coun^ into Con-
necticut and Rhode Island. Draw the Quineboag and
French Rivers. In what State do they unite^ and where do
they empty 7 What mills and factories are there upon
them in Massachusetts 7 Mark their places. Draw Black-
Btone River and its tributaries. Into what State does it
flow from Massachusetts, and where does it empty 7

Draw the Blackstone Canal. What towns are situated at
the extremities of this canal 7 What mills and factories
are there upon the Blackstone 7 Mark their places.

Draw the Merrimack as it passes through Massachusetts.
What falls on the MerrimacK are there in Massachusetts 7
Mark them. How far is the Merrimack navigable 7 How
are the Pawtucket Falls surmounted by boats 7 Draw the
Pawtucket Canal. What mills and factories are there on
the Merrimftck in Massachusetts ? Mark their places.
What town lies at the mouth of the Merrimack ? What
town stands at the head of navigation on it 7

Draw the rivers which flow into the Merrimack in Massa-
chusetts from the north. What are their names 7 What
falls and factories are there on Powow River 7 Mark their

S laces. In what town does Spicket River empty into the
f errimack 7 What factories are on this river 7 Which is
Beaver River? Mark Little River.

What rivers flow into the Merrimack from the South.
Draw Nashua River ^d its branches. Mark the branch
called Squanicook ? What mills and factories are there
upon it 7 Mark their places, and name the towns in which
they are situated. Mark Mulpus River. In what town does
it empty into the Nashua ?

In what town do the main branches of the Nashua meeCf
What mills and factories are there on the Nashua and ita
blanches 7 Mark their places, atid name the towns in



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210 GEOGRAPHY OF MASSACHUSETTS.

which they are situated. Where does the Nashua empty
into the Merrimack ?

Draw Concord River and its branches. Which is the As-
sabet T What is the east branch called ? In what town
do the branches meet ? What mills and factories are ther^
upon Concord River and its branches ? Mark their places,
and name the towns in which they are situated. In what
town does Concord River empty into the Merrimack ?

Draw Shawshine River. In what town does it empty in-
to the Merrimack ?

Draw Ipswich River. Where does it empty t How far
is it navigable ?

Draw Saugus River. Draw Mystic River. How far is it
navigable 7

Qraw the Middlesex Canal. What towns are situated at
its extremities?

Draw Charles River and its branches. Where does it
empty, and how far is it navigable ? What falls are there
upon Charles River ? Mark their place. What mills and
factories are there upon this river 7 Mark their places, and
name the towns in which they are situated.

Draw Neponset River and its branches. Mark Mother
Brook. What is their peculiar in the source of this brook ?
What mills and factories are there upon Neponset River
and its branches 1 Mark their places, and name the town»
in which they are situated ? Where does the Neponset
empty, and how far is it navigable ?

Draw Taunton River and its branches. How far is this
river navigable 1 What town stands at the head of its nav-
igation ? What mills and factories are there upon Taunton
River and its branches. Mark their places, and name the
towns in which they are situated.

Draw We wean tic River. Where does it empty ?

Draw the proposed canal from Barnstable Bay to Buz-
zard's Bay. Mark Buzzard's Bay. Mark Buttermilk Bay,

What are the principal capes on the coast of Massachu-
setts ? Mark Cape Ann. Cape Co^ Cape Malabar.

Where is Salem harbor ? Bost JF harbor ? Plymouth
harbor ? Barnstable harbor 7 Wellfleet harbor ? Cape
Cod harbor ?• Holmes' Hole ?

What is the capital of the State ? Where do the General
Court meet ? Name some of the most commercial towns
in Massachusetts. What towns are particularly engaged in
the cod and mackerel fisheries ? What towns are particu-
larly engaged in the whale fishery ?



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GENERAL REVIEW OF THE STATE. 211

What two counties in Massachusetts are surrounded by
water 7 Mark them. Which are the three smallest coun-
ties in territory ? Point to them on your drawing. Which
county has the most people in proportion to its size 7
Which county is the largest in territory 7 Point to it on
your drawing. Which county has the largest population ?
Point UTit.

What are those towns called in which the Judicial Courts
are held 7 What are the shiretowns of £ssex County 7
Mark them. Which is the largest town in Essex County.

What is the shiretown of Suffolk CounJ^ 7 Mark its
place. What is the shiretown of Barnstable CTounty 7 Mark
It. What are the shiretowns of Middlesex County 7 Mark
them. What are the shiretowns of Bristol County 7 Mark
them. What is the shiretown of Berkshire County 7 MarK
it. What is the shiretown of Dukes County 7 Mark it.
What is the shiretown of Worcester County 7 Mark it.
What is the shiretown of Plymouth County 7 Mark it.
What is the shiretown of Hampshire County ? Mark it.
What is the shiretown of Hampden County 7 Mark it.
What is the shiretown of Norfolk County 7 Mark it. What
is the shiretown of Franklin Coun^ 7 Mark it. What is
the shiretown of Nantucket County f Mark it.

In what part of the Stato are the most populous towns 7
How many towns in the State have over 12,000 people ?
Name them. Name some of the other large towns in the
eastern part of Massachusetts, and mark their places as you
name them. Name some ef the large towns in the interior
and western parts of the State, and mark them as you name
them.

Which way from Boston is Worcester 7 Concord ?
Greenfield 7 Nojfthampton 7 Taunton? Springfield 7
Lenox 7 Newburyport 7 Plymouth ? Barnstable f Ed-
gartown 7 Nantucket 7

What towns in Massachusetts are most distinguished for
the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods 7 What towns
are most distinguished for the manufacture of shoes 7 Pa-
per 7 Nails ? In what towns is salt extensively manufac-
tured from sea water 7

What parts of the State are most engaged in agriculture?
Where are the most fertile lands in Massachusetts 7 What
are the chief agricultural products of the State 7 To what
market are the herds of fat cattle and flocks of sheep chiefly
sent from the interior and western counties of the State 7



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212 GEOGBAPHY OF MASSACHUSETTS.

To what markets out of Massachusetts do the people in the
western counties send agricultural produce ?

In what county are found quarries of marble 1 To what
market is the marble sent ? In what parts of the State are
iron mines and iron ore found ? What places are distin-
guished for their quarries of granite ? Mark them. What
roineraf springs are there in Massachusetts ? Maric^thera.

How many colleges are there in Massachusetts ? In
what parts of the State are they situated ? Mark their pla-
ces on your drawing 1 Which is the oldest and largest in-
stitution ? What diyinity schools are there in the State ?
Mark their places. What medical schools ? Where are
their courses of lectures delivered ? Point to those places
ep your drawing. What law school is there in Massachu-
setts ?

How many academies are there in the State ? Mark the
places of as many as you can recollect, and name the towns
as you mark them. What other means ol education have
the people of Massachusetts ?

How are the free schools supported ? What rank has
Massachusetts among the other States of the Union in its
means of education ?

How are the common roads built and supported in Massa-
chusetts ? By whom are the turnpikes built, and how are
they supported ? What railroads have been projected in
Massachusetts 7 Show on your drawing through what pla-
ces they will pass if built as proposed.

What town was first settled in Massachusetts ? Mark it.
What towns were next settled 1 Mark them What towns
were earliest settled in the interior of the State 7 Mark
them. What race of men inhabited Massachusetts when
white people began to make settlements in it ? What was
the disposition of the Indians towards the white people ?
What great Indian warrior excited the savages to murder
the white people, and burn their houses ? What became
of King Philip ? What towns in Massachusettts suffered
from Indian hostilities ? Mark the several towns, and re-
late any circumstances you may recollect of their sufferingrs
from the Indians. Are there any Indians in Massachusetts
BOW ? Mark the places where they are.



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MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS. $21 3

Miscellaneous Questions to he answered from
the Map.

What is the length of the western boandary lino of Mas-
sachusetts ?

[Rtmark, To answer this and all similar questions, let the
pupil take the distance on the map with a pair of dividers,
or with a strinff or a narrow strip of paper and apply it to
the scale of miles.]

What is the distance from Cape Cod to Cape Ann ? What
is the distance from Boston to Worcester? How long is
the State measuring firom Cape Ann to its northwest cor-
ner? How wide is the State measuring across Worcester
County? How far is it from Barnstaole to Nantucket?
How nu* is it from Boston to Newburyport ? How far is it
from Newburyport to Andover ? How far from Salem to
Lowell? How far from Boston to Pittsfield? To North-
ampton? To Taunton? To Plymouth? To Concord?
To Spriilgfield ?

[Remark. The teacher may vary or extend these questions
at his discretion.]

Is the State of Massachusetts in north or south latitude 1
Between what decrees of north latitude is it ? In what lati-
tude is Wei Ifleetf

[Remark. Trace the line which passes through Wellfleet
across the map to the sides and see what fisures are upon
it. This line is called a parallel of latitude, and the fig-
ures at its ends denote the latitude of all the places
through which it passes.]

In what latitude is Worcester?

[Remark. Take the distance with a pair of dividers or a
slip of paper from Worcester to the nearest point in the
parallel or latitude which passes through Wellfleet. Put
one point of the dividers on the end of the parallel
where it is marked 4^o, and let the other extend upward
on the margin of the map, and it will point to the latitude
of Worcester.]



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214 GEOGRAPHY OP MASSACHUSETTS.

In what latitude is Salem 7 In what latitude is Pittsfield ?
In what latitude is Greenfield ? In what latitude is Boston?
Cape Ann ? Cape Cod 1 Andover ? Lancaster ? Spring-
field ? Northampton ? Wachusett Mountain ? In what
latitude is Nantucket? New- Bedford? Barnstable? Ed-
gartown ? Cape Malabar ? Scargo Hill ?

Is the State of Massachusetts in east or west longitude ?
Between what degrees of longitude does it lie ? What is
the longitude of Chelsea ?

{Remark. Trace the line passing tbrouwh the town from
the top to the bottom of the map. The line is called a
meridian, and at its ends are tne figures denoting the
longitude of all places through which it passes.]

What is the longitude of Wellfleet ? What is the longi-
tude of Charlton, Spencer, and Hubbardston ? What places
in Massachusetts are in 73o west longitude ? What is the
longitude of Worcester 1

[Remark. Place a rule upon the map so as to bring the
town and the same figures at the top and bottom to its
straight edge, and the figures will denote th0 longitude of
the place in degrees and minutes.]

What is the longitude of Newburyport ? What is the
longitude of Cape Cod ? What is the longitude of Spring-
field? Plymouth? Barnstable? Taunton? Greenfield?
Northampton? Lenox ? Concord ? Dedham ?

In what latitude and long'lude is Boston ? In what lati-
tude and longitude is Lowell ? In what latitude and longi-
tude is Pittsheld ? In what latitude and long.tude is Salemf
Dedham 1 Plymouth ? New-Bedford ? Nantucket ?

IRemark. Questions relating to the latitude and longitude
of places may be varied and multiplied at the discretion *
of the teacher.]



i



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DEFINITIONS. 215

DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS OF TERMS
AS USED IN THIS BOOK.

Abandoned. Left with no intention of l 3turningf to it.

Abutments. Banks of earth, timber, or stone, built at the
the ends of a bridge to support them.

AccUvities. Ascents.

Adjacent. Lying next or near to.

Adults. People grown u^.

Aggregate. The mass formed by the union of several
things of the same kinu. *} 'le aggregate population of a
county is the population i* t e several towns added to-
gether.

Agricultural. Connected with the tilling of the ground 5
an agricuUural town is one in whi li the people are farm-
ers.

Agriculture. The tilling or cultivation of the ground.

Almshouse. A building provided by a town for those poor
people to live in whom it maintains.

AUematelv. By turns.

Ambusc€Uie. A dangerous situation into which enemies arc
drawn by false appearances that they may be attacked to
greater advantage.

Anniversary. Happening at the same time every year.

Anticipated. Thought of before or expected.

Antiquities. Very old and, therefore, curious things.

Apparatus. A collection of curious and useful instruments
to explain the principles of any science.

Appropriate. Suitable, fit, proper.

Appropriated. Used for, or set apart for.

Appurtenances. Things belonging to something else 3 the
^(lils and rig^ngare appurtenances of a ship.

Aqueduct. An artificial passage to convey water in.

Arable. Suitable for ploughing.

Architecture. The art of building. Naval architecture if
the art of building ships.

Armo-ry. A place where guns and other weapons of war
are made or preserved.

Arms. Instruments for defence or attack, as guns and
swords.

Arsemd. A place for the storage of arms and ammunition.

Artificial. Made or caused by man, not natural.

Athenoium, A library, or a place where a library is kept.



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210 DEFINITIONS.

Average, Belonging to each one of a number when equally
divided, as average value. On an average means suppos-
ing each to have an equal share of the whole.

Ballote. Written votes.

Bank, Several rich men are incorporated and allowed to
print bank bills, which the^ pass for money, and in which
they promise to pay in silver or gold the same sum to
any one who presents them and demands such payment.
Tne company of men form a banking institution, and the
place where they keep their money, and redeem their bills
IS called a iMink.

Barrack*, Houses for soldiers.

Batteriet. Breastworks for defence on which cannon are
placed.

Beach. A hard, low, piece of land washed by the sea.

Bentfactor, One who does good.

Bentfactione. Good deeds ; charitable offices.

Beryl. A mineral of a pale green color.

BUacHed. Whitened.

BUachery. Place for whitening cloth or other things.

Bootable. Passable for boats.

Bow. The bow of a boat is the fore part or end.

Canal. A long excavation in the earth filled with water,
which is conveyed to some place where it is wanted, or
used to float boats upon.

CandidaUe. Persons who - ropose themselves or are pro-
posed by others for any office.

Cannonade. A firing with cannon.

Cape. A point of ^ land running into the sea.

Capital. The amount of property used in business by a
man or company of men. The seat of government.

Capitalist. A man of ^reat property.

CaeuaUy. Accidental injury.

CauMway. A road built over a low, marshy place.

CeUa. Small rooms in a prison.

Centtu. The counting of the inhabitants of the United
States, which takes place once in ten years.

Cljftrter. A law of the State, granting to a town or to cer-
tain individuals and their successors, peculiar rights and
privileges.

Cnartered. A chartered ffovemment was one established
by a written permission from the King.

Ch%tf ioum. The largest or most important town.

Circuit Court, An inferior court, whose decisions may ba
revised and changed by the Superior Court.



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DEFINITIONS. 1tl7

CircuUoiu. Crooked.

Civilized. Having a government of laws, and a knowledge
of the useful arts.

Combustible. Easily set on fire.

Commemorate. To cause to be recollected.

Commerce. The exchanging of one article for another is
distant places

CommonwecMh. A state or nation having a republican gov-
ernment.

Competent. Able, fitted.

Confluence. The meeting of two streamy.

Conspiracy. A plot formed by several for a bad purpose^

Constitution. A written form of government.

Convicts. Persons ti'ied and found guilty of crimes.

Cordage. Any kind of rope, or several kinds together.

County. Several towns incorporated together. A county has
one or more shiretowns with a court house and jail. In
the court house the laws are interpreted by the judses,
and criminals are tried for disobedience of the laws with-
in the county.

Crew. The crew of a vessel are the sailors who navigate it.

Custom House. A building, in which duties or taxes on a
vessePs cargo are paid, and permission to land goods or
to sail from a port is given.

Degrees. Certificates of approbation given by the govern-


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Online LibraryWilliam Hathorne Brooks James Gordon CarterA geography of Massachusetts: for families and schools. Embracing 1. A ... → online text (page 14 of 15)