1828. Accession of Dingaan.
1839. Panda set up by the Dutch.
1861. Cetywayo chosen as regent by the English.
1873. Cetywayo succeeds as king.
1879. Zulu War, and Cetywayo deposed.
1883. Cetywayo restored.
1884. Death of Cetywayo.
1887. Zululand a British colony.
SECTION F. SWAZIELAND.
A tract of country, with an area of 8000 square miles, lying to
the east of the Transvaal, with a native population of about 60,000,
and 500 European settlers. The Europeans are partly Boer
graziers from the Transvaal, and partly British and other adven-
turers who have gained mining and other concessions from the
Swazie chiefs. The country has wooded districts and long
stretches of arable ground. It is also well watered, some of the
rivers being the Komati, the Black and White Umvolosi, the
Great and Little Usuto. It has been ascertained that there is
much gold in Swazieland. Concessions for farming, mining, and
grazing rights are given for fifty years. The Swazies are old allies
of the English, and are a brave Kaffir race. Swazieland is under
a dual control of Boers and British for a provisional period, ending
May 1893. The Swazieland Convention, dated August 2, 1890,
was made for three years. According to this Convention the
Transvaal Republic was empowered to construct a railway, if they
wished, to Kosi Bay through Amatongaland, subject to certain
reservations. Amatongaland itself is a small tract of country
north of Zululand, adjoining the sea. In June 1887 the country
was taken under British protection. The Tongas are industrious
people, and migrate in large numbers to the gold- and diamond-
fields for work.
SECTION G. MASHONALAND.
The area of Mashonaland proper is not clearly defined, and it
comes within the wide scope of the British South Africa Company.
It consists chiefly of the highlands to the east of Matabeleland to a
3O2 British Colonisation
point within 300 miles of the Indian Ocean. The chief posts are
simply forts, e.g. Forts Tuli, Charter, Salisbury. The population
consists of a police force of 500 men, many miners and settlers,
and emigrants from the colonies on the south. The country is
being opened up, under British protection, by the British South
Africa Company, with a capital of .1,000,000. The products of
the country are agricultural and mineral. It is expected that gold
will be the staple industry. Public works are rapidly being taken
in hand. Already the country is being connected by post and
telegraph. Communication is carried on either vtd Bechuanaland
or Port Beira on the east coast. A railway will shortly be con-
structed between Port Beira and Fort Salisbury. Mashonaland is
the most recent sphere of British colonisation in South Africa,
properly so called.
SECTION H. NORTH ZAMBESIA, NYASSALAND, LAKE TANGAN-
YIKA, THE BRITISH IMPERIAL SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANY,
North Zambesia must be spoken of in connection with South
Zambesia and Mashonaland. Sena, Tete, and Zumbo, stations
on the Zambesi, and centres of an ancient traffic, draw their wealth
from northern parts. Zumbo, at the junction of the Aroanga, or
Loangwa, with the Zambesi, is the station chosen as a residence
by Mr. H. H. Johnston, Her Majesty's accredited envoy in this
part of the world, and acting as intermediary between the Portu-
guese on the east and the British South Africa Company. The
Zambesi is at once a terminus and a starting-place. At present
it seems to bound the enterprises of the Mashonaland pioneers ;
but the Shire River, the northern affluent of the Zambesi, con-
ducts the colonist to new regions first to Lake Nyassa, then
by the Stevenson Road to Lake Tanganyika, and thence to the
Victoria Nyanza and the equatorial regions of Central Africa. The
lakes lying in deep troughs or depressions along several degrees of
latitude are a natural water-way destined to open up Africa from
the Zambesi to the Nile. Commerce will find its way along this
passage, and may be deflected eastwards as it is tapped by rail-
ways such as that contemplated by the British Imperial East
Africa Company from Mombassa. A long line of explorers, as
Livingstone, Cameron, Speke, Grant, Stanley, and others, have
won triumphs for England in Eastern and Central Africa. Also,
there has been no lack of earnest and determined mission workers
on the part of the Church Missionary Society, the London Mis-
sionary Society, the Universities Mission, to supplement the work
of exploration. These agencies furnish good title-deeds to our
spheres of influence, now defined by international agreements.
The Nyassaland Protectorate includes the country to the south
and along the west shores of Lake Nyassa. In the southern por-
tion of it the Shire highlands, Mount Zomba, and Blantyre are
best known. On Mount Zomba coffee, sugar, and cinchona have
been grown with success. The Universities Mission set to work
in Nyassaland in 1860. The African Lakes Company began in
1878, and its first field of operations was between Lake Nyassa and
the sea. The Company has introduced steam navigation, and has
refused to sanction the liquor traffic. According to recent agree-
ments in the Anglo- Portuguese Convention, the Zambesi and its
affluents are a free water-way to all nations. In 1882 a complete
survey was made of Lake Nyassa by Mr. J. Stewart.
Lake Tanganyika is connected with Lake Nyassa by a road or
portage called the Stevenson Road, after Mr. James Stevenson of
Largs, who has helped the development of Nyassaland. The lake
has been described as a beautiful inland sea, lying 2624 feet above
the level of the sea, 400 miles long, 1 5 to 50 miles wide, with a
coast line of 1000 miles, and a surface of 13,000 square miles. On
the east shore is Ujiji, really the name of a large tribal territory,
long the depot for Oriental colonists, travellers, and Arab mer-
chants. For variety of races Ujiji has been described as 'a little
Egypt.' The Arabs practically rule the settlement. The ordinary
route to Tanganyika is from Zanzibar, a walking distance of 836
English statute miles. The hottest time of the year is in November
and February, and the coldest in July. The lake lies between 9
and 3 South latitude. On the east is the German sphere of influ-
ence, reaching half-way up to the shores of the Victoria Nyanza.
In course of time there must be regular communication between
Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria Nyanza. Mr. E. Coode
304 British Colonisation
Hore, resident for eleven years in Central Africa, has described
Lake Tanganyika as a geographical, ethnological, and political
centre which may well be termed ' the heart of Africa.' He has
thus pictured the lake : ' Owing to the immense evaporation, the
opposite shores, even where only fifteen miles distant, are visible
only in the rainy season ; then, sailing down the centre of the lake,
one realises its trough-like character, but coasting in-shore there is
a great variety of scenery. Here, for 30 miles at a stretch, you
sail in deep water close alongside the mountains, which rise steeply
to over i oco feet, showing broad patches of rock amongst miles of
beautiful trees ; again, in a few places, shallow flats only permit
access to the shore by poling in canoes. Steep rocky islands, with
dry soil, set out in the lake so as to be always ventilated, supply
sites for residence ; and many fine natural harbours give facility
for navigation. 3 x Could this region, as well as the shores of Vic-
toria Nyanza, be brought into speedy communication with the
Indian Ocean, huge areas would at once be at the disposal of
Europeans, if not for actual occupation, still for commercial and
agricultural enterprises, carried out through the aid of a vast
The British Imperial East Africa Company.
This Company arose originally from a concession given on May
24, 1887, to Sir W. Mackinnon by the Sultan of Zanzibar. The
coast-line includes the important harbours of Mombassa and Kilifi.
The zone of British influence extends to the Hinterland for
360 miles to the shores of the Victoria Nyanza. To the south is
the German sphere of influence, along a line that includes Mount
Kilimanjaro and touches the Victoria Nyanza about the centre of
the eastern shore. Within the territory of the British Imperial
East Africa Company is Mount Kenia, lying on the equator, and
reaching a height of 18,045 f eet - English influence extends past
the Victoria Nyanza to the Albert Edward Nyanza and the Albert
Nyanza. The region known as Uganda lies on the north-west
coast of the Victoria Nyanza. This lake is 3300 feet above the
level of the sea, has a length of 210 miles, a breadth of 225 miles,
and covers an area of 26,900 square miles. The Albert Nyanza
has a breadth of 20 miles and a length of 100 miles, and covers an
l Tanganyika, p. 139, by Edward Coode Hore,
area of 1800 square miles. This lake is 2300 feet above the level of
the sea. These vast sheets of water provide safe and easy commu-
nication with areas of rich country. The advantages of a railway
of 300 or 400 miles from Mombassa to the eastern shores of Albert
Nyanza are obvious at a glance. First , it will enable travellers to
pass quickly through the malarious belts of the coast, and thus
save human life ; secondly , it will open up commercial posts along
a long coast-line, and lead to quick developments by steamboat
and portages ; thirdly, it will enable Europe to crush the slave
trade by cutting off communication from the interior ; fourthly, it
will enable a complete and accurate survey to be made of all parts
of Equatorial Africa, of the most hidden fountains of the Nile, and
open up better communication with the Congo on the west and
Egypt on the north ; fifthly, it will be of immense aid to mission
work. The Church Missionary Society has had a station at
Mombassa since 1844, and at Uganda since 1877.
SECTION I. SOUTH ATLANTIC ISLANDS.
Area. 47 square miles.
Physical Features. The island, being of volcanic origin, is
rugged and mountainous, the highest peak rising to the height of
2700 feet. The island lies in the track of the south-east trade
winds, and is healthy.
Chief Town. James Town, 2233.
Government. The government of the island is administered by
a Governor, aided by an Executive Council of five members.
Trad?. Imports, 1891, ,27,382. Exports, ,3126.
Products. There are no products worth mentioning.
Revenue. 1 89 1 , .6874. Expenditure, ,8288.
Public Debt. 1891, .5408.
Public Works. ' Munden's Battery ' is the chief public work, to
which access is gained by the well-known ' Ladder,' or steps cut
up the cliffs.
Defence. The Imperial garrison has been reduced to thirty-
three men. A local militia exists.
Communication. The island is 1140 miles from Africa, 1800
miles from South America, and 760 miles south-east of Ascension.
The Cape steamers call every three or five weeks.
306 British Colonisation
1502. St. Helena discovered.
1588. Cavendish sights it.
1673. Munden captures it.
1815. Napoleon imprisoned here.
1821. Death of Napoleon.
1834. St. Helena becomes a Crown colony.
Tristan d'Acunha and Gough Island are the chief of a group of
islands in the South Atlantic out of the track of steamers. In 1815
they were taken possession of by the British, having been dis-
covered in 1 506 by a Portuguese admiral named Tristan d'Acunha.
Inaccessible Island is a lofty rock about two miles in length. The
Nightingale Islands are three in number, rising in peaks above
Area. 38 square miles.
Physical Features. The island is a mere rock of volcanic origin,
its highest peak being 2820 feet. It lies in the track of the south-
Population. 166, consisting of officers, marines, and kroomen.
Chief Town. George Town.
Government. The island is under the Board of Admiralty, and
is managed in all respects as if it were a man-of-war, the captain
being in charge.
Products. The chief product is the sea-turtle, no less than 150
being sometimes turned in the season, i.e. from January to May.
Their weight is from 500 to 800 pounds each, and their value
between 2 and ^3.
Communication. The island is 3417 miles from Plymouth, 760
from St. Helena, and 900 from Cape Palmas on the African coast.
1501. Discovered by the Portuguese.
1815. Occupied by the British.
SECTION K. THE FALKLAND ISLANDS AND SOUTH GEORGIA.
Lying about 200 to 300 miles to the east of the Straits of
Magellan, these islands belong to the South American continent,
and were very important in early times when the way to the
Eastern Pacific lay along the Cape Horn route. Bourgainville,
the great French explorer, settled a few French emigrants here in
1764 from Acadia and from France. The islands were called
once Les Isles Malouines. The Spaniards, however, were jealous
of this occupation, as well as that of the British later on, and en-
deavoured to establish themselves at Port Solidad. Great Britain
finally occupied them in December 20, 1832. The Buenos Ayres
Republic had occupied them just previously, but were compelled
to abandon them. The area of these islands is : East Falkland, 3000
square miles ; West Falkland, 2000 square miles ; adjacent islands,
1 500 square miles ; South Georgia, 1000 square miles a total of
7500 square miles.
The population, of which the majority are Scotch, number (1891)
1789. The only town is Stanley (725). There is a small hamlet
called Darwin. The island is very healthy. Sheep and cattle
flourish well on it, and a long grass called tussac grass is very
nutritious. The island is administered by a Governor and an
Executive and Legislative Council, There is mail communication
twelve times a year.
VI. THE AUSTRALASIAN COLONIES.
SECTION A. NEW SOUTH WALES.
Area. 310,700 square miles, its greatest length from north to
south being 680 miles, its greatest breadth 760 miles, with a coast-
line of 700 miles. 1
Divisions. The colony is divided into thirteen pastoral dis-
tricts, viz. : (i) Monaro, (2) Murrumbidgee, (3) Lachlan, (4)
Wellington, (5) Bligh, (6) Liverpool Plains, (7) Gwydir, (8) New
England, (9) Macleay, (10) Clarence, (11) Darling, (12) Albert,
(13) Warrego. It is also divided into 141 counties for electoral
purposes, known as the old or proclaimed counties and the new.
Physical Features. The surface of New South Wales may be
1 See The Seven Colonies of Australasia, by T. A. Coghlan, p. 6.
308 British Colonisation
divided into three clearly marked areas : (i) the coast district, a
narrow strip with an average width of 60 or 70 miles ; (2) the
table-lands, traversing the entire length of the country, and extend-
ing up to 14 ist meridian ; (3) the plains of the interior, forming the
chief pasture-lands of New South Wales.
The chief mountains are : (i) the interior ranges ; (2) the great
dividing chain ; (3) the coast ranges. The Blue Mountain range
is one of the spurs of the great dividing chain, its highest point
being Mount Boomarang, 4100 feet. Of these ranges Mount
Kosciusko is loftiest with an elevation of 7308 feet, being about
700 feet below the line of perpetual snow. The rivers on the
western watershed are the Darling, the Lachlan, the Murrum-
bidgee, and the Murray. All these unite with the Murray and
flow into Lake Alexandrina in South Australia. The rivers on
the eastern watershed are the Hawkesbury, Hunter, Clarence, and
The plains of New South Wales are the Liverpool Plains,
Monaro Plains or Brisbane Downs, South Park and Patrick's
Plains on the Hunter River.
Population. In 1861, 350,860; in 1871, 503,981; in 1881,
751,468; in 1891, 1,132,234. In 1891 there were 8280 aborigines
in New South Wales, and 14,156 Chinese.
Chief Towns. Sydney, 383,386, forming 34. 1 1 per cent, of the
whole population ; Newcastle, 51,561 ; Broken Hill, 19,789 ;
Parramatta, 11,677; Goulburn, 10,916; Maitland, 10,214; Ba-
thurst, 9162 ; Wollongong, 8803 ; Albany, 5447 ; Orange, 5064.
Government. The Government of New South Wales is of the
'responsible 3 kind (18 and 19 Viet. cap. 54), and consists of (i) a
Governor appointed by the Crown ; (2) a Legislative Council of
60 members appointed by the Crown for life ; and (3) a Legisla-
tive Assembly of 141 members, representing 74 electoral districts,
and elected by all male subjects of Her Majesty of full age of
twenty-one years, with certain exceptions. Members of the
Assembly receive ^300 per annum. Voting is by ballot. Triennial
Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia,
1890, was ,11,633,283 ; exports, ^10,761,197 giving a total value
of ^22,394,480, equivalent to .20, 6s. 6d. per head. The value of
total i.e. external and inter-colonial trade was i 1 1890, imports,
1 In 1891, total imports, ^25,383,397 ; exports, ^"25,944,020.
22,61 5,004 ; exports, 22,045,937 giving a trade of 44,660,94 1. 1
With regard to the distribution of trade, the import and export
trade of New South Wales with the United Kingdom, 1890, was
valued at i 5,25 1,428. The trade with France, Germany, Belgium,
and other countries amounted to 5,805,516. The import and ex-
port trade with the Australasian colonies amounted to 22,266,460.
This is exclusive of the trade with Norfolk Island, Fiji, and New
Guinea, so that nearly eight-ninths of the total trade of New
South Wales is under the British flag. 2
Proditcts. Wool is the chief product of New South Wales, the
value of the wool exported direct from the colony, 1890, being
5,873,764, and that exported by way of the other colonies being
3,081,798, representing a total value of 8,955,562, i.e. 44 per
cent, of the whole export of Australasia.
In 1890, New South Wales had 333,233 acres under wheat, pro-
ducing 3,649,216 bushels, and not sufficient for home consumption.
The average production of wheat per acre for 1881-90 was 13.3
bushels. The colony imported, 1890, 1,798,042 bushels of wheat
Maize is also a very important crop, the yield in 1890 being
5,713,205 bushels, or 64.2 per cent, of the whole Australasian yield.
The crop of oats was 256,659 bushels, averaging 21.9 bushels per
acre, and representing only 1.6 per cent, of the whole Australasian
yield. Barley grown was 81,383 bushels, averaging 19.4 bushels
per acre, and representing 2.9 per cent, of the whole yield. Of
potatoes the colony produced 52,791 tons, at an average of 2.7
tons per acre, representing 9*4 per cent, of the whole yield, which
is not enough for her own consumption. In 1890 she imported
39,523 tons. The area under hay was 175,242 acres, averaging 1.3
tons per acre, and representing 16.6 per cent, of the whole yield.
New South Wales also produced 842,181 gallons of wine and 3355
tons of table grapes. It may be noted that New South Wales
raised 26,533 tons f sugar in 1890, which is not enough for her
With regard to minerals, New South Wales raised, 1890,
3,060,876 tons of coal, valued at 1,279,089, and representing
70. i per cent, of the whole Australasian output. The amount of
gold raised was 127,761 oz., valued at 460,285, representing 7.7
1 In 1891, imports from United Kingdom, 10,580,230 ; exports to,
2 See Coghlan's Seven Colonies of Australia, p. 49.
3io British Colonisation
per cent, of the whole Australasian yield. New South Wales is
noted especially for its silver and silver-lead ore, the total value
of which, 1890, was ,2,762,554, equivalent to 96 per cent, of the
total value raised in Australasia. She also produced ,84,107
worth of copper, representing 26.4 per cent, of the whole Austra-
lasian yield. New South Wales produced mineral wealth, 1890,
to the value of 4, IDS. lod. per inhabitant.
Revenue. For year ending December 1891,^10,047,152. Ex-
penditure, ,10,378,603. With regard to this revenue, ,2,168,264
was raised from customs, ^3,439,283 from railways, ,648,553 from
post and telegraphs, ^2,266,612 from lands. With regard to ex-
penditure, ,2,357,372 was spent on railways, post and telegraphs
cost ^693,473, public instruction ,756,868, interest on public
The Public Debt, 1891, was 5 2,498, 533.
It may be noted that in 1891 the total of private wealth in New
South Wales was calculated by the Government statistician to be
^407,405,000, the public wealth ,172,805,000, municipal pro-
perty ,6,400,000, giving a total of ,586,700,000. It has been
further calculated that the private wealth equals ,363 per head of
the population, and the public wealth ^154, or, together, ,517 per
head. In 1881 the private wealth was calculated to be ,215 per
head; thus, within ten years, 1881-91, the private wealth has
nearly doubled itself.
SECTION B. TASMANIA.
Area. 26,215 square miles ; the greatest length from north to
south being 210 miles, the greatest breadth 200 miles. The prin-
cipal islands are the Furneaux group (including Flinders Island),
with an area of 513,000 acres, off the north-east coast, famed for
their seals, snakes, and thousands of mutton-birds (petrels) ; Cape
Barren Island, 1 10,000 acres ; at the west end of Bass Straits are
King's Island, 272,000 acres (notorious for its shipwrecks), Robin's
Island, and Hunter's Island. On the south, opposite Hobart, are
North Bruni and South Bruni Islands, where the last Tasmanian
aborigines were located, with an area of 90,000 acres.
Divisions. Tasmania is divided into eighteen counties, viz.
Dorset, Cornwall, Devon, Wellington, Russell, Montagu, Lincoln,
Westmoreland, Somerset, Glamorgan, Pembroke, Monmouth,
Cumberland, Franklin, Montgomery, Arthur, Buckingham, Kent.
Appendices 3 1 1
Physical Features. Tasmania has been described as an island
of mountains, forests, and lakes of remarkable beauty. The
Australian Alps on one side of Bass Straits and the Tasmanian
peaks on the other form two groups of mountains furnishing a
most distinctive feature of the geography of these latitudes. On
the continent the highest elevation is about 7000 feet ; on the
island the loftiest peaks are Cradle Mount, 5069 feet, Ben Lomond,
5010 feet. There are also Mounts Olympus and Ida, a Ben
Nevis, 3910 feet, and a Rough Tor, not far from a river Tamar,
reminding us of Cornwall and the Cornish Rough Tor in the
Mother-country. The principal rivers are the Derwent, 130 miles
in length ; the Huon, 100 miles ; the Tamar, the Davey, the Pie-
man. There are numerous fresh-water lakes on the table-lands,
the largest being the Great Lake, 3822 feet above sea-level, with
an area of 28,000 acres. Tasmania is also noted for its forests.
The climate being tempered by the sea breezes, the island is
used as a sanatorium by Australians, and is wonderfully adapted
to the European constitution. It also excels as a fruit-growing
Population. -In 1861, 90,211; in 1871, 101,785; in 1881,
115,705; in 1891, 152,619. There are no aborigines, but 839
Chief Towns. City of Hobart, 33,450 ; Launceston, 17,208 ;
Georgetown, Longford. There is less centralisation in Tasmania
than in the continental colonies, there being a longer stretch of
coast-line and a greater choice of bays and harbours. The Der-
went on the south affords easy access to the centre of the island.
Government. The Government of Tasmania is of the * respon-
sible' kind (18 Viet. No. 17), and consists of (i) a Governor
appointed by the Crown ; (2) a Legislative Council of 18 members,
elected by the colonists on a higher franchise than the Assembly,
and holding their seats for six years ; (3) a Legislative Assembly
of 36 members, representing 28 electoral districts. Election is by
ballot. Members are not paid.
Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia,
1890, ,743,276 ; exports, 323,799 giving a total value of
1,067,075, equivalent to 7, 8s. 5d. per head. The value of
total i.e. external and inter-colonial trade was : 1890, imports,
1,897,512 ; exports, 1,486,992 giving a trade of 3,384, 504.'
i In 1891, imports, 2,051,964 ; exports, 3,492,782.
312 British Colonisation
Products. Wool is the chief product of Tasmania, although it
is the only Australasian colony in which there has been a decrease
of flocks. Tasmania is noted for its stud merinos, which are ex-
ported to other colonies. The value of the wool exported direct
from the colony, 1890, was ,307,949, and that exported by way of
the other colonies ,1 1 1,224, representing a total value of ^419,173,
i.e. 2.0 per cent, of the whole export of Australasia.
In 1890 Tasmania had 39,452 acres under wheat, producing