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642,980 bushels, and not sufficient for home consumption. The
average yield of wheat per acre for 1881-90 was 18.3 bushels. The
colony imported, 1890, 234,826 bushels of wheat and flour.

Tasmania does not produce maize ; but in 1890 she grew 519,395
bushels of oats, averaging 26.8 bushels per acre, and representing
3.3 per cent, of the whole Australasian yield. Barley'was 99,842
bushels, averaging 24. i bushels per acre, and representing 3.6 of
the whole Australasian yield. Of potatoes this colony grew 73,158
tons, at an average of 4.0 tons per acre, representing 13.0 per cent,
of the whole yield, leaving a surplus of 33,374 tons for export.
The area under hay, 1890, was 45,381 acres, averaging 1.2 tons
per acre, and representing 4.0 per cent, of the whole Australasian
yield. Tasmania is not classed as a wine-producing colony.

With regard to minerals, Tasmania raised, 1890, 53,812 tons of
coal, valued at ,24,215, and representing 1*3 per cent, of the whole
Australasian yield. The amount of gold raised was 23,451 oz.,
valued at ,87,114, representing 1.5 of the whole Australasian
yield. Tasmania also produced ,26,487 worth of silver and silver-
lead. Her greatest mineral export, however, was tin, of which
she raised ,219,868 worth, representing more than a third of the
whole Australasian yield. Tasmania produced mineral wealth,
1 890, to the value of ,2, 93. 9d. per inhabitant.

Revenue. For the year ending December 1890, ,758,100.
Expenditure. 722,746. With regard to the revenue of Tas-
mania, ^329,067 was raised from customs, ,102,642 from rail-
ways, ;6o,ioi from post and telegraphs, ,79,965 from public lands.
With regard to expenditure, ;i 10,227 was taken for railways,
,67,754 for post and telegraphs, ,41,458 for public instruction,
,223,652 for interest and charges on public debt. In 1891,
revenue, ,883,198 ; expenditure, ,851,559.

Public Debt. June 30, 1891, ,6,718,950.



Appendices 3 1 3

SECTION C. VICTORIA.

Area. 87,884 square miles ; its greatest distance from east to
west 480 miles, from north to south 300 miles. The coast-line is
about 600 miles.

Divisions. Victoria is divided intoTour districts : (i) Gippsland,
(2) the Murray, (3) Wimmera, (4) Loddon. It is also divided into
thirty-seven counties.

Physical Features. A range of mountains traverses the entire
length of the colony, the highest peaks being Bogong, 6508 feet ;
Feathertop, 6393 feet ; Hotham, 6100 feet, at a distance of 60 or
70 miles from the sea-coast. This is called the dividing range,
and all the Victorian rivers have their sources here : those to the
north running to the Murray, and those on the south emptying
into the sea. With the exception of the Murray, the Goulburn,
and Yarra-Yarra, none of the Victorian rivers are navigable. The
smaller rivers in Australia are called creeks, and dwindle down in
dry weather ; in winter time they become torrents. The climate
of Melbourne is healthy, and resembles that of Marseilles. The
thermometer rarely falls below freezing point, and ' a cloudless sky,
a bright sun, and refreshing breeze are characteristic of the greater
number of days in each of the seasons. 3 Occasionally the heat is
very great at Melbourne.

Population. In 1861, 540,322; in 1871, 731,528; in 1881,
862,346; in 1891, 1,140,405. In 1891 there were 565 aborigines
and 8489 Chinese.

Chief Towns. Melbourne, 490,902, forming 43.09 of the whole
population ; Ballarat, 46,033 ; Bendigo, 37,238 ; Geelong, 24,210 ;
Castlemaine, 6802 ; Stawell, 5191.

Government. The Government of Victoria is of the 'responsible '
kind (18 and 19 Viet. cap. 55), and consists of: (i) a Governor
appointed by the Crown ; (2) a Legislative Council of 48 members,
elected for 14 provinces, each member retiring in rotation and
holding office for six years ; (3) a Legislative Assembly of 95,
representing 84 electoral districts. The Council is elected by
voters with property qualifications ; the Assembly by manhood
suffrage. Members of the Council are not paid ; members of the
Assembly are paid ^300 per annum. The Council resembles our
House of Lords in many of its functions. Money bills may be
accepted or rejected. The Council cannot be dissolved by the
Governor. Voting is by ballot. Triennial Parliaments.



314 British Colonisation

Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia,
1890, was .14,428,256 ; exports, ,9,202,1 16 giving a total value of
,23,630,372, equivalent to ,21, 2s. 7d. per head. The value of
the total external and inter-colonial trade was : 1890, imports,
,22,954,01 5 ; exports, ,13,266,222 giving a trade 0^36,220,237.*
Products. Wool is the chief product of Victoria, the value of
the wool exported direct from the colony, 1890, being ,2,671,802,
that exported by way of the other colonies ,71,562, representing
a total value of ,2,743,364, i.e. 13.5 per cent, of the whole export
of Australasia.

Victoria is, together with Queensland, an important gold-pro-
ducing colony, the amount of gold raised, 1890, being 610,587
ounces, valued at ,2,354,244, or 39.2 per cent, of the whole
Australasian yield. The production of gold in Victoria from 1851,
the first discovery, to 1890 has been calculated to be worth
,227,482,296, which represents 66.5 of the whole Australasian yield. 2
In 1890 there were, in Victoria, 1,145,163 acres under wheat,
producing 12,751,295 bushels, equivalent to 38.8 per cent, of the
whole Australasian yield, more than sufficient for home consump-
tion. In 1890 the colony exported 2,297,872 bushels. The average
production of wheat per acre for 1881-1890 was 10. i bushels.

Maize is not an important crop in Victoria, the yield in 1890
being only 574,083 bushels, or 6.4 per cent, of the whole Australasian
yield. The crop of oats was, 1890, 4,919,325 bushels, averaging
22.6 bushels per acre, and representing 31.1 of the whole yield.
Barley was 1,571,599 bushels, averaging 18.6 bushels per acre, and
representing 56.4 per cent, of the whole yield.

Of potatoes the colony produced 204,155 tons, at an average of
3.7 tons per acre, representing 36.3 per cent, of the whole
Australasian yield, and enabling her to export, 1890, 1635 tons.
The area under hay was 413,052 acres, averaging 1.2 tons per acre,
and representing 44.3 per cent, of the whole yield. Victoria also
produced 2,008,493 gallons of wine and 3177 tons of table grapes.
On comparison, therefore, it will be seen that Victoria, with an
area of only about one-fourth of that of New South Wales, pro-
duces far larger quantities of wheat, oats, barley, hay, potatoes, and
wine. 3 It is, therefore, infinitely richer in its food supply and
necessaries of life.

1 In 1891, imports, ^21, 111,608 ; exports, ^37,718,351.

2 See The Seven Colonies of Australasia, p. 129, by T. A. Coghlan, 1892.

3 Ibid, passim.



Appendices 3 1 5

The silver production of Victoria is small its value, 1890, being
,4869, representing only 0.2 per cent. Her coal supply is also
very limited, the production for the same year being only 57,962
tons, valued at ^53,655, equivalent to 0.2 per cent, of the whole
Australasian yield. New South Wales is far richer in coal and
silver. Victoria produced mineral wealth, 1890, to the value of
2, 2s. 8d. per inhabitant.

Revenue. For the year ending June 1891, ^8,343,588. Ex-
penditure, ,9,128,699. With regard to the revenue of Victoria,
,2,525,572 was raised from customs, ^3,306,580 from railways,
.499,506 from post and telegraphs, ,613,068 from public lands.
With regard to expenditure, 2,469,800 was taken for railways,
,744,096 for post and telegraphs, ^775,124 for public instruction,
/i, 646,884 for interest and charges on public debt.

The Public Debt, June 30, 1891, was ,43,482,797.



SECTION D. WESTERN AUSTRALIA.

Area. 1,057,250 square miles, extending 1280 miles from
north to south and 800 miles from east to west. This is the largest
of the Australasian colonies. It is nearest to India, Singapore,
and Batavia. Its coast-line is 3000 miles.

Divisions. The colony is divided into six land districts :
(r) the South- Western Division, (2) Gascoyne, (3) North-Western
Division, (4) Kimberley, (5) Eucla, (6) Eastern Division. There are
also twenty-six counties in the settled parts.

Physical Features. The colony of Western Australia has been
termed the giant skeleton of a colony, thinly inhabited, and
stretching over vast expanses of country. It is thus described by
a late Governor, Sir F. A. Weld : ' The whole country, from north
to south, excepting the spots cleared for cultivation, may be
described as one vast forest in the sense of being heavily timbered :
sometimes, but comparatively seldom, the traveller comes across
an open, sandy plain covered with shrubs and flowering plants
in infinite variety and exquisite beauty, and often, especially in the
northern and eastern districts, low, scrubby trees and bushes fill the
place of timber ; but taking the word * forest ' in its widest sense,
as wild, woody, and bushy country Western Australia, as far as I
have seen, is covered with one vast forest stretching far away into
regions yet unexplored.'



316 British Colonisation

Population. In 1861, 15,691 ; in 1871, 25,353 5 in l88l > 29,708 ;
in 1891, 49,782. In 1891 there were 6245 aborigines in Western
Australia and 917 Chinese.

Chief Towns. Perth, 8447 ; Fremantle, 5607 ; both these towns
containing about one-third of the whole population. Other towns
are : Albany, Geraldton, York, Bunbury, Guildford, Northampton.

Government. The Government of Western Australia is of the
'responsible' kind (53 and 54 Viet. cap. 26), and has come into
existence very recently. It consists of (i) a Governor appointed
by the Crown ; (2) a Legislative Council of 1 5 members nominated
by the Crown ; (3) a Legislative Assembly of 30 members.

Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia,

1890, was ,512,608; exports, ,483,380 giving a total value of
,995,988, equivalent to .21, 2s. 2d. per head. The value of total
i.e. external and inter-colonial trade was : 1890, imports,
.874,447; exports, .671,813 giving a 'trade of ,1,546,260. In

1891, imports, ,1,280,093 ; exports, ,799,466.

Products. The wool exported direct was ^248,137, and that
exported by way of the other colonies ,13,215, representing a
total value of ^261,352, i.e. 1.3 per cent, of the whole export of
Australasia. In 1890 Western Australia had 33,820 acres under
wheat, producing 465,025 bushels not enough for home consump-
tion. The average production of wheat per acre for 1881-1890 was
1 1.8 bushels. The colony imported, 1890, 136,725 bushels of
wheat and flour.

Western Australia grows very little maize, unlike Queensland
and New South Wales. The crop of oats was only 37,713 bushels,
the colony importing 100,136 bushels. Barley was 87,813 bushels,
averaging 14.8 bushels per acre, and representing only 3.1 of the
whole yield. Of potatoes the colony only produced 1655 tons, at
an average of 2.9 tons per acre, representing 0.3 per cent, of the
whole yield, and not enough for her own consumption. In 1890
she imported 936 tons. The area under hay was 23,183 acres,
averaging i.o ton per acre, representing 2.1 of the whole yield.
Western Australia also produced 194,465 gallons of wine.

With regard to minerals, Western Australia is not a coal-pro-
ducing colony. The amount of gold raised in 1890 was 22,256
ounces, valued at ,86,664, representing 1.4 of the whole Australasian
yield. Western Australia is not a silver-producing colony ; and
her copper-mines produced, 1890, ,140,000 worth of metal, repre-



Appendices 3 1 7

senting only 0.5 of whole yield. Still, Western Australia produced,
1890, minerals to the value of 2 for each inhabitant.

Revenue. Yor the year ending December 1891, ^497,670.
Expenditure , .435,623. With regard to the revenue, .237,697
was raised from customs, ,65,710 from railways, ,31,336 from post
and telegraphs, ; 101,981 from lands. With regard to expenditure,
,68,348 was spent on railways, 4 1,2 43 on post and telegraphs,
,12,486 on puhlic instruction, ,76,772 as interest on public debt.

The Public Debt in 1891 was ,1,613,594.



SECTION E. SOUTH AUSTRALIA.

A rea.- 380,070 square miles ; its greatest length from north to
south being 1850 miles, and the width 650 miles, with a coast-line
of 2000 miles.

Divisions. The colony is divided into four pastoral districts :
(i) the Eastern, with an area of 4840 square miles ; (2) the Western,
15,641 square miles; (3) the Northern, 123,853 square miles;
(4) the North-eastern, 28,126 square miles. It is also divided into
thirty-nine counties, including an area of 66,558 square miles. It
is also divided into * hundreds ' and district councils : the former
being blocks of country thrown open for agricultural settlement on
annual leases, the latter being areas of what may be described as
municipal jurisdiction. The northern territory seems to be a mere
appendage to the old settlements of the south, separated by a vast
desert, and connected only by the telegraph wire.

Physical Features. There are three ranges of mountains :

(1) Mount Lofty, 2334 feet, almost overshadowing Adelaide ;

(2) the Flinders Range, extending for hundreds of miles north-
wards from Spencer's Gulf, the highest points being Mount
Remarkable, 3100 feet, and Mount Brown, 3100 feet; (3) the
Hummocks, extending northwards from St. Vincent's Gulf. The
chief rivers are the Murray, navigable from beyond Albany in
New South Wales, emptying into Lake Alexandrina, and thence
into the sea by the Murray mouth ; the Torrens ; and in the
northern territory the Roper, navigable for nearly 100 miles from
the Gulf of Carpentaria. The largest island is Kangaroo Island,
85 miles long and 30 miles broad, at the mouth of Gulf St. Vincent.
Lake Torrens is a vast inland salt lake ; Lakes Eyre and Gardner
are also salt lakes. There are also several curious volcanic fresh-



318 British Colonisation

water lakes, such as Blue Lake. The interior is a vast Sahara,
traversed with difficulty.

Population. In 1861, 126,830; in 1871, 185,626; in 1881,
279,865 ; in 1891, 320,431. In 1891 there were 23,789 aborigines
and 3676 Chinese.

Chief Towns. Adelaide, 133,252, representing 41.58 per cent, of
the whole population ; also Port Adelaide, 15,976 ; Gawler, on the
Gawler River ; Kapunda, the site of the copper-mines ; Kooringa,
1 01 miles from Adelaide ; Mount Gambier, the largest of the
eastern towns, close to the extinct volcano, and the centre of what
is termed the Garden of the Colony ; Petersburg ; Port Victor,
near Encounter Bay ; and Wollaroo, the seaport of a mining
district.

Government. The Government of South Australia is of the
'responsible' kind (13 and 14 Viet. cap. 59), and consists of (i) a
Governor appointed by the Crown ; (2) a Legislative Council of
24 members, retiring in rotation after certain intervals, and elected
on a higher franchise than the members of the Assembly ;
and (3) a Legislative Assembly of 52 members, elected by all
male subjects of Her Majesty of full age of twenty-one years, a
natural-born or naturalised subject. Members both of the Council
and Assembly are paid. Voting is by ballot. Triennial parlia-
ments.

Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia
was, 1890, ,3,500,013 ; exports, $,333,729 giving a total value
of ,8,833,742, equivalent to 27, 145. 8d. per head.

The value of total external and inter-colonial trade was : 1890,
imports, .8,333,783; exports, 8,961,982 giving a trade of
17,295,765. In 1891, imports, 9,95 6 ,542 ; exports, 10,512,049.

It may be observed that the enormous impetus given to South
Australian trade since 1881 is one of the marked features of
Australasian statistics. Some of it, however, can be traced to the
development of the Barrier district of New South Wales, of which
South Australia is the natural outlet.

Products. Wool stands second in value amongst the products
of South Australia, the value of wool exported direct from the
colony, 1890, being 1,075,255, and that exported by way of the
other colonies 220,496, representing a total value of 1,295,751,
i.e. 6.4 per cent, of the whole export of Australasia.

In 1890 South Australia had 1,673,573 acres under wheat, pro-



Appendices 319

ducing 9,399,389 bushels, enabling her to export 10,959,102 bushels,
a most important article of export, at 45. 3d. per bushel, and exceed-
ing the value of the wool export. The average production of
wheat per acre for 1881-90 was 6.0 bushels. Maize is not returned
as a product of South Australia, and the crop of oats for 1890 was
only 116,229 bushels, averaging n.6 bushels per acre, and repre-
senting only 0.8 per cent, of the whole Australasian yield. The
barley grown was 175,583 bushels, averaging 12.4 bushels per acre,
and representing 6.3 per cent, of the whole yield. Of potatoes the
colony produced 23,963 tons, at an average of 3.5 tons per acre,
representing 4.3 per cent, of the whole yield, which is not enough
for her own consumption, as she imported 2783 tons in 1890.
The area under hay was 345,150 acres, averaging i.o ton per acre,
representing 24.2 per cent, of the whole yield. South Australia
produced 762,776 gallons of wine and 5631 tons of table grapes.
With regard to minerals, South Australia does not produce coal,
and her production of gold was only 26,086 oz., valued at ,101,577,
representing 1.7 of the whole Australasian yield. Of silver she
produced an amount to the value of ,12,819, representing 0.4 of
the whole yield. South Australia is the great copper-producing
colony, and in 1890 she was credited with ,231,592 worth of this
mineral, representing 72.7 per cent, of the whole Australasian out-
put. Up to 1890 she had produced .19,751,450 worth. The
colony produced mineral wealth, 1890, to the value of i t 35. iid.
per inhabitant.

Revenue. For year ending June 1891, ,2,732,222. Expendi-
ture, ,2,603,498. With regard to this revenue, ,615,266 was
raised from customs, .1,198,157 from railways, ,214,027 from post
and telegraphs, ,245,513 from lands. With regard to the expendi-
ture, ,620,229 was spent on railways, ,188,327 on post and tele-
graphs, ,136,482 on public instruction, .827,993 on interest on
public debt.

Public Debt. 1891, ,21,776,032.

SECTION F. QUEENSLAND.

Area. 668,497 square miles ; its greatest length from north to
south being 1300 miles, the breadth 800 miles, with a coast-line of
2550 miles.

Divisions. Queensland is divided into twelve large districts :
(i) Moreton, (2) Darling Downs, (3) Burnett, (4) Port Curtis,



320 British Colonisation

(5) Maranoa, (6) Leichhardt, (7) Kennedy, (8) Mitchell, (9) War-
rego, (10) Gregory, (u) Burke, (12) Cook. It is also divided into
financial districts, (i) the southern, (2) the central, '(3) the northern.

It has been proposed recently to divide Queensland into two
separate colonies : the line of demarcation running west from
Cape Palmerston on the east coast in South latitude 21 30' to the
eastern boundary of South Australia. The area would be 249,000
square miles ; population, 50,000.

Physical Features. Off the east coast the great Barrier Reefs,
running parallel with the coast at a distance of 10 to 100 miles, are
a peculiar feature, very dangerous to early navigators. A coast
range of mountains runs from York Peninsula nearly to Brisbane
at an average distance of 50 miles from the coast. The main
range or great dividing range runs inland of the coast range, and is
a continuation of the Cordillera of New South Wales and Victoria,
extending north to latitude 21 and thence west. Cape York
Peninsula, which runs up in the form of a pyramid into the waters
of Torres Straits, is a notable feature. There are many harbours,
of which Moreton Harbour is the chief, receiving the waters of six
rivers. The surface of Queensland may be divided into three
portions : (i) a coast district, consisting of a narrow strip lying
along the coast, traversed by numerous rivers ; (2) a highland
region, including the spurs of the coast range ; (3) level tracts ex-
tending westward to the South Australian boundary line. The
conditions of Queensland are those of a colony lying partly in a
tropical and partly in a sub-tropical zone. This implies a variation
of products and industries practically unknown in the other Aus-
tralian colonies, although, of course, South and West Australia
have tropical provinces.

Population. In 1861, 30,059; in 1871, 120,104; m 1881,
213,525 ; in 1891, 393,718, representing a quicker increase since
1 86 1 than any other Australasian colony. In 1891 there were said
to be over 70,000 natives in Queensland and 8574 Chinese.
There are also said to be 9000 or 10,000 kanakas, or Polynesian
labourers, coming under indentures from the Pacific Islands to the
sugar estates.

Chief Towns. Brisbane, 101,564, forming 25.80 per cent, of the
whole population; Rockhampton, 13,380; Maryborough, 8700;
Townsville, 8564 ; Gympie, 8449 ; Ipswich, 7625 ; Toowoomba, 7007.

Government. The Government of Queensland is of the 'respon-



Appendices 321

sible' kind (June 1859), and consists of: (i) a Governor; (2) a
Legislative Council of 39 members nominated by the Governor, and
holding office for life ; (3) a Legislative Assembly of .72 members,
representing 60 electoral districts, and elected by all male sub-
jects of Her Majesty of full age of twenty-one years, after a six
months' residence in one locality. The terms of the electoral
franchise are high, necessitating, inter alia^ a freehold qualification
of .100 per annum or a receipt of ,100 per annum salary. Mem-
bers receive .300 per annum. Voting is by ballot. Quinquennial
Parliaments.

Trade. The value of imports from countries outside Australasia,
1890, was .2,502,008 ; exports, ,2,449,658 giving a total value
of ^4,95 1,666, equivalent to .12, 145. nd. per head. The value of
total i.e. external and inter-colonial trade was : 1890, imports,
,5,066,700; exports, ,8,554,512 giving a trade of ^13,621,212.
In 1891, imports, .5,079,004 ; exports, ,8,305,387.

Products. The value of the wool exported direct from the colony
was ,1,821,988, and that exported by way of the other colonies
being ,702,754, representing a total value of .2,524,742, i.e. 12.4
per cent, of the whole export of Australasia.

In 1890 Queensland had only 10,390 acres under wheat, producing
207,990 bushels, and totally insufficient for home consumption.
The average production of wheat per acre for 1881-1890 was
10.5 bushels. The colony imported no less than 2,295,459 bushels
of wheat and flour. Maize is the principal crop grown in Queens-
land, the yield in 1890 being 2,373,803 bushels, or 23.4 per cent, of
the whole Australasian yield. The crop of oats was only 8967
bushels, that of barley only 12,673 bushels. Of potatoes the colony
produced 28,810 tons, averaging 3.1 tons per acre, representing
5.1 per cent, of the whole yield, not sufficient for her own consump-
tion. In 1890 she imported 15,01 1 tons. The area under hay was
31,106 acres, averaging 1.7 tons per acre, representing only 3.9 of
the whole yield. Queensland also produced 189,274 gallons of
wine and 1074 tons of table grapes.

The sugar industry is peculiar to Queensland, together with
New South Wales. In 1890 there were in the former colony
50,922 acres planted, producing 69,983 tons. Queensland was
enabled to export, 1890, 40,521 tons, valued at ,695,892.

With regard to minerals, Queensland raised, 1890, 338,344 tons
of coal, valued at ,157,077, and representing 8.6 of the whole Aus-

x



322 British Colonisation

tralasian output, and ranking with New South Wales and New
Zealand as a coal-producing colony. The amount of gold raised
was 610,587 oz., valued at ,2,137,054, representing 35.6 of the
whole Australasian yield, and placing Queensland next only to
Victoria as a gold-producing colony. Queensland also produced
^56,639 worth of silver, representing 2.0 per cent, of the whole
yield. Queensland produced, 1890, mineral wealth to the value of
;6, gs. 8d. per inhabitant, the highest average of all the Australasian
colonies.

Revenue. For year ending June 1891, ^3,350,223. Expendi-
ture, ,3,684,655. With regard to this revenue, ^1,261,757 was
raised from customs, ,882,762 from railways, .218,801 from post
and telegraphs, ,534,342 from public lands. With regard to
expenditure, .639,597 was spent on railways, ^333,048 on post
and telegraphs, .266,304 on public instruction, whilst ; 1,139,034
was taken for the charges on the public debt.

Public Debt. 1891, .29,578,384.

SECTION G. NEW GUINEA.

In November 1884 the British protectorate was proclaimed over
the south coast of New Guinea to the eastward of I4ist meridian



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