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the Royalists for two years, but after the surrender of Chester, in Feb.
1646, Sir William Neal, the governor, capitulated (after receiving the
King's sanction - then at Oxford - ) to Major-General Mytton after a
month's siege. It was probably during these operations that the
specimens of stone and iron cannon balls still remaining were used.

An entry in the Commons' Journals refers to this last event, dated 16th
March, 1645.

Ordered: That Mr. Fogge the Minister shall have the sum of 50 pounds
bestowed upon him for his pains in bringing the good news of the taking
of the Castle of Hawarden; and that the Committee of Lords and Commons
for advance of Moneys at Haberdashers' Hall do pay the same accordingly.

The Lords' concurrence to be desired herein.

In the following year there is an Order "That the Castles of Hawarden,
Flint, and Ruthland be disgarrisoned and demolished, all but a tower in
Flint Castle, to be reserved for a gaol for the County"; and a
confirmation of it follows in the next year, dated 19th July, 1647.

These orders were no doubt forthwith executed, and of Flint and Rhuddlan
little now remains. At Hawarden gunpowder has been used to blow up
portions of the Keep. Sir William Glynne, son of the Chief Justice,
twenty or thirty years later, carried further the work of destruction.
Sir John Glynne, too, is said to have made free with the materials of the
Castle, and certain it is that a vast amount has been carted away and
used up in walls and for other purposes. His successors, however, have
done their utmost to make amends for these ravages, and to preserve the
ruins from further injury. The entrance and the winding stair by which
the visitor mounts to the top of the Keep are a restoration skilfully
effected not long ago under the direction of Mr. Shaw of Saddleworth. The
view embraces a wide range of country, North, East, and South, extending
from Liverpool to the Wrekin: on the West it is bounded by Moel Fammau or
Queen Mountain, on the summit of which is seen the remnant of the fallen
obelisk raised to commemorate the 50th year of the reign of George III.
Round about lie the Woods and the Park, presenting a happy mixture of
wild and pastoral beauty; while close beneath the Old stands the New
Castle, affecting in its turreted outline some degree of congruity with
its prototype, but much more contrasting with it in its home-like air,
and the luxury of its lawns and flower-beds.

Not less striking is the view of the Ruins from below. Here judgment and
taste have combined with great natural advantages of position to produce
an exceedingly picturesque effect. From the flower garden a wide sweep
of lawn, flanked by majestic oaks and beeches, carries the eye up to the
foot-bridge crossing the moat, thence to the ivy-mantled walls which
overhang it, and upward again to the flag-topt tower that crowns the
height. Clusters of ivy, and foliage here and there intervening, serve
to soften and beautify the mouldering remains. The scene brings to our
minds the words of the poet -

"The old order changeth, yielding place to new";

and, conscious as we may be that society in our day has its dangers and
disorders of a different and more insidious kind, we are thankful that
our lot is not cast in the harsh and troublous times of our history. All
around us the former scenes of rapine and violence are changed to
fertility and peace. The Old Castle serves well to illustrate the
contrast. Its hugely solid walls, reared 600 years ago with so much
pains and skill to repel the invader and to overawe the lawless, have
played their part, and are themselves abandoned to solitude and decay.
Within the arches which once echoed to the clang of arms the owls have
their home; while the rooks from the tree-tops around seem to chant the
_requiem_ of the past.

{Ruins of Old Castle: p21.jpg}

The Church.

{The Church: p22.jpg}

Hawarden Church, with its large graveyard attached, finely situated
overlooking the estuary of the Dee, is supposed to have been built about
A.D. 1275, and has much solidity and dignity of structure. The patron
saint is S. Deiniol, founder of the Collegiate monastery at Bangor, and
about A.D. 550 made first Bishop of that See. In the old records he is
styled one of the three "Gwynvebydd" or holy men of the Isle of Britain.
He was buried in Bardsey Island. A place still called "Daniel's
Ash" - perhaps a corruption of Deiniol - may be the very spot where he
gathered his disciples round him. Two Dedication festivals are observed,
the one on S. Deiniol's Day, December 10th, the other on the Sunday after
Holy Cross Day, September 14th. The Church has a central tower
containing six bells, {23a} a chancel with a south aisle called the
Whitley Chancel (after the Whitleys of Aston), and a nave with blind
clerestory and two aisles. There is a division in the roof between the
chancel and the nave which has the appearance of a transept, but not
extended beyond the line of the aisles. The axis of the chancel deviates
from that of the nave.

In 1764 the nave and aisles were newly pewed in place of the old benches,
and the floor flagged instead of being strewn with rushes. In 1810 a
gallery was erected at the west end and an organ placed in it; the
gallery was enlarged and a new organ purchased in 1836. {23b}

Great improvements were made about the year 1855 by the Rev. Henry
Glynne, Rector: the organ and singers were removed from the west to the
east end, the pews converted into open seats, and the cumbrous "three
decker" pulpit and reading desk {24a} exchanged for simpler furniture.
Unfortunately on the 29th October, 1857, a disastrous fire occurred,
almost entirely destroying the roof and fittings of the Church. Its
restoration was at once placed in the hands of Sir Gilbert Scott,
architect, who improved the occasion by adding the small spire which now
with excellent effect crowns the otherwise somewhat stunted tower. An
organ chamber was now added on the N. side of the chancel, and on the
14th July, 1859, with Sermons from the late Bishop Wilberforce, Dean Hook
and others, the Church was re-opened. The whole expenditure was about
8000 pounds.

The Reredos is a representation of the Last Supper in alabaster, and was
erected as a memorial to the Rev. Henry Glynne, Rector of the Parish for
38 years. In the side chancel {24b} under the 'Vine' window, is a
recumbent figure of his brother, Sir Stephen Glynne, who died two years
later in 1874 - a beautiful work by Noble. To his memory also were given
by the parishioners the wrought-iron gates at the main entrance to the

Upon the altar table stands a handsome brass cross mounted on _rosso
antico_ the gift of the parishioners to the present Rector. The old
Communion plate was twice stolen, viz., on April 13th, 1821, when it was
recovered, being found beaten flat and buried near the Higher Ferry; and
finally in 1859. The Churchyard was enlarged in 1859, by gift of the
late Rector. The old Cross which stood in the Churchyard in 1663, has
disappeared: possibly the Sun-dial now occupies its place.

The Parish Register dates from the year 1585; and the list of Rectors
goes back to 1180.

The Living is what is termed 'a Peculiar,' and was formerly exempt from
Episcopal jurisdiction. The Rectors granted marriage licenses, proved
wills, and had their own consistorial Courts and Proctors. The Court was
held in the Eastern Bay of the Chancel Aisle: the seal, still used,
represents Daniel in the Lion's Den, with the legend 'Sigillum peculiaris
et exemptae jurisdictionis de Hawarden'. These privileges, originally
granted by the Pope, were continued at the Reformation; but in 1849 the
Parish was definitely attached to the Diocese of S. Asaph, and the power
of granting marriage licenses now alone remains.

The Tithes were in 1093, granted by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, to the
Monks of S. Werburgh. In 1288 Pope Nicholas the 3rd, granted them to
King Edward the 1st, for six years. They were then valued at 13 pounds
6s. 8d. At the Reformation they were estimated at 66 pounds 6s. 5.5d.

The Rectory was greatly enlarged by the Hon. George Neville Grenville,
Rector from 1814 to 1834, and afterwards Dean of Windsor. The garden
comprises nearly six acres and is charmingly laid out.

A list of Rectors of Hawarden is appended. Up to the middle of the 15th
century exchanges were very frequent.

1180. William de Montalt

1209. Ralph de Montalt

1216. Hugh

1272. Roger
Richard de Osgodly

1315. William de Melton

1317. John Walewayn

1331. Thomas de Boynton

1333. Roger de Gildesburgh

1344. John de Baddeley

1350. James de Audlegh

1353. John Bexsyn

1357. Robert de Coningham

1368. William Pectoo

1391. Roger de Davenport
Henry Merston

1423. Marmaduke Lumley

1425. John Millyngton

1466. James Stanley

1478. Matthew Fowler

1487. James Stanley

1505. Randolph Pool

1557. Arthur Swift

1561. Thomas Jackson

1605. John Phillips D.D.

1633. Thomas Draycott

1636. Robert Browne

1638. Christopher Pasley D.D.

1640. Edward Bold

1655. Lawrence Fogge D.D.

1664. Orlando Fogge

1666. John Price D.D.

1685. Beaumont Percival D.D.

1714. B. Gardiner

1726. Francis Glynne

1728. John Fletcher

1742. Richard Williams

1770. Stephen Glynne

1780. Randolph Crewe

1814. George Neville-Grenville

1834. Henry Glynne

1872. Stephen E. Gladstone

{Interior of Church: p26.jpg}

The Modern Residence and Park.

The modern Residence was built in 1752 upon the site of Broadlane Hall,
the seat of the Ravenscrofts, an old house of wood and plaster, which
came into Sir John Glynne's possession by his marriage with Honora
Conway, daughter of Henry Conway and Honora Ravenscroft. Originally a
square brick house, it was afterwards in 1809 extended by the addition of
the Library on the West side and of the Kitchen and other offices on the
East; the whole being cased in stone {27} and castellated. The entrance
was now turned from the S. to the N. front - the turnpike road, which
passed in front of the house and along the Moat to the Village, having
been diverted in 1804 - and the present Flower-garden constructed with the
old Thorn-tree in the centre. Quite recently has been added the block at
the N.W. angle of the house, containing Mr. Gladstone's Study, or, as he
calls it, the 'Temple of Peace.'

{House and Flower Garden: p27.jpg}

The most striking feature about this room is that (to use the phrase of a
writer in Harper's Magazine) it is built about with bookcases. Instead
of being ranged along the wall in the usual way, they stand out into the
room at right angles, each wide enough to hold a double row facing either
way. Intervals are left sufficient to give access to the books, and Mr.
Gladstone prides himself upon the economy of space obtained by this
arrangement. His Library numbers near 20,000 volumes, many of which have
overflowed into adjoining rooms, where they are similarly stored. Of
this number Theology claims a large proportion; Homer, Dante, {28a} and
Shakespeare also have their respective departments, and any resident
visitor is at liberty, on entering his or her name in a book kept for the
purpose, to borrow any volume at pleasure. Three writing-tables are
seen. At one Mr. Gladstone sits when busy in political work and
correspondence; the second is reserved for literary and especially,
Homeric studies; the third is Mrs. Gladstone's. "It is," remarked Mr.
Gladstone to the writer above mentioned, with a wistful glance at the
table where 'Vaticanism' and 'Juventus Mundi' were written, "A long time
since I sat there." About the room are to be seen busts and photographs
of old friends and colleagues - Sidney Herbert, the Duke of Newcastle,
Canning, Tennyson, Lord Richard Cavendish, and others, while in the
corners lurk numerous walking sticks and axes.

Adjoining Mr. Gladstone's room is the Library of the house - a
well-proportioned and comfortable room, well stored with books, prominent
among which topography and ecclesiology testify to the predelictions of
the late owner, Sir Stephen Glynne. {28b} There are some good family
portraits and other pictures, among which are specimens of Sir Peter
Lely, Snyders, and a very fine likeness of Sir Kenelm Digby by Vandyke.
There is a fine picture by Millais of Mr. Gladstone and his grandson,
{29a} painted in 1889, and another good portrait of him by the late F.
Holl; also a much-admired likeness of Mrs. Gladstone by Herkomer.

Shading the windows of Mr. Gladstone's Study is a singular circle of
limes of some 20 feet in diameter, which goes by the name of Sir John
Glynne's Dressing-Room. Mounting the slope towards the old castle is the
Broad Walk, terminating in an artificial amphitheatre at the top, made by
Sir John Glynne to give employment in a time of distress. The grounds
abound in fine trees, {29b} and in rhododendrons which in spring form
masses of bloom.

In 1819, Prince Leopold, the late King of the Belgians, visited the
Castle; and the small wooden door on the south side of the Ruins is still
called after him. The Visitors' Book at the Lodge also records, in
autograph, the names of Her Gracious Majesty, as Princess Victoria, and
her mother, the Duchess of Kent, in or about the year 1833.

In the palmy days of the Royal British Bowmen the Castle was the frequent
scene of bow-meetings; the peculiar green costumes and feathers worn by
both the ladies and gentlemen competitors contributing to the picturesque
effect of these gatherings. Simultaneously with one of these Archery
Meetings, in the year, we believe, 1835, was held a Fancy Bazaar,
commemorated in some admirable lines by Mr. R. E. Warburton of Arley
Hall, which will be read with pleasure in connection with more recent
bazaars held in the same place.

While tents are pitched in Hawarden's peaceful vale,
And harmless shafts the platted targe assail;
While now the bow (the archers more intent
On making love than making war) is bent;
Beneath those towers, where erst their fathers drew
In deadly conflict bows of tougher yew;
Lo! Charity, a native of the skies,
Whose smile betrays her through a vain disguise,
Mounts the steep hill, and 'neath th' o'erhanging wall,
The canvass stretch'd in triumph, plants her stall;
In gay profusion o'er the counter pours
Her glittering wares and ranges all her stores.

Beneath the magic of her touch behold
Transformed at once the warlike aims of old!
The mighty falchion to a penknife shrinks,
The mailed meshes from the purse's links;
The sturdy lance a bodkin now appears,
A bunch of tooth-picks once a hundred spears;
A painted toy behold the keen-edged axe!
See men of iron turned to dolls of wax!

The once broad shield contracted now in span
Raised as a screen or fluttered as a fan;
The gleaming helm a hollow thimble proves,
And weighty gauntlets dwindle into gloves.
The plumes that winged the arrow through the sky,
Waft to and fro the shuttlecock on high;
Two trusty swords are into scissors cross'd,
And dinted breastplates are in corsets lost;
While dungeon chains to gentler use consigned,
Now silken laces, tighten stays behind.

Approach! nor weapons more destructive fear,
Where'er ye turn, than pins and needles here.
While hobbling Age along the pathway crawls,
By aid of crutch to scale the Castle's walls:
With eager steps advance, ye generous youths,
Draw purses all, and strip the loaded booths.
Bear each away some trophy from the steep,
Take each a keepsake ere ye quit the keep!
Come, every stranger, every guest draw nigh!
No peril waits you save from beauty's eye.

Hard by the Castle and across the yard will be found Mrs. Gladstone's
Orphanage, containing from 20 to 30 boys. Close by is a little Home of
Rest established by Mrs. Gladstone, for old and infirm women. The house
in which the orphans are lodged is called Diglane, and was formerly the
residence of the Crachley family. It was sold to Sir John Glynne in

{Gateway - Castle, shewing Orphanage: p31.jpg}

The Park is about 250 acres in extent, to which have to be added the
Bilberry Wood and Warren Plantations. It is divided into two parts by a
ravine passing immediately under the old Castle and traversing its entire
length. The further side is called the Deer Park, inclosed and stocked
by Sir John Glynne in 1739. Its banks and glades, richly timbered, and
overgrown with bracken, afford from various points beautiful views over
the plain of Chester, with the bold projections of the Frodsham and
Peckforton hills. Along the bottom of the hollow flows Broughton brook.
Two Waterfalls occur in its course through the Park: the lower is called
the Ladies' Fall: near the upper one stood a Mill, now removed, the
erection of which is commemorated by a large stone, bearing the following

"Trust in God for Bread, and to the King for Justice, Protection and
This Mill was built A.D. 1767
By Sir John Glynne, Bart.,
Lord of this Manor:
Charles Howard Millwright.
Wheat was at this year 9s. and Barley at 5s. 6d. a Bushel. Luxury was
at a great height, and Charity extensive, but the pool were starving,
riotous, and hanged."

Between this spot and the "Old Lane," a sandy gully, lined with old
beeches, and once the road to Wrexham - now tenanted by rabbits - are two
large oaks, 17 and 18 feet in circumference respectively. Another tree,
a beautiful specimen of the _fagus pendula_, or feathering beech, a great
favourite with Mr. Gladstone, deserves attention. It stands a few yards
from the iron railing near the moat of the old Castle, and measures 17ft.
11 in. round. The sycamores at Hawarden are particularly fine. Nor
should the visitor omit seeing the noble grove of beeches at the Ladies'

The road which descends the steep hill under the Old Castle and crosses
the brook, leads up through the Park to the Bilberry Wood. Twenty
minutes' walk through the wood brings one to the "Top Lodge" (1.75 miles
from the Castle). From this point either the walk may be continued
through the further plantations to the pretty Church of St. John's at
Penymynydd, {32a} or, if necessary Broughton Hall Station, 2.5 miles
distant, may be gained direct. The inclosures and the plantations on
this portion of the estate, called the Warren, were made in 1798, and
command some very fine views. The high road through Pentrobin and
Tinkersdale offers a pleasant return route to Hawarden.

Everyone has heard of Mr. Gladstone's prowess as a woodcutter, and to
some it may even have been matter of surprise to see no scantiness of
trees in the Park at Hawarden. It is true that he attacks trees with the
same vigour as he attacks abuses in the body politic, {32b} but he
attacks them on the same principle - they are blemishes and not ornaments.
No one more scrupulously respects a sound and shapely tree than Mr.
Gladstone; and if he is prone to condemn those that show signs of decay,
he is always ready to listen to any plea that may be advanced on their
behalf by other members of the family. In this, as in other matters,
doubtful points will of course arise; but there can be no question that a
policy of inert conservatism is an entire mistake. Besides the natural
growth and decay of trees, a hundred other causes are ever at work to
affect their structure and appearance; and the facts of the landscape,
thus continually altering, afford sufficient occupation for the eye and
hand of the woodman. It was late in life that Mr. Gladstone took to
woodcutting. Tried first as an experiment, it answered so admirably the
object of getting the most complete exercise in a short time that, though
somewhat slackened of late, it has never been abandoned. His procedure
is characteristic. No exercise is taken in the morning, save the daily
walk to morning service but between 3 and 4 in the afternoon he sallies
forth, axe on shoulder, accompanied by one or more of his sons. The
scene of action reached, there is no pottering; the work begins at once,
and is carried on with unflagging energy. Blow follows blow, delivered
with that skill which his favourite author {33a} reminds us is of more
value to the woodman than strength, together with a force and energy that
soon tells its tale on the tree

* * * * Illa usque minatur
Et tremefacta comam concusso vertice nutat,
Vulneribus donec paulatim evicta supremum
Congemuit, traxitque jugis avulsa ruinam.

_Virgil OEn II._ 626

"It still keeps nodding to its doom,
Still bows its head and shakes its plume,
Till, by degrees o'ercome, one groan
It heaves, and on the hill lies prone."

_Conington's Translation_.

At the advanced age he has now attained, it can hardly be expected that
Mr. Gladstone can very frequently indulge in what has been his favourite
recreation for the past twenty-five years. The present winter {34}
however saw the fall of at least one large tree, in which he took a full
share - a Spanish chestnut, measuring 10ft. at the top of the face, and
those who were present can testify to the undiminished vigour with which
the axe was wielded on that occasion.

Parish and District of Hawarden.

The Parish of Hawarden is a very extensive one, containing upwards of
17,000 acres, with a population, according to the census of 1871, of
7088. Sixteen townships are included in it; Hawarden, Broadlane, Mancot
Aston, Shotton, Pentrobin, Moor, Rake, Manor, Bannel, Bretton, Broughton,
Ewloe Wood, Ewloe Town, Saltney and Sealand. To provide for the
spiritual wants of so large a district, four daughter churches have been
built - viz.: S. Matthew's, Buckley, {35a} in 1822, S. Mary's, Broughton,
{35b} in 1824, S. Johns, Penymynydd, {35c} in 1843, and S. Bartholomew's,
Sealand, in 1867. The work of the Parish Church is now further
supplemented by three new School-chapels at Shotton, Sandycroft and
Ewloe. The chief portion of Saltney, and the district of Buckley, have
been recently separated from Hawarden for ecclesiastical purposes.

{Lodge Gate - Broughton Approach: p35.jpg}

The Rector of Hawarden has also to provide for the management and support
of eight National Schools, involving an annual expenditure of 1460
pounds. The requirements of the Education Act of 1870 involved an outlay
of 4300 pounds raised entirely from local sources.

The patronage of the living is vested in the Lord of the Manor. {36} The
Rev. S. E. Gladstone, the present Rector, was appointed by the late Sir
Stephen Glynne in 1872.

The Grammar School is finely situated, near the Church, and has
accommodation for 50 scholars, inclusive of 20 boarders. The income from
endowment is 24 pounds.

The temporary building adjoining contains a portion of the Library of the
Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone.

The land about Hawarden varies much in quality. The best lies towards
the river and on Saltney, where are large and well cultivated farms. On
the higher ground in Pentrobin the soil is poorer; here however are found
holdings that have remained in the same family for generations. The land
is mainly arable; but little cheese being now made.

About one mile and a half from Hawarden on the road to Northop, lie
ensconced in a wood the scant remains of the old Castle of Ewloe - the
scene of a battle between the English and Welsh in 1157, in which the
former were defeated by David and Conan, sons of Owen Gwynedd.

The district is rich in beds of coal and clay. The former have been
worked from an early period when the coal was mostly sent to Chester; but
the difficulties of carriage before the turnpike road was made, and
especially of draining the mines, which before steam-engines came into
use was attempted to be done by means of levels, {37} were a serious
impediment to that development which under more favourable conditions has
since taken place.

Formerly the only means of getting the minerals of the district away, was
a horse tramway from Buckley to Queensferry. In 1862 however was opened
the Wrexham and Connah's Quay Railway, - Mrs. Gladstone cutting the first
sod, and an address from the Corporation of Wrexham being at the same
time presented to Mr. Gladstone, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. This
line is now carried through Hawarden, and, when connected with Birkenhead
and Liverpool by the Mersey Tunnel, now happily completed, is destined in
all probability to become one of importance beyond the limits of the


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