Products. Cocoa is the chief product. Sugar, coffee, fruit, and
timber are also exported. Nutmeg cultivation is also being de-
veloped. Turtles and whales are found in the Grenadines.
Revenue. 1891, 54,018. Expenditure, 56,450.
Public Debt. 1891, 44,475.
II. St. Lucia.
Area. 243 square miles.
Physical Features. St. Lucia is a mountainous island of volcanic
origin, the ranges running north and south, the highest peak being
Piton des Canaries, 3000 feet high. Deep forests clothe the moun-
tain sides, and the soil is very rich at a high elevation.
Population. 1891, 41,713, of whom 2000 are imported coolies.
Chief Towns. Castries (6686), Souffriere (2000).
Government. St. Lucia is a Crown colony. It is governed by
an Administrator, who is subordinate to the Governor-in-Chief of
the Windward Islands, assisted by a Legislative Council of ten,
five being official and five unofficial.
Trade. Imports (1891), 222,178. Exports, 181,503. 'With
regard to the distribution of trade, St. Lucia drew (1872-86) about
an equal proportion of its imports from the United Kingdom and
foreign countries, chiefly the United States and France, and 13 per
cent, from the British West Indies, chiefly Barbados. It exported
53 per cent, to the United Kingdom and 45 per cent, to foreign
countries, chiefly the United States, France, and the French West
Products. Sugar, coffee, cocoa and maize, logwood. St. Lucia
is noted for its central sugar factories or usines.
Revenue. 1891, 49,326. Expenditure^ 53,906.
Public Debt. 1891, 140,770.
Communication. There are three principal roads in the island :
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom 138,019; exports to, 37,177.
one from Castries to Vieux Fort on the extreme south, a second
from Castries to the eastern parts of the island, and a third from
Castries to Gros Islet and the extreme north. Many steamers,
both French and British, call at Port Castries.
III. St. Vincent.
Area. 140 square miles. Bequia, one of the Grenadines, has
an area of 6 square miles. This islet, as well as others, is included
under St. Vincent.
Physical Features. St. Vincent is an oval-shaped island of vol-
canic origin, with high and thickly wooded mountains. The chief
harbour is Kingstown Bay, on the south-west.
Population. 1891, 41,054.
Chief Towns. Kingstown (5593), Georgetown on the east.
Government. The island is governed by an Administrator and
a Legislative Council of eight, and, like the rest of the Windward
Islands, is under a Governor-in-Chief.
T^rade. Imports (1891), .97,839. Exports, 98,672. 'With
regard to the distribution of its trade, St. Vincent imported
(1872-86) nine-tenths of its imports in nearly equal proportions
from the United Kingdom and British West Indies, probably Bar-
bados, with 12 per cent, from foreign countries, chiefly the United
States. It exported 39 per cent, to the United Kingdom and
54 per cent, to foreign countries, chiefly the United States.' x
Products. Sugar, molasses, rum, cocoa, coffee, cotton, and
Revenue. 1891, 27,649. Expenditure, 2 8, 51 6. Debt, 14, 370.
SECTION I. THE BAHAMAS.
Area. 4500 square miles. The principal islands are New
Providence, Abaco, Harbour Island, Eleuthera, Inagua, Ragged
Island, Rum Cay, Exuina, Long Island, Long Cay, Great Bahama,
Cat Island, Watling's Island (San Salvador), Andros Island.
Physical Features. Great Bahama Bank and Little Bahama
Bank are two coral banks on which the islands and rocks are
situated, Providence Channels dividing the two. The banks are
said to be formed of the deposits carried down by the Mississippi
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom ,44,447 ; exports to, 39,848.
278 British Colonisation
and other rivers into the Gulf of Mexico, and drifted eastward by
the Gulf Stream. No island exceeds 14 miles in breadth.
Population. 1891, 47,565.
Chief Towns. Nassau, on New Providence (12,000) ; Harbour
Island, a health resort.
Government. The Bahamas constitute a single colony adminis-
tered by a Governor, an Executive Council of nine members, a
Legislative Council of nine members, and a Representative
Assembly of twenty-nine members.
Trade. Imports (1891), ,190,670. Exports, ,128,010. Sir
R. W. Rawson observes that both import and export trade were
carried on chiefly with foreign countries, mainly with the United
States, viz. 77 and 87 per cent, respectively. The trade with
British possessions did not amount to 2 per cent.
Products. Fruit trade with the United States is the chief in-
dustry. Sponge-fishing employs many seamen, the sponges being
brought to the surface by diving or by hooked poles. The fibre
industry is a rising one. Pink pearls, salt, guano, tortoise-shell,
and cameos are minor products.
Revenue. 1891, ,52,813. Expenditure, ,55,804.
Public Debt. 1891, ,81,126.
Communication. Regular mail communication between the
Bahamas and New York, monthly in summer and fortnightly in
winter. Nassau, the capital, is 310 miles from Havana, 660 from
Kingston Harbour, Jamaica.
SECTION K. THE BERMUDAS.
Area. 41 square miles.
Parishes. Sandys, Southampton, Warwick, Paget, Pembroke,
Devonshire, Smithe, Hamilton, St. George's.
Physical Features. The largest island, Main Island, contains
about 9000 acres, the highest point being 240 feet. The group of
islands form an oval ring about 22 miles in length and 10 miles in
width. The marked feature is the continuous reefs of coral. The
soil is poor in quality.
Population. 1891, 15,013, of whom 5690 are white.
Chief Towns. Hamilton, St. George. Ireland Island is the
naval depot and dockyard. Here is a permanent garrison of
Imperial troops numbering 1400, and the mean number of the
Admiralty establishment is 1200.
Government. The Bermudas constitute a single colony ad-
ministered by a Governor, assisted by a Legislative Council of
nine, three of whom are official and six unofficial, and a House of
Assembly of thirty-six members, four from each of the nine
Trade. Imports from the United Kingdom (1891), ,325,976.
Exports, 1 29,803. * Bermuda drew 6 1 per cent, of its imports (1872-
1886) from foreign countries, chiefly from the United States, to
which country it sent the greater part of its exports. The remainder
of its imports were from the United Kingdom and British West
Indies. The amount of its exports to the United Kingdom was
Products. Vegetables and fruit, which are sent to New York.
The whole population is dependent upon food supplies from abroad.
Revenue. 1*91, 33,5V- Expenditure, .32,029.
Public Debt. 1891, .8600.
Communication. Hamilton is 3000 miles from England, and
the passage takes from 14 to 15 days.
1492. Columbus discovered San Salvador in the Bahamas, also
Cuba, Tortuga, Hispaniola (Hayti).
1493. On a second voyage Columbus discovered the Leeward
Islands, Porto Rico, Jamaica.
1498. On a third voyage Columbus discovered Trinidad, Tobago,
Grenada, and the mainland of America on the Gulf of Paria.
1516. Cabot and Pert touch at Hispaniola. First appearance of
English vessels in West Indies.
1520. First sugar plantation in St. Domingo.
1528. The French in the West Indies.
1562. Sir John Hawkins landed a slave cargo in Hispaniola.
1580. The Dutch in Guiana.
1 596. Sir W. Ralegh at Trinidad.
1609. Gates and Somers at the Bermudas.
1612. First emigrants at the Bermudas.
1613. The French at Cayenne.
Harcourt's grant of Guiana.
1617. Sir W. Ralegh's last voyage up the Orinoco.
1623. Settlement at St. Kitts by Warner.
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom .85,775; exports to, ,1794.
280 British Colonisation
1624-5. Settlement of Barbados.
1626. The French Company of the Islands of America.
1627. The. Carlisle grant of the Caribbean Islands.
The Guiana Company.
1628. The Montgomery grant.
1630. Colonisation of Mosquito Coast by royal patent.
1638. Settlement of Belize, British Honduras, by Willis.
1640. Sugar first manufactured at Barbados.
1647. Lord Willoughby takes the Carlisle patent.
1651. The first Act of Navigation.
1655. Occupation of Jamaica by Penn and Venables.
1660. Establishment of representative government in Jamaica.
1663. Tax of 4| per cent, levied on Barbadians.
1670. Treaty of Madrid by which British occupation of Jamaica
1674. Christopher Codrington at Antigua.
Treaty of Westminster.
1675-6. Dampier at Campechd Bay as a buccaneer.
1689. Commission to Christopher Codrington.
1692. The great earthquake at Jamaica.
1694. Jamaica attacked by the French.
1697. Tieaty of Ryswick.
1698. The Scotch Colony at Darien.
1702. Admiral Benbow's death.
1713. Treaty of Utrecht. The Assiento.
1729. Bishop Berkeley sailed for America.
1733-38. Maroon wars in Jamaica.
1742. Occupation of the Mosquito Shore.
1748. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.
1760. Slave insurrection in Jamaica.
1763. Peace of Paris.
1765. Captain Cook at British Honduras.
1778. War between England and France.
1782. Rodney's victory off Dominica.
1783. Peace of Versailles.
1788. The Otaheite cane introduced into Martinique.
1789. The French Revolution.
1795. Last Maroon war in Jamaica.
1796-7. Abercromby and Sir J. Moore in the West Indies.
1798. British Honduras conquered by the Bay men.
1802. Peace of Amiens.
1807. Abolition of the slave trade.
1814. Treaty of Paris.
1830-50. The era of England's financial reforms.
1834. Abolition of slavery.
1838. Abolition of 4^ per cent, tax, Barbados.
1841. Mr. Baring's Budget and the sugar duties.
1845. Mr. Gladstone's speech on equalisation of duties.
1850. Fall of the old mercantile system.
1865. The great rebellion in Jamaica.
1866. Formation of new Government in Jamaica.
1884. The present Constitution of Jamaica.
1890-1. The Jamaica Exhibition.
II. NEWFOUNDLAND, WITH LABRADOR.
Area. 40,200 square miles, having an average breadth of about
130 miles, and a length from north to south of 350 miles.
Divisions. The island is divided into ten electoral districts :
In the centre, (i) District of St. John's, (2) Ferryland ; in the
north, (3) Conception Bay, (4) Trinity Bay, (5) Bonavista Bay, (6)
Twillingate and Fogo ; in the south, (7) Placentia, (8) Burin, (9)
Fortune Bay, (10) Burgeo and Lapoile.
Physical Features. The 'great feature of Newfoundland geo-
graphy is its broken coast-line, with an infinite number of bays and
promontories. The interior is not much developed. It is covered
with deep forests, varied here and there by open spaces called
Barrens. There are a few isolated mountains, called Tolts, rising
generally 2000 feet. The chief rivers are the H umber and the
Exploits. There are innumerable lakes or ponds in the island.
The climate is rough but bracing. The fogs do not extend far inland.
Population. In 1881, 179,509 ; in 1891, 197,934.
Chief Towns. St. John's, 31,142, the capital; Harbour Grace,
7054 ; Fogo and Twillingate, 4777 ; Bonavista, 3463 ; Carbonear,
3756. There are a large number of fishing towns and villages
along the coast.
Government. Responsible government, established in 1855,
consisting of a Governor aided by an Executive Council of seven
282 British Colonisation
members, a Legislative Council of fifteen members, and a House
of Assembly of thirty-six members.
Trade. The imports (1891) were ,1,431,137. Exports (1891),
,1,549,408. According to Sir R. W. Rawson, the import trade
of Newfoundland (1872-86) was nearly divided between the
United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. The re-
mainder was almost confined to the British West Indies, Spain,
and Portugal. The exports were differently distributed : viz. 36
per cent, to the United States, 10 per cent, to Canada and British
West Indies, and 54 per cent, to foreign countries, chiefly Portugal
and Brazil. In 1891 the value of imports from United Kingdom
was ,487,855 ; of exports to the United Kingdom, ,409,913.
Products. The products of the island come almost entirely
from the sea, and consist of cod-fish, cod and seal oil, sealskins,
tinned lobsters, herring, trout, and salmon. There is also mineral
wealth, chiefly copper.
Revenue. 1891, ,379,1 59- Expenditure, 1891, ,341,909.
Public Debt. 1891, ,1,088,201.
Public Works. A railway from St. John's to Harbour Grace,
84 miles ; also a branch line to Placentia. There are about 1000
miles of telegraph open. At Heart's Content is the shore end of
the first submarine cable between the Old and New World. There
are also 750 miles of postal and 1700 miles of district roads. The
dry dock at St. John's is a most important work, capable of hold-
ing the largest vessel afloat.
Communication. The harbour of St. John's is less than 1650
miles from the coast of Ireland. A railway from St. John's across
the island to St. George's Bay is contemplated. If this were com-
pleted and communication opened up with Shippegan on the Ameri-
can continent, the length of the voyage between Ireland and
America could be reduced to four days. At present there is a
fortnightly service between St. John's and Liverpool, excepting
during January, February, March. In the summer there is a
fortnightly service between St. John's and Labrador.
1497. Discovery of Labrador and Newfoundland by Cabot.
1500. Voyage of Cortereal to Newfoundland.
1527. Expedition of Captain Rut to St. John's.
1536. Expedition of Hore.
1 583. Proclamation of Sir H. Gilbert at St. John's.
1615. Commission and voyage of Captain Whitbourne.
1620. French settlement at Placentia.
1623. Settlement of Lord Baltimore at Ferryland.
1634. Irish colonists sent over.
1660. Declaration of Star Chamber.
1697. Treaty of Ryswick.
1702. French conquests.
1713. Treaty of Utrecht. Acknowledgment of British sovereignty.
1770. First Moravian Mission in Labrador.
1783. Treaty of Versailles.
1814. Treaty of Paris.
1838. Declaration of Lord Palmerston on fisheries rights.
1853. Marine survey of the Atlantic bed.
1855. Responsible government.
1866. First Atlantic cable landed at Heart's Content.
1876. Labrador included in the colony.
1892. Great fire at St. John's.
With regard to LABRADOR, it should be noted that it is a de-
pendency of Newfoundland, although it belonged for some years
1773-1809 to Quebec. Tt is chiefly a summer resort of fishermen.
It has an area of about 120,000 square miles, and a coast-line of
600 miles. The country is very bleak, and has only about 5000
permanent inhabitants, of whom 1700 are Eskimo. The only
official who visits the county is a J.P. and collector of customs, who
comes there annually in a revenue cutter. The chief places of
resort are Battle Harbour on the Strait of Belle Isle, and the
Moravian Mission stations at Hopedale, Nain, Okkak, Hebron.
III. THE DOMINION OF CANADA.
Aiea. 3,470,000 square miles.
Provinces. (i) Quebec, (2) Ontario, (3) Nova Scotia, (4)
New Brunswick, (5) Prince Edward Island, (6) Manitoba,
(7) British Columbia. To these must be added the North-East
Territories, lying around Hudson's Bay and due north of Quebec
and Ontario, and the North-West Territories, with the districts of
284 British Colonisation
Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabasca. In due course
of time these districts may become provinces.
Mountains. In the province of Quebec : (i) the Laurentian,
(2) the Alleghany systems. (3) The Rocky Mountains are the
most important, dividing the province of British Columbia from
Alberta and Athabasca. In British Columbia, a very mountainous
province, there are : (4) the Selkirks, subsidiary to the Rockies ;
(5) the Cascades, running parallel with the Pacific coast.
Rivers. There are four chief river systems : (i) the St.
Lawrence, with its tributaries the Ottawa and Saguenay, flowing
into the North Atlantic ; (2) the East Main, Albany, Red River,
Assiniboine, Saskatchewan, Nelson, and Churchill Rivers, flowing
into Hudson's Bay ; (3) the Coppermine and Mackenzie, flowing
north into the Polar Sea ; (4) the Fraser River, with its tributaries in
British Columbia, flowing into the Pacific Ocean.
Lakes. There are three chief lake systems: (i) Ontario, Erie,
Huron, Superior, draining into the Atlantic ; (2) Winnipeg,
Winnipegosis, and Manitoba into Hudson's Bay ; (3) Reindeer,
Athabasca, Great Slave, and Great Bear into the Polar Sea.
Prairies. The prairie levels begin from the longitude of the
Red River, and extend westwards to the Rocky Mountains, covering
immense areas in the centre of the Dominion. These prairie levels
or plateaux are three in number : the first, with an average elevation
of 800 feet, extending 52 miles in width ; the second, with an
average elevation of 1600 feet, extending 250 miles ; the third, with
an average elevation of 2000 feet, extending 465 miles up to
the * Rockies.'
Forests. The Dominion of Canada is noted for its magnificent
forests, more than half the area of British Columbia being covered
with them. The king of the pines is the Douglas fir, Canada is
called the land of the maple.
Population. In 1881, 4,324,810; in 1891, 4,829,411 a com-
paratively small increase. The urban population of Canada is,
according to the last census, 1,394,259, an increase of 384,146
upon the census of 1881, and equal to an increase of 38.1 per cent.
In 1891 there were 47 cities with a population of over 5000, as
against 35 in 1881, an increase of 12. In 1891 there were 45
towns with a population from 3000 to 5000, as against 37 in 1881,
an increase of 7. In 1891 there were 91 villages with a population
from 1500 to 3000, as against 55 in 1 88 1, an increase of 36. 1
Chief Towns. Montreal, 1891, 216,650, increasing from 155,237
in 1 88 1, or 39.5 per cent. Toronto, 181,220, increasing from 96,196
in 1 88 1, or 88.4 per cent. Quebec, 63,090, increasing from 62,446,
or i.o per cent. Hamilton, 48,980, increasing from 35,960 in 1881,
or 36 per cent. Ottawa, 44,154, increasing from 31,307 in 1881,
or 41.0 per cent. St. Jean, 39,179, decreasing from 41,353 in 1881,
or 5.2 per cent. Halifax, 38,556, increasing from 36,100 in 1881, or
6.8 per cent. London, 31,977, increasing from 26,266 in 1881, or
21.7 per cent. Winnipeg, 25,642, increasing from 7985 in 1881, or
22 1. 1 per cent. Kingston, 19,264, increasing from 14,091, or 36.7
per cent. Victoria, British Columbia, 16,841, increasing from
5925, or 184 per cent. Vancouver, 13,685, a new city altogether.
St. Henri, 13,415, increasing from 6415 in 1881, or 109 per cent.
Brantford, 12,753, increasing from 9616 in 1881, or 32.6 per cent.
Charlottetown, 11,374, decreasing from 11,485 in 1881, or 0.9 per
cent. Hull, 11,265, increasing from 6890 in 1881, or 63 per cent.
Guelph, 10,539, increasing from 9890 in 1881, or 6.5 per cent.
St. Thomas, 10,370, increasing from 8367 in 1881, or 23.9 per cent.
Windsor, 10,322, increasing from 6561 in 1 88 1, or 57.9 per cent.
Sherbrooke, 10,110, increasing from 7227 in 1881, or 39.9 per cent.
The population of New Westminster has sprung from 1500 in 1881
to 6641 in 1891, an increase of 342.9 per cent.
These figures prove that the urban population in Canada is in-
creasing more quickly than the rural, a fact noticeable almost
everywhere. It may be noted, also, that whilst Charlottetown in
Prince Edward Island, St. Jean, and Quebec are almost stationary,
some of the cities and towns in Ontario, the prairie provinces, and
British Columbia show the greatest increase. Westward the
course of migration takes its way. Winnipeg and New West-
minster are two of the most striking instances of urban develop-
ment. In the eastern maritime provinces, the population
increased barely 1.2 per cent, upon that of 1881. Families are
becoming smaller, and there is an aversion to agriculture. '*
With regard to religion, the Roman Catholics composed 4 1.46 per
cent, of the whole population in 1891, the Methodists 17.65 per
1 Bulletin No. i . Census of Canada, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
2 Ibid. No. 3.
286 British Colonisation
cent., the Presbyterians 15.73 per cent., the Church of England
13.41 per cent, the Baptists 6.33 per cent. Two of the denomina-
tions have increased their strength in every province of the
Dominion the Roman Catholics and the Methodists. The Church
of England has decreased in New Brunswick and Prince Edward
Island. The Presbyterians have decreased in New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, but increased remarkably
in Manitoba. The Church of England has increased even more
remarkably in British Columbia.
Out of the 854,842 inhabited houses in the Dominion, 1891,
697,356 were built of wood, 131,522 of brick, and only 25,964 of
Government. The provinces and districts of Canada have been
confederated under the British Crown ; and, whilst each province
has its own Legislature, undertaking all local and provincial affairs,
it is nevertheless under the control, in certain matters, of the
Central or Federal Government sitting at Ottawa.
In the Provincial Legislatures there are, in the case of Quebec,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, two
houses (a) the Legislative Council, (b] the Legislative Assembly.
In the case of Ontario, Manitoba, British Columbia there is the
Legislative Assembly only. The Provincial Legislature is presided
over by a Lieutenant-Governor. The supreme legislative power
is invested in a Parliament consisting of (a) the Queen ; (&) a
Senate of 80 members nominated for life by the Governor-General ;
(c) a House of Commons consisting of 215 members, of whom 92
are elected from Ontario, 65 from Quebec, 21 from Nova Scotia,
i6from New Brunswick, 5 from Manitoba, 6 from British Columbia,
6 from Prince Edward Island, 4 from the Territories. The repre-
sentative of the Queen is the Governor-General, appointed for five
years, who chooses and summons a Privy Council.
Trade. The imports for the year ending June 3oth, 1891, were
valued at ^24,650,884, of which ^8,639,903 came from the United
Kingdom. The exports for the same year amounted to ^20,222,732,
of which ^10,126,204 was sent to the United Kingdom.
Products. The chief products of Canada, arranged in the order
of their value, are : (i) those of the farm and dairy, (2) the forests,
(3) the sea and lake fisheries, (4) the mines, (5) manufactures.
Coal is found principally in Nova Scotia, Alberta, and British
Columbia. British Columbia is famed also for its gold-mines ; the
timber trade belongs more especially to the province of Quebec ;
dairy farming and agriculture generally are at their best in the
province of Ontario. At Sudbury, in Ontario, the deposits of
nickel are the richest in the world, and in this province petroleum
is produced in large quantities. Sea-fishing and the tinning (ex-
port) trade belong more especially to British Columbia and Nova
Scotia. The total number of industrial establishments was 49,923
in 1 88 1, and 75,765 in 1891, showing an increase of nearly 52 per
cent. The development of manufactures from 1881 to 1891 has
added nearly ninety million dollars a year to the wealth of the
country, as against thirty-three million dollars a year for the
previous decade, 1871-81.
Revenue. 1891, ^7,927,256. Expenditure, ,7,467,856.
Public Debt. July i, 1891, ,59,568,335.
Pitblic Works. The greatest public work of Canada is the
Canadian Pacific Railway, which connects Montreal and Van-
couver, a distance of 2906 miles. The whole system has a length
of 4973 miles. The time occupied in constructing the C.P.R. was
four years six months, at the rate of more than two miles a day.
The mileage of all the Canadian railways is over 13,000. The
most famous canals are: (i) the Lachine, 9 miles long; (2) the
Welland, connecting Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, 26| miles long ;
(3) the Rideau Canal, by which the inland waters of Lake Ontario
were connected with those of the St. Lawrence. By means of
canals the extremity of Lake Superior can be reached, 1400 miles
above Montreal. A canal is being constructed past the Sault Ste.
Marie on the Canadian side. The most famous bridge is the
Victoria tubular bridge across the St. Lawrence.
Defence Forces. There are two Imperial naval stations one at
Halifax, the other at Esquimault (Squimo). The navy and mer-
cantile marine of Canada rank fourth in the world. There are
more than 30,000 able-bodied seamen. Canada undertakes her
own internal defence. The active militia numbers 38,000 men ;
the reserve militia numbers over 700,000, consisting of all males
between eighteen and sixty.
1497. Cabot sights the mainland of North America.