William Henry Perrin.

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behave like a gentleman?" " If you did
not treat me like a dog, I might," was
the reply. We have treated the Indian
like a dog and are surprised that he has de-
veloped into a dog and not into a Christian
citizen. There is no reason to suppose that
the Indian is capable of a high degree of civ-
lization, but that he is what he is may be

i largely ascribed to white influences and ex-
amples, and to what he has suffered from the
whites since the first Eui-opean landed on

j American soil. Every spark of genuine

! manhood has been literally ground out of
him by the heel of relentless oppression and
outrage. He was always a barbarian, but we
have made him a brute. He might, perhaps,

1 have been gradually transformed into a hum-
ble and harmless member of civilized society.
We have made him a nuisance and a curse
whose extermination the interests of society
imperatively demand — and are rapidly ac-
complshing. The crimes of the Indian have
been blazoned in a hundred histories; his
wrongs are written only in the records of
that court of final appeal, before which op-
pressors and oppressed must stand for judg-
ment.

But few people, and particularly the pio-
neers of the country, will agree with any de-
fense, bo it ever so feeble, of the Indian.
Their hatred of him, often on general prin-
ciples, is intense, and always was so, and



114



HIiSTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



the greatest wrongs have been heaped upon
him merely because he was au Indian, utterly
regardless of the fact that he was a human
being. When resenting the encroachments
of the whites upon his hunting grounds, he
has been characterized as a fiend, a savage
and a barabarian, and one who might be
robbed, mistreated, and even murdered
without any compunction. This whole broad
land was the Indian's birthright. How he
came to possess it is no busfinesa of ours, nor is
it pertinent to the subject. It is our own now,
and it is a matter of grave doubt whether we
attained it more honorably than did the In-
dian before us. Were our title to be chal-
lenged by another race of people, we doubt-
less should do as the Indians did, contest
our rights step by step to the bitter end, and
with all our boasted civilization and refine-
ment, it is not improbable that we might in-
augurate as great barbarities and cruelties
as they did, rather than yield our homes
and fii'esides.

Tribes of Southern Illinois. — The Indians
occupying Southern Illinois when first
known to the whites were the Delawares, the
Kickapoos, the Shawnees and the Pianke-
shaws, with occasional fragmentary bands
from the tribes who came to hunt. The Del-
awares were once a powerful tribe, one of
the most powerful of North America. They
called themselves Lenno Lenape, wliich .sicr-
nifies "original " or " unmixed " men. When
first met with by Europeans, they occupied a
district of country bounded easterly by the
Hudson River and the Atlantic, on the west
their territories extended to the ridge sepa-
rating the flow of the Delaware from the other
streams erapyting into the Susquehanna
River and Chesapeake Bay. The Delawares
had been a migratory people. According to
their own traditions, many hundred years
had elapsed since they had resided in the



western part of the continent; thence, by
slow emigration, they reached the Alleghany
River, so called from a nation of giants, the
"Allegewi," against whom they (the Del a
wares) and the Iroquois (the latter also em-
igrants from the West) carried on successful
war; and still proceeding eastward, settled
on the Delaware, Hudson, Susquehanna and
Potomac Rivers, making the Delaware the
center of their possessions. By the other
Algonquin tribes, the Delawares were re-
garded with the utmost respect and venera-
tion. They were called " fathers," " grand-
fathers," etc.*

A paper addressed to Congi'ess, May 10,
1779, establishes the territory of the Dela-
wares subsequent to their being driven west-
ward from their former possessions by their
old enemies, the Ii'oquois, in the following
described boundaries: " From the mouth of
the Alleghany River at Fort Pitt to the Ve-
nango, and thence up French Creek and by
Le Boeuf (the present site of Waterford,
Penn.) along the old road to Presque Isle
on the east; the Ohio River, including all
the islands in it, from Fort Pitt to the
Oubache (W^abash), on the south; thence up
the Oubache River to that branch. Ope-co-
meecah (the Indian name of White River,
Indiana), and up the same to the head
thereof; from thence to the head- waters and
springs of the Great Miami, or Kocky River;
thence across to the head-waters of the most
northeastern branches of the Scioto River;
thence to the westermost springs of the San-
dusky River; thence down said river, in-
cluding the islands in it and in the little
lake (Sandusky Bay), to Lake Erie on the
west and northwest, and Lake Erie on the
north." These boundaries contain the
cessions of lands made to the Delaware na-
tion by the Wyandots, the Hurons and the

♦Taylor's History.





^^-^"^MS ^^^M^/d^



U3RAKY
• THE
JNlVERSnY OF iLLINOIS



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



117



Iroquois. The Delawareg. after Gen. Wayne's
sici-nal victory in 1704, came to realize that
fiu-ther contests with the American colonies
would be worse than useless. They there-
fore submitted to the inevitable, acknowl-
edged the supremacy of the whites and de-
sired to make peace with the victoi's. At the
close of the treaty at Greenville, made in
1795, by Gen. Wayne, Bu-kon-ge-he-las, a
Delaware chief of great influence in his
tribe, spoke as follows: "Father, your chil-
di'en all well understand the sense of the
treaty which is now concluded. We expe-
rience daily proofs of your iacreasing kind-
ness. I hope we may all have sense enough
to enjoy our dawning happiness. All who
know me, know me to be a man and a war-
rior, and I now declare that 1 will for the
future be as steady and true friend to the
United States as I have, heretofore, been an
active enemy."

This promise of Bu-kon-ge-he-las was
faithfully kept by his people. They evaded
;ill the eftorts of the Shawnee prophet,
Tooumseh, and the British, who endeavored
to induce them by threats or bribes to vio-
late it. They remained faithful to the
I'nitod States during the war of 1812, and,
with the Shawnees, furnished some voi-y
able warriors and scouts who rendered val-
uable services to the United States during
the war. After the Greenville treaty, the
great body of the Delawares removed to
their lands on White River, Indiana,
Vhither some of their people had preceded
them, while a lai'ge fragment of the tribe
crossed the Wabash into Southern Illinois.
Now and then predatory bands coiumitted
outrages on the scattered settlers, but on a
siu ill scale. They continued to reside on
White River and the Wabash and their trib
utaries until 1819, when most of them emi-
grated to Missoviri and located on the tract



of land granted by . the Spanish authorities
in 1793, jointly to them and the Shawnees.
Others of their tribe, who remained in Illi-
nois, finally scattered themselves among the
Miamis, Pottawatomies and Kickapoos, and
a few, including the Moravian converts,
went to Canada, and their identity as part of
a distinct tribe is lost.

The largest part of the Delaware nation in
182 , settled on the Kansas and Missouri
Rivers. They numbered 1,000, were brave,
enterprising hunters, cultivated lands and
were friendly to the whites. In 1853, they
sold the Government all the lands granted
them, excepting a reservation in Kansas.
During the late civil war, they sent to the
United States Army 170 out of their 20U
able-bodied men. Like their ancestors, they
proved valiant and trustworthy soldiers.

The Shawnese or Shawanese wore an erratic
tribe of the Algonquin family. A tradition
recently originated makes them primarily
one with the Kickapoo nation. They were
driven southward by the warlike Iroquois
and wandered into the Carolinas and some
of them into Florida. But toward the close
of the sevenreenth century a large band of
them went North and was among the tribes
occupying Pennsylvania when it was granted
to Penn. The Iroquois claimed sovereignty
over the Shawnees and drove thorn to the
West. Thoy took ])art in the conspiracy of
Pontiac, and afterward participated in the
campaigns^ against Gens. Harmar and St.
Clair in Ohio. For mauy years they were
liittor and relentless foes of the whites.
Thoy submitted under the treaty of Gen.
Wayne at Greenville in 1795, but in the
war of 1812 some of tho petty tribes of the
Shawnees joined tho British. A fragment of
tho tribe drifted to Southern Illinois, and had
their village at Shawneetown, which place
now bears their name. Some of them went



118



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



WeBt after the Greenville treaty, and a few
years after the close of the war of 1812
most of those remaining crossed the Father of
Waters. In 1854, there were about 900 Shaw-
nees in Kansas, and in 1876 there were some
750 in the Indian Territory.

The Kickapoos were also a tribe of the
Algonquin family, and were found by
the French missionaries toward the close
of the seventeenth century on the Wis-
consin Kiver. They were closely allied
to the Miamis, but roved in bands over
a large territory. They were more civ-
ilized, industrious, energetic and cleanly
than the neighboring tribes, and. it may also
be added, more implacable in their hatred of
the Americans. They were among the first
to commence battle and the last to enter into
treaties. Unappeasable enmity led them
into the field against Harmar, St. Clair and
Wayne, and a like spirit placed them first
in all the bloody charges on the field of Tip-
pecanoe. In the treaties of Portage des Sioux
in 1815, Fort Harrison, 1816, and Edwards-
ville, 1819, they ceded a large part of the
land they claimed. Many of the tribes had
already gone beyond the Mississippi, and
the United States assigned them a large tract
on the Osage. But they still retained
their old enmity to the Americans, and when
removed from Illinois a part of them went to
Texas, then a province of Mexico, to get be-
yond the jurisdiction of the United States.
In 1822, about 1,800 had removed, leaving
only 400 remaining in Illinois. Some few of
these settled down to cultivate the ground,
but more of them rambled off to hunt on the
grounds of Southern tribes. They plun-
dered on all sides and made constant inroads,
killing and horse-stealing. During the years
1810 and 1811, and prior to the emigration
of any of them to the West, they committed
so many thefts and 'murders on the frontier



settlements in conjunction with the Chippe-
was, Pottawatomies and Ottawas, that Gov
Edwards was compelled to employ military
force to suppress them.

The Piankeshaws'.were a weak, petty tribe,
and supposed to have been an offshoot of the
Shawnees. They at one time inhabited and
claimed the country for some distance on
both sides of the Wabash River toward its
mouth, and northwest to the head- waters of
the Kaskaskia River. This comprises a brief
sketch of the different tribes of the " noble
red men" who inhabited Southern Illinois,
and who doubtless have chased the deer and
hunted the game through the woodland
groves and prairies of Jefferson County. The
Piankeshaws, however, seem to have been
the Indians who held a kind of claim on this
immediate section of the country. "But what
iy remarkable," says Mr. Johnson, " they
have not left a single name of prairie, town
or stream that may remain as a monument to
tell the world that such a tribe ever existed. ''^
All the Indians of Southern Illinois were
driven back finally by stronger tribes coming
down from the North. They lost the proud
spirit characteristic of their race, cowered
around the white settlements f jr protection
and abandoned themselves to indolence and
drunkenness.

From the time of the first white settlements
in this county, occasional bands of^Indians
made incursions for hunting and tralfic.
They carried their pelts to Shawneetown,
Kaskaskia and St. Louis, and in return
brought back a variety of articles which
they bartered away among the white settlers.
In 1819-20, the Delawares came through
the county on their way to their We.?tern
reservation. From some cause or other,
they remained here a considerable time. A
large number of them were encamped on the
creek near where John Pearcy lives, undei a



HISTORY OF JEFFERSOX COUNTY.



119



chief called George Owl. There were also
some 600 encamped for a time on Horse
Creek, some ei;^ht or ten miles from Mount
Vernon, under Capt. Whitefeather. They
sent loads of pelts to Shawneetown and Kas-
kaskia, bringing back many things the set-
tlers could not have prociu'ed elsewhere.
They also sold hunting shirts, breeches and
moccasins (of buck-skin) of their own make
to the whites. Another band was encamped
where George Bullock's meadow is now.
The chief, it is said, had some pretty daugh-
ters, and when, at his urgent request, Isaac
Casey's daughters paid them a visit, the old
chief seemed very much delighted and was
as polite toward them as a French dancing
master. While these Indians were encamped
in the county, they remained on the most
friendly terms with the settlers, and were
polite (as an Indian could be) and extremely
hospitable. If any of the whites visited
them at mea) time, they were invited to eat,
and if they refused, the Indians felt offend-
ed; but on the contrary, if they accepted,
they (the Indians) were highly pleased and
all sat back and waited till their pale face
guests were through eating.

No murders or massacres are positively
known to have been committed in the county
by the Indians. The only probable mm-der
was that of Andrew Moore, an account of
which will be found in connection with the
early settlement. A little panic occurred in
1818, but resulted in nothing more than a
considerable scare. The facts are about as
follows; The Cherokees, who occupied the
western part of Kentucky, made occasional
visits to this part of Illinois. They were less
peaceably disposed than the Illinois Indians,
and a band of them caused the panic alluded
to, the only instance of the kind known in
the history of Jefferson County. Isaac
Casey and William and Isaac Hicks had oc-



casion to go to the Ohio River on business,
and Abram and Clark Casey were left in
charge of the families. Soon after they left,
small squads of Indians came about the
cabin, acting in a rather suspicious manner,
greatly alarming the whites. Some time
dm-ing the night a noise was heard, which
their fear magnified into a probable attack
or preparations for one, and gathsring up
their arms, they beat a hasty retreat — " fall-
ing back in good order" — to William Casey's
cabin, where they spent the night — a prey to
dismal forebodings. The night passed, how-
ever, without any attack being made, and
with the morning's light their courage re-
turned. They went back home, where they
found things undisturbed, and then enjoyed
a hearty laugh at their needless scare.

Few traces of the Indians now remain in
tne county. Implements, such as stone hatch-
ets, arrow-heads, etc. , years ago could be
picked up in the vicinity of their old camps,
but nothing more. Nothing like the ruins
of an ancient village or a biuylng ground
are known to exist save a few mounds or hil-
locks near the fair grounds, which are sup-
posed to be and probably are the remains of
an Indian cemotei'y.

Black Hawk War. — It is not inappropri-
ate to cloao this chapter with a brief sketch
of the Black Hawk war. Although we shall
devote a subsequent chapter to the war and
military history of the county, yet, while en-
gaged with the Indians, it is well, perhaf^s, to
"exterminate" them and be done with it. That
is the inevitable doom awaiting them. The
causes which led to the Black Hawk war
reach back to and even prior to the Winne-
bago and Sac war of 1827, and briefly stated
by Edwards in his history of Illinois, are as
follows: During the administration of Gov.
Edwards, the Indians upon the Northwestern
frontier began to be very troublesome.



120



HISTORY OF JEFFEUSON COU^STTY.



The different tribes not only commenced a
warfare among themselves, in regard to their
respective boundaries, but they extended their
hostilites to the white settlements. A treaty
of peace, in which the whites acted more as
mediators than as a party, had been signed
at Prairie Du Chi en on the 29 th of August,
1825, by the terms of which the boundaries
between the Winnebagoes and Sioux, Chip-
pewas. Sacs, Foxes and other tribes, were
defined, but it failed to keep them quiet.
Their depredations and murders continued
frequent, and in the summer of 1827 their
conduct particularly of the Winnebagoes,
became very alarming. There is little doubt,
however, that the whites, who at this period
were immigrating in large niTmbers to the
Northwest and earnestly desired their re-
moval further westward, purposely exasper-
ated the Indians, at the same time that they
greatly exaggerated the hostlities committed.
The Indians thus maddened and rendered in-
sanely jealous of the encroachments of the
whites and the insults and injui'ies heaped
upon them, finally broke out into open war.

Black Hawk, in the spring of 1831, came
over from west of the Mississippi River with
300 warriors of his "old guard," and ordered
the whites to leave, committed numei'ous
depredations and threatened more serious re-
sults if his orders were not immediately com-
plied with. Gens. Gaines and Duncan were
ordered to quell the Indians, and marched to
the scene with a hastily collected army. The
clouds of war soon disappeared, however, by
Black Hawk and his warriors suing for peace,
and the former treaty of 1804 was ratified.

This peace was not destined to remain long
imbroken. Early in the spring of 1832,
Black Hawk again prepared to assert his
right to the disputed territory. He recrossed
the Mississippi River, proceeded toward
Rock River and began to collect an army.



Gov. Reynolds called for troops and prompt-
ly the State responded. Jefferson County
furnished a full company, besides a number
of men scattered through other companies and
battalions. From the report of the Adjutant
General of the State, for the Black Hawk
and Mexican wars, we give the roster of this
company, as follows: James Bowman, Cap-
tain; Franklin S. Casey, First Lieutenant;
Green Deprist, Second Lieutenant; Stephen
G. Hicks, Eli D. Anderson, John R. Satter
field and Littleton Daniels, Sergeants;
George Bullock, James Bullock, Isaac S.
Casey and Isaac Deprist, Corporals; Pri-
vates, S. H. Anderson, G. W. Atchison, Ig-
natius Atchison, Samuel Bullock, William
Bingaman, Joseph Bradford, M. D. Bruce,
P. C. Buffiington, John Baugh, S. W. Car-
penter, Zadok Casey, John Darnall, William
Deweeze, Gasaway Elkin, Robert Elkin, Is-
aac Faulkenburg, William D. Gastin, Wil-
lis B. Holder, William B. Hays, James Ham,
Joel Harlow, John Isam, John Jenkins,
David Kitrell, James C. Martin, Nathaniel
Morgan, James F. Miner, John E. McBrian,
H. B. Newby, J. R. Owens, Peter Owens,
Wyatt Parrish, George W. Pace, James
Rhea, Jacob Reynolds, William Thomason
and Joseph Thomason. Killed, William
Allen, at Kellogg's Grove, June 25, 1832;
-lames B. Bond, James Black and Abram
Bradford, died of disease; Robert Meek and
Marcus Randolph wounded at Kellogg's Grove.
The men elected their own officers and
each man furnished his own horse and gun.
These were to be valued when the men were
mustered in, and paid for if lost when the
men should be discharged. By the 15th of
June the troops had arrived at their place of
rendezvous and amounted to over 3,000 men.
They were formed into three brigades, com-
manded respectively by Gens. Posey, Alexan-
der and Henry. The company from Jefferson



HISTORY OF JEFFEESON COUNTY.



131



County took part in the battle of Kellogg's
Grove, in which, as already stated, one man
was killed and two others wounded.

The war ended with the battle of August
2, 1832, at the mouth of Bad Axe, a creek
which empties into the Mississippi near



Prairie Du Chien. A treaty was made in
the following September, which ended the
Indian troubles in this State. Black Hawk
had been captured, and upon regaining his
liberty ever after remained friendly to the
whites.



CHAPTER III.*



SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTY BY WHITE PEOPLE— WHO THE PIONEERS WERE, AND WHERE THEY

CAME FROM— ANDREW MOORE— HIS MURDER BY THE INDIANS— MOORE'S PRAIRIE, AND

THE PEOPLE WHO SETTLED IT— THE WILKEYS, CRENSHAWS, ATCHISONS, ETC.—

SETTLEMENT AT MOUNT VERNON— OTHER PIONEERS— HARDSHIPS,

TRIALS, PRIVATIONS, MANNERS, CUSTOMS, ETC., ETC.



" the westward tide should overflow

The mountain barriers to this unknown clime,
To change the wilderness and barren waste.
Where savage and the deer in turn were chased.
And there to found in this broad valley home
A richer, vaster empire than was ruled by ancient
Rome." — Byera.

T"^HB first white people, according to authen-
tic history, who ever traversed the plains
of Illinois or navigated its streams were the
French. The importance which attaches to all
that is connected with the explorations and
discoveries of the earlj' French travelers in the
Northwest, but increases in interest as time
rolls on. Two hundred years or more ago, set-
tlements were made by the French in what is
now the State of Illinois, among which were
Fort Chartres, Kaskaskia, Cahokia and other
places; also at Vincennes on the east side of
the Wabash River. Marquette, Lasalle, De
Frontenac, Joliet, Hennepin and Tonti were
Frenchmen whose names are familiar in the
earl}- history of Illinois. From the 3-ear 1680
until the close of the • Old French and Indian
war" between France and England, Illinois
was under French dominion. At the treaty of

♦By W. H. Perrin.



Paris, February 16, 1763, France relinquished
to England all the territory she claimed east of
the Mississippi River, from its source to Bayou
Iberville. Less than a quarter of a century
passed, and it was wrested from Great Britain
by her American colonies. In 1778, Gen.
George Rogers Clark, with a handful of the
ragged soldiers of freedom, under commission
from the Governor of Virginia, conquered the
country, and the banner of the thirteen colonies
floated in the breeze for the first time on the
banks of the Mississippi. The conquest of
Clark made Illinois a county of Virginia, as
noticed in a subsequent chapter. This acquisi-
tion of territory brought many adventurous
individuals hither, and Southern Illinois at once
became the center of attraction.

There is but little doubt that Andrew Moore
was the first white man to make a settlement
within the present confines of Jefferson County.
Mr. Johnson, in his pioneer sketches of the
county, notices a settlement made in 1808-09
in what is now Franklin County, b\- Thomas
and Francis Jordan. They settled some eight
or nine miles from the present towu of Frank-
fort, and with the assistance of a company of



122



HISTORY OF JEFFEKSOX COUNTY.



soldiers from the saltworks, erected two
forts or block-houses there for their protection.
This settlement was some fifteen or twenty
miles from the south line of Jefferson County.
In 1810, Andrew Moore came from the Goshen
settlement, and located in what is now Moore's
Prairie Township, in this count}-. The nearest
settlement to him was the Jordan settlement,
and that was distant, as we have said, some fif-
teen or twenty miles. At the edge of a hickory
grove, on the old Goshen road, he reared his
lone cabin. It was a double cabin, and com-
posed of round hickory poles, with a chimney
and fire-place in the middle. Here he lived
with his family for several years — Gov. Rey-
nolds says until 1812 ; other authorities until
1814—15. All the while they were alone, ex-
cept an occasional adventurous traveler who
chanced to pass, or a company on their waj' to
the Saline for salt. With these exceptions,
they saw none of their kind. Crusoe on his
desert island was not more alone than this first
family of Jefferson County — these lone mari-
ners of the desert.

Andrew Moore, from all that is known of
him, was a pioneer of the true tj'pe. He was
a self-exile from civilization, as it were, and bj-
choice a roving nomad, who sought the soli-
tudes of the pathless woods, the dreariness of
the desert waste, in exchange for the trammels
of civilized societj-. Of the latter he could



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