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Transcribed from the 1890 Phillipson & Golder edition by David Price,
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The Hawarden Visitors' Hand-Book.


_REVISED EDITION_.
1890.

Chester:
PRINTED FOR THE COMPILER BY
PHILLIPSON & GOLDER, EASTGATE ROW.

{W. Gladstone. Photographed by John Moffat, Edinburgh. 1884: p0.jpg}

ENTERED AT STATIONERS' HALL.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.




Note as to the Illustrations.


The Views of the Castle Gate and of Broughton Lodge are taken from Blocks
kindly lent for the purpose of this publication by the Proprietor of the
_Leisure Hour_. And for the View of the House and Flower-garden I am
indebted to the courtesy of the Proprietors of _Harpers Magazine_.

W. H. G.




Regulations as to Hawarden Park and Old Castle.


Visitors are allowed to use the Gravel Drives through the Park and Wood
between Noon and Sunset.

Persons exceeding this permission and not keeping to the Carriage Road
will be deemed Trespassers.

The Park is closed on Good Friday and Whit-Monday.

Dogs not admitted.

_Excursion parties can only be received by special permission_, _and not
later in the year than the first Monday in August_.

_The House is in no case shown_.




Hawarden Village and Manor.


Hawarden, in Flintshire, lies 6 miles West of Chester, at a height of 250
feet, overlooking a large tract of Cheshire and the Estuary of the Dee.
It is now in direct communication with the Railway world by the opening
of the Hawarden and Wirral lines. It is also easily reached from
Sandycroft Station, or from Queen's Ferry, (1.5 m.) - whence the Church is
plainly seen - or again from Broughton Hall Station (2.25m.). The Glynne
Arms offers plain but comfortable accommodation. There are also some
smaller hostelries, and a Coffee House called "The Welcome."

The Village consists of a single street, about half a mile in length. Two
Crosses formerly stood in it; the Upper and the Lower, destroyed in 1641.
The site of the Lower Cross, at the eastern end, is marked by a Lime tree
planted in 1742. Here stood the Parish Stocks, long since perished. More
durable, but grotesque in its affectation of Grecian architecture, may be
seen close by, the old House of Correction. This spot is still called
the Cross Tree.

The Fountain opposite the Glynne Arms is designed as a Memorial of the
Golden Wedding of the Right Hon. W. E. and Mrs. Gladstone. A little
lower down is the new Police Office; and further on is the Institute,
containing mineralogical and other specimens, together with a good
popular library.

In Doomsday Book, Hawarden appears as a Lordship, with a church, two
ploughlands - half of one belonging to the church - half an acre of meadow,
a wood two leagues long and half a league broad. The whole was valued at
40 shillings; yet on all this were but four villeyns, six boors, and four
slaves: so low was the state of population. It was a chief manor, and
the capital one of the Hundred of Atiscross, extending from the Dee to
the Vale of Clwyd, and forming part of Cheshire.

The name is variously spelt in the old records. In Doomsday Book it is
Haordine; elsewhere it is Weorden or Haweorden, Harden, HaWordin,
Hauwerthyn, Hawardin and Hawardine. It is pretty clearly derived from
the Welsh _Din_ or _Dinas_, castle on a hill (although some attribute to
it a Saxon derivation), and was no doubt, like the mound called Truman's
Hill, west of the church, in the earliest times a British fortification.

No Welsh is spoken in Hawarden. By the construction of Offa's Dyke about
A.D. 790, stretching from the Dee to the Wye and passing westwards of
Hawarden, the place came into the Kingdom of Mercia, and at the time of
the Invasion from Normandy is found in the possession of the gallant
Edwin. It would appear, however, from the following story, derived,
according to Willett's History of Hawarden, from a Saxon MS., that in the
tenth century the Welsh were in possession.

"In the sixth year of the reign of Conan, King of North Wales, there was
in the Christian Temple at a place called Harden, in the Kingdom of North
Wales, a Roodloft, in which was placed an image of the Virgin Mary, with
a very large cross, which was in the hands of the image, called Holy
Rood. About this time there happened a very hot and dry summer; so dry
that there was not grass for the cattle; upon which most of the
inhabitants went and prayed to the image or Holy Rood, that it would
cause it to rain, but to no purpose. Among the rest, the Lady Trawst
(whose husband's name was Sytsylht, a nobleman and governor of Harden
Castle) went to pray to the said Holy Rood, and she praying earnestly and
long, the image or Holy Rood fell down upon her head and killed her; upon
which a great uproar was raised, and it was concluded and resolved upon
to try the said image for the murder of the said Lady Trawst, and a jury
was summoned for this purpose, whose names were as follows: -

Hincot of Hancot, Span of Mancot,
Leech and Leach, and Cumberbeach.
Peet and Pate, with Corbin of the gate,
Milling and Hughet, with Gill and Pughet."

The Jury - so continues the story - found the Holy Rood guilty of wilful
murder, and the sentence was proposed that she should be hanged. This
was opposed by Span, who suggested that, as they wanted rain, it would be
best to drown her. This, again, was objected to by Corbin, who advised
to lay her on the sands of the river and see what became of her. This
was done, with the result that the image was carried by the tide to some
low land near the wall of Caerleon - (supposed to be Chester) - where it
was found by the Cestrians drowned and dead, and by them buried at the
gate where found, with this inscription: -

The Jews their God did crucify,
The Hardeners theirs did drown,
'Cos, with their wants she'd not comply,
And lies under this cold stone.

Hence the said low land, or island, as it may have been, is supposed to
have got the name of the Rood-Eye, or Roodee as at present.

After the Conquest, Hawarden was included in the vast grant made by
William to his kinsman, Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, which included
Cheshire and all the seaboard as far as Conway. The Earl had his
residence at Chester, and there held his Courts and Parliament. His
sword of dignity, referred to in the heading of Common Law Indictments,
is preserved in the British Museum. Among the earliest residents at
Hawarden occurs the name of Roger Fitzvalence, son of one of the
Conqueror's followers; subsequently it continued in the possession of the
Earls of Chester till the death of Ranulf de Blundeville, the last earl,
in 1231, when, with Castle Rising and the 'Earl's Half' in Coventry, it
passed, through his sister Mabel, to her descendants, the Montalts.

The Barons de Monte Alto, sometimes styled de Moaldis or Mohaut (now
Mold, 6 miles from Hawarden, where the mound of the castle remains), were
hereditary seneschals of Chester and lords of Mold. Roger de Montalt
inherited Hawarden, Coventry, and Castle Rising, and married Julian,
daughter of Roger de Clifford, Justiciary of Chester and North Wales, who
was captured at the storming of the Castle by Llewelyn, in 1281. Robert
de Montalt the last lord, died childless {8} in 1329, when the barony
became extinct. He it was who signed the celebrated letter to the Pope
in 1300 as Dominus de Hawardyn.

Robert de Montalt bequeathed his estates to Isabella, Queen of Edward
II., and Hawarden afterwards passed by exchange, in 1337, to Sir William
de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. From that family it reverted in 1406,
by attainder, to the Crown, and in 1411 was granted by Henry IV. to his
second son, Thomas, Duke of Clarence. Clarence dying without issue in
1420, it reverted once more to the Crown, but finally, in 1454, passed to
Sir Thomas Stanley, Comptroller of the Household and afterwards Lord
Stanley, whose son became the first Earl of Derby. In 1495, Henry VII.
honoured Hawarden with a visit, and made some residence here for the
amusement of stag-hunting, but his primary motive was to soothe the Earl
(husband to Margaret, the King's mother) after the ungrateful execution
of his brother, Sir William Stanley. {9a}

Hawarden remained in the possession of the Stanleys for nearly 200 years.
William, the sixth Earl, when advanced in years, surrendered the property
to his son James, reserving to himself 1000 pounds a year, and retiring
to a convenient house {9b} near the Dee, spent there the remainder of his
life, and died in 1642. James, distinguished for his learning and
gallantry, warmly espoused the cause first of Charles I. and afterwards
that of his son. Under his roof Charles, when a fugitive, halted on his
way from Chester to Denbigh, on Sept. 25, 1645. After the battle of
Worcester, in 1657, James was taken prisoner, tried by Court Martial, and
executed at Bolton in the same year.

In 1653, the Lordship of Hawarden was purchased from the agents of
sequestration by Serjeant (afterwards Chief Justice) Glynne; and in 1661
the sale was confirmed by Charles, Earl of Derby.

The Glynnes are first heard of at Glyn Llivon, in Carnarvonshire, in
1567. They trace their descent, however, much further back, to Cilmin
Droed Dhu (Cilmin of the Black Foot), who came into Wales from the North
of Britain with his uncle Mervyn, King of the Isle of Man, who married
Esyllt, heiress of Conan, King of North Wales, about A.D. 830. The
territory allotted to him extended from Carnarvon to beyond Clynnog.
Edward Llwyd was the first to assume the name of Glynne, which his
descendants continued till the male succession ended in John Glynne,
whose daughter and heiress, Frances, married Thomas Wynne of Bodnau,
created a baronet in 1742. His son, Sir John, is said to have pulled
down the old strong mansion of Cilmin, and erected the present one. His
son again, Sir Thomas, was created a Peer of Ireland for his services in
the American war, whose descendant is the present Lord Newborough. The
father of the Serjeant was Sir William Glynne, Knight, 21st in descent
from Cilmin Droed Dhu. The Serjeant early espoused the cause of the
popular party, perhaps rather from ambition than from principle. His
abilities were soon recognized, and while still young he became High
Steward of Westminster and Recorder of London. In 1640 he was elected
Member for Westminster as a strong Presbyterian. He was actively
concerned in conducting the charge against Lord Strafford. In 1646 he
opposed in Parliament Cromwell's Self-denying Ordinance, and was thrown
into prison. He found means, however, to get reconciled to Cromwell in
1648, and became one of his Council and Serjeant-at-law. In 1654 he
became Chamberlain of Chester, and in the following year succeeded Rolle
as Lord Chief Justice - which office he discharged with credit. {10} In
1656 he was returned for Carnarvonshire, and in the Rump Parliament he
sat again for Westminster. Meanwhile he contrived to ingratiate himself
with the opposite side, and in 1660 we find him assisting on horseback at
the coronation of Charles II. He now resigned the Chief Justiceship,
made himself very useful in settling legal difficulties consequent upon
the usurpation, and became as loyal as any cavalier: the King, as a mark
of his favour, {11a} bestowing a baronetcy upon his son in 1661. He
possessed Henley Park, {11b} in Surrey, and an estate at Bicester, in
Oxfordshire, (of which church, as well as Ambrosden, he was patron) where
the family resided. He died at his house in Westminster in 1666, and was
buried in a vault beneath the altar of S. Margaret's Church.

His son, Sir William Glynne, the first baronet, sat in Parliament for
Woodstock, and died in 1721. It was not till 1723 that the Glynnes moved
to Hawarden, from Bicester. An old stone records the building of a house
in Broadlane in 1727. In 1732 Sir John Glynne, nephew of Sir William,
married Honora Conway, co-heiress with her sister Catherine of the
Ravenscrofts of Bretton and Broadlane, an old family connected with
Hawarden for many generations. {11c} This lady was the great great grand-
daughter of Sir Kenelm Digby, and with her one-half of the Ravenscroft
lands came into possession of the Glynnes; the other half in Bretton
passing eventually to the Grosvenors. She died in 1769. In 1752 Sir
John built a new house at Broadlane, which has since been the residence
of the family.

Though not the founder of the _family_, Sir John Glynne may fairly be
considered the founder of the _place_, and of the estate in its modern
sense. Though he sat for five Parliaments for the Borough of Flint, he
devoted himself largely to domestic concerns and to the improvement of
his property by inclosure, drainage, and otherwise. The present beauty
of the Park is in a great measure due to his energy and foresight. Upon
the acquisition of Broadlane Hall, he at once took in hand the
re-planting of the demesne, {12} first in Broadlane and about the Old
Castle, and in 1747 on the Bilberry Hill. He also turned his attention
to the developement of the minerals on the estate, and attempted the
carriage of coals to Chester by water. He died in 1777.

His Grandson, Sir S. R. Glynne, married in 1806 the Hon. Mary Neville,
daughter of Lord Braybrooke and of Catherine, sister to George, Marquess
of Buckingham, and by her had four children: Stephen, eighth and last
Baronet, born September 22, 1807; Henry, Rector of Hawarden born
September 9th, 1810; Catherine, now Mrs. Gladstone, born January 6, 1812;
and Mary, afterwards Lady Lyttelton, born July 22, 1813. He died in 1815
at the age of 35 years, and of his children Mrs. Gladstone alone
survives. Sir Stephen, the last Baronet, died unmarried in 1874,
surviving his brother the Rector only two years; and the Lordship of the
Manor, together, by a family arrangement, with the estates, then devolved
upon the present owner.

{Catherine Gladstone. Photographed by G. Watmough Webster, Chester:
p12.jpg}




The Old Castle.


The Ruins of Hawarden Castle occupy a lofty eminence, guarded on the S.
by a steep ravine, and on the other sides by artificial banks and
ditches, partly favoured by the formation of the ground. The space so
occupied measures about 150 yards in diameter. Upon the summit stands
the Keep, towering some 50 feet above the main ward, and some 200 feet
above the bottom of the ravine.

"The place presents," says Mr. G. T. Clark, "in a remarkable degree the
features of a well-known class of earthworks found both in England and in
Normandy. This kind of fortification by mound, bank and ditch was in use
in the ninth, tenth, and even in the eleventh centuries, before masonry
was general. {13} The mound was crowned with a strong circular house of
timber, such as in the Bayeaux tapestry the soldiers are attempting to
set on fire. The Court below and the banks beyond the ditches were
fenced with palisades and defences of that character."

It was usual after the Conquest to replace these old fortifications with
the thick and massive masonry characteristic of Norman Architecture.
Hawarden, however, bears no marks of the Norman style though the Keep is
unusually substantial. It appears, according to the best authorities,
{14} to be the work of one period, and that, probably, the close of the
reign of Henry III. or the early part of that of Edward I. Hence Roger
Fitzvalence, the first possessor after the Conquest, and the Montalts,
who held it by Seneschalship to Hugh Lupus, must have been content to
allow the old defences to remain, as any masonry constructed by them
could scarcely have been so entirely removed as to show no trace of the
style prevalent at the time.

The Keep is circular, 61 feet in diameter, and originally about 40 feet
high. The wall is 15 feet thick at the base, and 13 feet at the level of
the rampart walk - dimensions of unusual solidity even at the Norman
period, and rare indeed in England under Henry III. or the Edwards. The
battlements have been replaced by a modern wall, but the junction with
the old work may be readily detected. In the Keep were two floors - the
lower, no doubt, a store room without fire-place or seat - the upper a
state room lighted from three recesses and entered from the portcullis
chamber.

Next to this last is the Chapel, or rather _Sacrarium_, with a cinquefoil-
headed doorway, and a small recess for a piscina, with a projecting
bracket and fluted foot. Against the West wall is a stone bench, and
above it a rude squint through which the elevation of the Host could be
seen from the adjoining window recess. Of the two windows, one is
square, the other lancet-headed. The altar is modern. There is a mural
gallery in the thickness of the wall running round nearly the whole
circle of the Keep, and with remarkably strong vaulting.

Descending from the Keep and inclosing the space below, were two walls or
curtains, as they are technically called. That on the N. side, 7 feet
thick and 25 feet high, is still tolerably perfect, and within it lay the
way between the Keep and the main ward. Of the South curtain only a
fragment remains attached to the Keep.

The entrance to the court-yard - now the so-called bowling-green - was on
the N. side. On the South side, on the first floor (the basement being
probably a cellar), was the Hall, 30 feet high from its timber floor to
the wall plate. Two lofty windows remain and traces of a third, and
between them are the plain chamfered corbel whence sprung the open roof.
Below the hall is seen a small _ambry_ or cupboard in the wall.

Outside the curtain on the East side, where the visitor ascends to the
Courtyard, are remains of a kitchen and other offices with apartments
over, resting upon the scarp of the ditch.

From the N.E. angle of the curtain projects a spur work protected by two
curtains, one of which, 4 feet thick and 24 feet high, only remains, with
a shouldered postern door opening on the scarp of the ditch at its
junction with the main curtain. This spur work was the entrance to the
Castle, and contains a deep pit, now called the Dungeon, and a Barbican
or Sally-port beyond. The pit is 12 feet deep and measures 27 feet x 10
feet across. It may possibly have served the double purpose of defence
and of water supply - there being no other apparent source. In the
footbridge across the pit may have been a trap-door, or other means for
suddenly breaking communication in case of need. Overhead probably lay
the roadway for horsemen with a proper drawbridge. The thickness of the
walls indicates their having been built to a considerable height,
sufficient probably to form parapets masking the passage of the bridge.

In the mound beyond, or counterscarp, was the gate-house and Barbican,
containing a curious fan-shaped chamber up a flight of steps. While the
earth-works surrounding the Castle are the oldest part of the
fortifications - possibly, thinks Mr. Clark, of the tenth century - the
dressed masonry and the different material of the Barbican and Dungeon-
pit, together with some of the exterior offices, show them to be of
somewhat later date than the main building. They have, in fact, as Mr.
Clark remarks, more of an unfinished than a partially destroyed
appearance. The squared and jointed stones, so easily removable and
ready to hand, {16} proved no doubt a tempting quarry to subsequent
owners of Hawarden, who perhaps shared the faults of a period when
neither the architectural nor historical value of ancient remains was
generally appreciated.

It now remains to trace the history of the Castle, so far as it is known
to us.

In 1264 a memorable conference took place within its walls between Simon
de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, and Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, at
which each promised to aid the other in promoting the execution of their
respective plans. The King, who, with the Prince of Wales, was the
Earl's prisoner, was compelled to renounce his rights, and the Castle was
given up to Llewelyn. On the suppression of de Montfort's rebellion the
Castle reverted to the Crown, and Llewelyn was called upon by the Papal
Legate, Ottoboni, to surrender it. This he at first declined, but being
deserted by the Earl, who at the same time, in order to put an end to the
conflict, offered to him his daughter Eleanor in marriage agreed
afterwards to a treaty by which the Castle was to be destroyed, and
Robert de Montalt to be reinstated in the possession of his lands in
Hawarden, but to be restrained from restoring the fortification for
thirty years.

This stipulation appears to have been violated, for in 1281 the Welsh
rebelled, and under David and Llewelyn (who then made up their quarrel),
an attack was made by night upon the Castle, then styled Castrum Regis,
which was successful. Roger de Clifford, Justiciary of Chester, was
taken prisoner, and the Castle with much bloodshed and cruelty stormed
and partly burnt on Palm Sunday. The outrage was repeated in the next
year (Nov. 6th, 1282), when the Justice's elder son, also Roger Clifford,
was slain. Soon after this Llewelyn died, Wales was entirely subjugated,
and David executed as a traitor.

To this period may most probably be assigned the present structure. A
Keep, such as that now standing is not likely to have been successfully
assaulted in two successive years; nor does internal evidence favour the
idea that it was the actual work taken by the Welsh. Robert, the last of
the Montalts, was a wealthy man, and in all probability it was during his
Lordship, between 1297 and 1329, that the Castle, as we now see it, was
built. Though the unusual thickness of the walls of the Keep might be
thought more in keeping with the Norman period, the general details, as
already stated, the polygonal mural gallery and interior, and the
entrance, evidently parts of the original work, are very decidedly
Edwardian.

Of the subsequent history of the Castle, we have unfortunately nothing to
record until we come to the Civil War between Charles the First and the
Parliament. On Nov. 11th, 1643, Sir William Brereton, who had declared
for the Parliament, appeared with his adherents at Hawarden Castle, where
he was welcomed by Robert Ravenscroft and John Aldersey, who had charge
of it in the name of the King. Sir William established himself in the
Castle, and harassed the garrison of Chester, which was for the King, by
cutting off the supplies of coals, corn and other provisions, which they
had formerly drawn from the neighbourhood. Meanwhile the Archbishop of
York, writing from Conway to the Duke of Ormond announced the betrayal of
the Castle and appealed for assistance. In response to this a force from
Ireland was landed at Mostyn in the same month, and employed to reduce
the fortress, garrisoned by 120 men of Sir Thomas Middleton's Regiment.
The garrison received by a trumpet a verbal summons to surrender, which
gave occasion to a correspondence, followed by a further and more
peremptory summons from Captain Thomas Sandford, which ran as follows: -

Gentlemen: I presume you very well know or have heard of my condition
and disposition; and that I neither give nor take quarter. I am now
with my Firelocks (who never yet neglected opportunity to correct
rebels) ready to use you as I have done the Irish; but loth I am to
spill my countrymen's blood: wherefore by these I advise you to your
fealty and obedience towards his Majesty; and show yourselves faithful
subjects, by delivering the Castle into my hands for His Majesty's
use - otherwise if you put me to the least trouble or loss of blood to
force you, expect no quarter for man woman or child. I hear you have
some of our late Irish army in your company: they very well know me
and that my Firelocks use not to parley. Be not unadvised, but think
of your liberty, for I vow all hopes of relief are taken from you; and
our intents are not to starve you but to batter and storm you and then
hang you all, and follow the rest of that rebellious crewe. I am no
bread-and-cheese rogue, but as ever a Loyalist, and will ever be while
I can write or name

THOMAS SANDFORD,
Nov, 28, 1643. Captain of Firelocks.

I expect your speedy answer this Tuesday night at Broadlane Hall,
where I am now, your near neighbour.

Reinforcements having arrived from Chester, this was followed by a brisk
attack on the 3rd December, whereupon the garrison being short of
provisions, a white flag was hung out from the walls, and the Castle
surrendered on the following day to Sir Michael Emley. It was held by


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