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patriotic colonists. In the future it must be clear that the
most important questions for England will be colonial ques-
tions, and a study of these is imperatively necessary for a
generation that has stepped into this wonderful heritage of
'a second colonial empire.'

Imperial Federation is the question of the hour. Far from



262 British Colonisation

being exhausted, this attractive theme grows more interesting
day by day. We are really only in limine ipso of the whole
discussion. What the ultimate form, politically speaking, of
a confederated British empire may be matters not at present.
Out of a carefully nourished sentiment co-operation may come,
and out of the co-operation of England and her colonies a
consolidated empire strong, if may be hoped, for the extension
of peace and liberty alone may arise, which will be the
greatest as it is the most widely spread that the world has yet
seen.



APPENDICES



References :

The Colonial Office List, 1891.

The Australian Handbook, 1891 (Gordon and Gotch).

The Seven Colonies of Australasia. By T. A. Coghlan, Government

Statistician of New South Wales. 1892.
Her Majesty's Colonies, 1886. A series of original papers issued

under the Royal Commission (Colonial and Indian Exhibition).
Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, passim.
Report of the Director of the Census of the Cape of Good Hope, 1891.
Census of Canada, 1891. Issued by the Department of Agriculture,

Ottawa. Bulletin No. I. and following.
Special Edition of the Year- Book of New South Wales. Prepared for

the New South Wales Government. 1892.
Statistical Register of Victoria, 1890.
Synopsis of the Tariffs and Trade of the British Empire, by Sir

R. W. Rawson.
Sequel to the Synopsis. By the same Author,



APPENDICES

FACTS AND FIGURES

I. THE WEST INDIES.

SECTION A. JAMAICA.

Area. 4193 square miles, being 144 miles in length and 49 in
breadth.

Divisions. The island is divided into (i) the county of Surrey,
with the parishes of Kingston, St. Andrew, St. Thomas, Portland ;
(2) Middlesex, with the parishes of St. Catherine, St. Mary, Clar-
endon, St. Anne, Manchester ; (3) Cornwall, with the parishes of
St. Elizabeth, Trelawny, St. James, Hanover, Westmoreland.

Physical Features. Jamaica is very mountainous, especially on
the east side, where the Blue Mountains rise to more than 7000
feet. Water is very abundant in the island, and the largest rivers
are the Black River, the Rio Grande, the Plantain Garden River,
the Martha, and the Cobre. In their general character they are
rapid and turbulent, flowing quickly into the sea, and none are
navigable. The coast-line is greatly broken up, and the two main
harbours are Old Harbour and Kingston Harbour. Jamaica has a
great variety of climate, the lowlands being warm but the highlands
cool and healthy.

Population. 1881, 508,804; 1891, 639,491.

Chief Towns. Kingston, the capital, with Port-Royal, the naval
station (48,504) ; Spanish Town (8000) ; Linstead ; Mandeville, in
Manchester ; Newcastle, the military headquarters ; Falmouth ;
Montego.

Government. As it now stands, the Governor, nominated in
England, is assisted by a Privy Council not to exceed eight, and
by a Legislative Council of nine elected members, four ex officio
members, and five nominated members in addition to the Governor.
The total number of voters is about 25,000. The colony has passed
through four systems of government : (i) that of military rule,

265



266 British Colonisation

1655 ; (2) the period of General Assemblies, lasting with modifi-
cations for 200 years ; (3) Crown government, beginning after the
servile wars, 1866, the Legislature consisting entirely of official
and nominated members ; (4) in 1884, the mixed system of official
and elected members, such as is now in force.

Trade. Total imports (1891-92), .1,759,890. Exports,
,1,722,096. 'With regard to the distribution of trade, Jamaica
imported (1872-86) 53 per cent, from the United Kingdom. It
exported 5 5 per cent, to foreign countries and 38 per cent, to the
United Kingdom. The trade with the other West Indies, Mauri-
tius, the East Indies, and Australasia amounted to 14 per cent, of
the imports and 7 per cent, of the exports.' *

Products. Sugar and rum represent nearly 50 per cent, of the
products. Coffee, cocoa, pimento (the all-spice tree), tobacco,
ginger, arrowroot, such fruits as bananas, coco-nuts, oranges, are
grown largely and with profit.

Revenue. 1891-92, ^778,615. Expenditure, ,781,883.

Public Debt. In 1891 the public debt was ^1,520,087.

Public Works. The harbours of Jamaica are the greatest of the
public works. There are 74^ miles of railway. The main line
runs from Kingston westward to Porus, with a branch running
north to Ewarton. There are good roads everywhere. Telegraph
stations and post-offices are established in every town and nearly
every village of importance.

Defence Forces. An Imperial garrison at Up Park Camp of
950 men, and a station at Port-Royal. There is also a volunteer
militia force of 600 officers and men and a constabulary of 693
sub-officers and men. The West India Regiment has already
been noticed.

Communication. Distance from England is 5000 miles, the
length of voyage 17 days. Jamaica is 540 miles from Colon and
the Isthmus of Panama, a position that would enhance its value in
case the Panama Canal were opened.

SECTION B. BARBADOS.

Area. 166 square miles, being 21 miles long and 14 broad.

Divisions. The island is divided into eleven parishes : (i) St.
Lucy's, (2) St. Peter's, (3) St. James's, (4) St. Michael's, (5) St.

1 Sequel to Tariffs and Trade of the British Empire, by Sir R. W. Rawson.
In 1891, imports from United Kingdom ^862, 345 ; exports to, 562,913.



Appendices 267

Philip's, (6) Christchurch, (7) St. George's, (8) St. John's, (9) St.
Thomas's, (10) St. Joseph's, (11) St. Andrew's.

Physical Features. The island is almost entirely surrounded by
coral reefs. There are no very high mountains, the highest being
Mount Hillaby, 1104 feet. The prevailing wind is the north-east,
which brings moisture and turns the windmills. The soil is porous,
and as the ground has been carefully cultivated for generations
there is no miasma.

Population. 1881, 171,860; 1891, 182,322.

Chief Towns. Bridgetown (the capital), 21,000; Speighstown.

Government. As it now stands, the government is carried on
by (i) a Governor; (2) a Legislative Council, consisting of nine
members appointed by the Queen ; (3) a House of Assembly of
twenty-four members, elected annually on the basis of a moderate
franchise. Barbados, which was governed at one time in connec-
tion with the Windward Islands, became a separate colony in 1885.

Trade. Total imports, 1891, ,1,067,617. Exports, 814,254.
'With regard to the distribution of its trade, Barbados took (1872-
1886) 35 per cent, of imports from the United Kingdom, 22 per
cent, from British possessions, chiefly North America, India,
British West Indies, and Guiana, and 43 per cent, from foreign
countries. It exported 34 per cent, to the United Kingdom, 27 per
cent, to British possessions, chiefly British North America, West
Indies, and British Guiana, and 39 per cent, to foreign countries,
almost exclusively to the United States.' x

Products. Sugar is the chief product. There are also a few
plantations and some maize fields. In former days indigo, ginger,
and aloes were grown.

Revenue. 1891, ^163,905. Expenditure, ^176,800.

Public Debt. 1 89 1 , 30, 100.

Defence Forces. Barbados is the headquarters of the military
force in the West Indies. The Imperial garrison consists of
43 officers and 765 non-commissioned officers and men.

Communication. Barbados is the first port of call from England,
being 3635 miles distant. The voyage takes 12 to 13 days.

SECTION C. TRINIDAD.

Area. 1754 square miles.

Divisions. The island is divided into eight counties : (i) St.
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom .432,636 ; exports to, 74,605.



268 British Colonisation

George, (2) St. David, (3) Caroni, (4) St. Andrew, (5) Victoria,
(6) Nariva, (7) St. Patrick, (8) Mayaro.

Population. 1891, 200,028.

Chief Towns. Port of Spain (31,858), San Fernando (6335),
Princestown, Arima.

Government. Trinidad, with which is included Tobago, is a
Crown colony. The Governor is assisted by an Executive Council
of three members. The Legislative Council numbers eighteen,
eight being officials, and the rest nominated by the Crown for a
period of five years.

Trade. Imports (1891), ,2,096,797. Exports, ,2,058,761.
1 With regard to the distribution of her trade, Trinidad imported
(1872-86) 29 per cent, from the United Kingdom, n per cent.'from
British possessions viz. Canada, West Indies, Guiana, and the
East Indies and 60 per cent, from foreign countries, chiefly
Venezuela and France. The colony exported 53 per cent, to the
United Kingdom, only 2 per cent, to the West Indies and British
Guiana, and 45 per cent, to foreign countries, of which more than
half went to the United States and the remainder chiefly to Vene-
zuela and France.' 1

Products. Sugar, the most important ; cocoa, said to be the
best in the world ; tobacco, a very old industry in Trinidad ; asphalt
from the Pitch Lake at La Brea ; Angostura bitters ; and fruit,
much of which is shipped to New York.

Revenue. 1891, ,488,219. Expenditure, ,490,422.

Public Debt. 1891, ,520,420.

Public Works. Railways, in all 54^ miles, connecting Port of
Spain with Arima and the east and with Claxton Bay via St.
Joseph and the south. There are 63 miles of telegraph.

Communication. Between Port of Spain and San Fernando,
the two principal ports, distance 32 miles by water and 42 by road,
there is excellent communication by steamer and railway.

SECTION D. TOBAGO.
Area. 114 square miles.
Population. 1891, 18,387.
Chief Towns. Scarborough (1370), Plymouth.
Government. Tobago is represented in the Council of Trinidad
by one official and one unofficial member.

1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom ,777, 658 ; exports to, ^728,998.



Appendices 269

Trade. Imports (1891), .23,945. Exports, ^24,241. 'Tobago
imported (1872-86) 53 per cent, from the United Kingdom and
46 per cent, from Barbados. It exported 69 per cent, to the
United Kingdom, 16 per cent, to Barbados, and 15 per cent, to the
United States and French West Indies.' l

Products. Sugar is the main article of export. Cocoa, arrow-
root, coffee, sisal hemp, tobacco.

Revenue. 1890, 8730. Expenditure, 8783.

Communication. There is no telegraph cable. Plymouth, the
port, is reached from Bridgetown, Barbados.

SECTION E. BRITISH GUIANA.

Area. About 109,000 square miles, but when the boundary
dispute with Venezuela is settled it will probably extend over
1 20,000 square miles.

Divisions. The colony is divided into the counties of (i) Deme-
rara, (2) Essequibo, (3) Berbice.

Physical Features. There are two great parallel mountain sys-
tems crossing the colony fiom west to east, the greater being that
of the Pacaraima and Merume Mountains, and the lesser the
Canucu, Camucumu, and Coratamung Mountains. The chief
rivers are the Essequibo, the Demerara, the Berbice, the Maza-
runi, Cuyuni, and Corentyn. The upper course of the Demerara
is unknown. There is much to explore in British Guiana. For
twenty miles inland there is a succession of sandhills, and the
coasts are covered with mangrove and courida bushes.

Population. 1891, 278,328, of whom one-third were Indian
immigrants.

Chief Towns. Georgetown (47,816), New Amsterdam (8907).

Government. A Governor and a Court of Policy of fifteen
members, seven official and eight elected by the colonists. This
Court of Policy is an unique institution, being inherited from the
Dutch. Its functions correspond to those of the Legislative
Councils in the other West Indian colonies. But it has no power
of taxation. This power rests with the Combined Court, which is
the Court of Policy plus six financial representatives elected by
the people. The Roman-Dutch law still survives in the colony.
Both at the Cape and Ceylon the Dutch law, Courts of Policy,
1 The 1891 returns not available.



270 British Colonisation

fiscals, etc., were found, but they disappeared, to a great extent,
with British occupation.

Trade. Imports (1891), 1,707,770. Exports, .2,532,554.
1 With regard to the distribution of trade, British Guiana imported
(1872-86) 49 per cent, from the United Kingdom, 23 per cent, from
British possessions of which more than half was from the East
Indies, the rest from Canada and the West Indies and 28 per
cent, from foreign countries, chiefly the United States. It exported
72 per cent, to the United Kingdom, 5 per cent, to the West Indies
and Canada, and 23 per cent, chiefly to the United States and
foreign West Indies, with a small quantity to Portugal and
Holland. 3 1

Products. Sugar, which forms 82 per cent, of the whole exports.
Out of 94,000 acres in cultivation, 79,000 are given to sugar. Rum,
molasses, coffee, cocoa-nut, timber, and gold are also produced.

Revenue. 1890 to March 1891,^522,767. Expenditure, ,508,108.

Public Debt. 1891, 735,429.

Public Works. A line of railway, 21 miles in length, from
Georgetown to Mahaica. There are 260 miles of telegraphs.

Communication. Georgetown is 4coo miles distant from South-
ampton. The voyage takes 1 3 to 15 days.



SECTION F. BRITISH HONDURAS.

Area. 7562 square miles.

Divisions. The colony is divided into five districts : (i) Belize,
(2) the northern, combining Corosal and Orange Walk, (3) the
Cayo, (4) Stann Creek, (5) Toledo.

Physical Features. Along the coast are large swamp- lands ;
beyond are the terraces known as Pine Ridge, Cohune Ridge so
called from the Cohune palm and Broken Ridge. The hills rise
from 500 to 4000 feet on the west. The rivers are the Belize,
Hondo, and New River.

Population. 1891, 31,471.

Chief Towns. Belize (5767), Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Punta
Gorda.

Government. British Honduras is a Crown colony administered

by a Governor and a Legislative Council consisting of five official

and not less than four unofficial members. It may be noted that

1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom ^927, 397 ; exports to, ,1,220,518.



Appendices 27 1

the first settlers from 1638 to 1786 managed their own affairs, and
their customs were ratified and known as ' Burnaby's Laws ' (1756),
Admiral Burnaby having been sent out to the colony, together
with the celebrated Captain Cook of Pacific fame, to examine and
report upon the state of the country.

Trade. Imports, 1891, 272,355. Exports, .280,521. 'Be-
tween 1872-86 the colony imported 43 per cent, from the United
Kingdom and 57 per cent, from foreign countries, chiefly United
States, Central America, and Mexico. It exported 58 per cent, to
the United Kingdom and 42 per cent, to foreign countries.' 1

Products. Mahogany, logwood, sugar, cedar, rosewood, fruit.

Revenue. 1891, ,52,528. Expenditure, ^45,270.

Ptiblic Debt. 1891, 17,000.

Communication. The principal communication between Europe
and British Honduras is vid New Orleans, from which place it is
600 miles distant. There is no submarine cable connecting the
colony with the outside world, nor are there any railways.



SECTION G. THE LEEWARD ISLANDS.

Area. 704 square miles.
Divisions. Five presidencies.

I. Dominica.

Area. 291 square miles.

Physical Features. Very mountainous. It is the loftiest of the
Lesser Antilles. From the sea its aspect is very striking : bold
headlands in the foreground, alternating with deep ravines or open
valleys ; at the back, irregular masses of dark-wooded mountains
reaching up to the clouds. The highest peak is Morne Diabloten
(5314 feet). The coast-line is deeply indented. The rainfall of
the island is high, averaging 75 inches annually.

Population. 1881, 28,211 ; 1891, 26,841.

Chief Towns. Roseau, the capital, on the south-west ; St.
Joseph.

Government. The local Government is administered by a Presi-
dent and a Legislative Assembly of fourteen members, seven nomi-
nated and seven elected. The President has a casting vote. This

1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom 119,257; exports to, 154,619.



272 British Colonisation

local Government is subordinate to the Federal or General Legis-
lature.

Trade. Imports (1891), ,60,780. Exports, ,38,910. 'Domi-
nica imported (1872-86) about equal quantities from the United
Kingdom and foreign countries, chiefly the United States and
French West Indies, and 23 per cent, from the West Indies, chiefly
Barbados. It exported 25 per cent, to the United Kingdom and
72 per cent, to the United States. In 1891 Dominica imported
,28,368 from United Kingdom, and exported to it 2 1,094.

Products. Cocoa, sugar, coffee, maize, cotton, tobacco, molasses,
rum, lime-juice, fruit, woods.

Revenue. 1891, .21,533. Expenditure, 24,937.

Public Debt. 1891, 40,900.

Communication. Roseau has an open roadstead, and is 4000
miles from London. It is visited by the ' Royal Mail ' and other
steamers. A good deal of the traffic of the island is carried on by
means of boats. Until lately the roads of the interior have been
in a bad state, but ^30,000 has been expended on bridges and
repairs.

II. Montserrat.

Area. 47 square miles.

Physical Features. The surface is broken up into rocky hills
and ridges culminating in several high peaks not exceeding 3000
feet. It is of volcanic origin. The higher slopes are covered with
thick forests.

Population.- i^i, 10,087; '891, 11,762.

Chief Town. Plymouth, 1400.

Government. A President and Council of six, all nominated,
and half sitting ex officio.

Trade. Imports (1891), ,25,846. Exports, .24,339. ' In
1872-1886 Montserrat imported a third from the United Kingdom,
55 per cent, from Canada and other West Indian islands, chiefly
Antigua, St. Kitts, and Barbados, and 12 per cent, from foreign
countries, chiefly the United States. It exported 22 per cent, to
the United Kingdom, 8 per cent, to British possessions, and 70 per
cent, to foreign countries, chiefly the United States.' 1

Products. Sugar, limes, lime-juice, arrowroot, banana, coffee,
cacao.

Revenue. 1891, 6526. Expenditure, 7303.

Public Debt. 1891, ^8300.

1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom 9396 ; exports to, 10,779.



Appendices 273

III. Antigua.

Area. 108 square miles.

Divisions. The Presidency of Antigua consists of (i) Antigua ;
(2) Barbuda, an island of 62 square miles, and producing salt and
phosphate of lime ; (3) Redonda, a bold rocky islet, about a mile
long, rising 1000 feet, and noted for its phosphate of alumina.

Physical Features. Compared with Dominica, the surface is
comparatively flat, the hills not reaching 2000 feet. The highlands
are dry and uncultivated, the lowlands are covered with cane-fields.
The Antigua soils are nowhere very deep, but are very fertile.
The annual rainfall is about 45 inches, about one-half of that of
Dominica.

Population. 1881, 34,964 ; 1891, 36,699.

Chief Towns St. John (10,000), the capital ; Falmouth, on the
south coast ; Parham, on the north-east.

Government. Antigua is the seat of the Federal Government,
which consists of a Central Council of twenty members, ten of
whom are elected by the unofficial members of the local legislative
bodies, four are ex officio members, and six others are nominated
by the Crown. With regard to the local Legislature, there is a
Legislative Council of twenty-four members, of whom twelve are
elected and twelve nominees of the Crown.

Trade. Imports (189 1), ,167,110. Exports, ,157,463. 'Antigua
imported equal quantities from the United Kingdom and foreign
countries, chiefly the United States, with 14 per cent, from British
North America and the West Indies. It exported 17 per cent, to
the United Kingdom, 16 per cent, to Canada and the West Indies,
and 67 per cent, to foreign countries, chiefly the United States.' J

Products. The chief product is sugar about 102 estates turn out
annually 12,000 hogsheads rum, molasses, pine-apples, and fruits
and vegetables. About one-third of the island is under cultivation.

Revenue. 1891, ^43)55- Expenditure >

Public Debt.\fy\, 35,371.



IV. The Presidency of St Kitts, Nevis, Anguilla.
St. Kitts.

Area. 68 square miles, the total length being about 23 miles.
Physical Features. The island is mountainous, Mount Misery,
1 In 1891 imports from United Kingdom ,75,396; exports to, 2572.

3



274 British Colonisation

3711 feet high, occupying the centre. The Vale of Basseterre is
said to be extremely rich.

Population. 1891, 47,662.

Chief Town. Basseterre, 9097.

Nevis.

Area. 50 square miles.

Physical Features. The island consists of a single mountain, of
a circular form, rising 3200 feet above the sea. A narrow strait
of two miles divides it from St. Kitts.

Population. 1891, 13,087.

Chief Town. Charlestown.

Anguilla.

Area. 35 square miles. It is distant 60 miles north-west from
St. Kitts. The population is 3699.

Government. The Presidency of St. Kitts-Nevis, with Anguilla,
is governed by a President, an Executive Council, and a legislative
body called the Legislative Council, consisting of ten official and
ten nominated unofficial members.

Trade. Imports (1891), ,161,105. Exports, ^187,455. 'The
colony imported (1872-86) 42 per cent, from the United Kingdom,
12 per cent, from Canada, the British West Indies, and British
Guiana, and 46 per. cent, from foreign countries, chiefly the
United States. It exported 27 per cent, to the United Kingdom,
5 per cent, to Canada and the West Indies, and 68 per cent, to
foreign countries, chiefly the United States, with a small quantity
to the French West Indies and Italy.' l

Products. Sugar, rum, molasses are the chief products. In St.
Kitts the China and Seville orange is cultivated ; also the lime and
the shaddock, a fruit said to have been introduced from Guinea by
Captain Shaddock.

Revenue. 1891, 38,209. Expenditure, ,45,220.

Public Debt. 1891, ; 30,400.

V. The Virgin Islands.

Area. 58 square miles.

Physical Features. The Virgin Islands are a number of islands
to the north-west of St. Kitts, some of them, thirty-two in number,
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom 66,653 ; exports to, i7-9 8 6-



Appendices 275

belonging to the British and some to Denmark. Occasionally
they rise to a considerable height. Tortola, Virgin Gorda, Ane-
gada, Jost van Dyke, Salt Island, and St. Peters are best known.
Between Virgin Gorda and Tortola is a deep channel known as
' Drake's Channel,' after Sir Francis Drake, who passed through
in 1595.

Population. 1891, 4639.

Chief Town. Roadtown (400), in Tortola.

Government. The Virgin Islands are governed by an Adminis-
trator, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council consisting
of the Colonial Secretary, Colonial Treasurer, and not more than
three unofficial members nominated by the Administrator.

Trade. Imports (1891), ^4446. Exports, ^4633. 'The Virgin
Islands had the smallest trade amongst the whole of the British
possessions. It was carried on (1872-86) exclusively with the
United States. ' 1

Revenue. 1891, ,1512. Expendititre, 2219.

SECTION H. THE WINDWARD ISLANDS.
I. Grenada and the Grenadines.

Area. 133 square miles.

Divisions. The island is divided into the following parishes :
(i) St. George, (2) St. David, (3) St. Andrew, (4) St. Patrick,
(5) St. Mark, (6) St. John.

Physical Features. The island is traversed by a mountain
range, the highest point of which is St. Catherine, 2500 feet.
There are several sulphurous springs. Lake Antoine is a remark-
able feature, and is the source of many streams.

Population. 1891, 53,209, including the Grenadines, of whom
2 per cent, only are Europeans.

Chief Towns. St. George, Charlotte Town, St. Patrick, Gren-
ville, Hillsborough, in Carriacou.

Government. The island was once governed by a Legislative
Council and Legislative Assembly, but it is now governed by an
Administrator and a Council consisting of six official members and
seven official members nominated by the Crown. At the same
time Grenada is, together with St. Lucia and St. Vincent, under a
Governor-in-Chief.

1 Jn 1891, imports from United Kingdom 317; exports not given.



276 British Colonisation

Trade. Imports (1891), 176,929. Exports, 236,643. 'With
regard to the distribution of trade, Grenada imported (1872-86)
13 per cent, from foreign countries, chiefly the United States,
46 per cent, from the United Kingdom, and 41 per cent, from
British possessions, chiefly Barbados and Trinidad. It exported
89 per cent, to the United Kingdom.' In 1891, imports from
United Kingdom 97,895 ; exports to, 218,600.



Online LibraryWilliam Henry Parr GreswellOutlines of British colonisation → online text (page 23 of 31)