William Henry Perrin.

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They came under the protection of the
mother country, and again in 1701, they
repeated the agreement, and in September,
1726, a formal deed was drawn up and
signed by the chiefs. The validity of this
claim has often been disputed, but never
successfully. In 1744, a purchase was made
at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands
within the "Colony of Virginia," for which
the Indians received £200 in gold and a
like sum in goods, with a promise that, as
settlements increased, more should be paid.
The Commissioners from Virginia were
Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel William
Beverley. As settlements extended, the
promise of more pay was called to mind,
and Mr. Conrad Weiserwas sent across the
mountains with presents to appease the
savages. Col. Lee, and some Viririnians
accompanied him with the intention of



sounding- the Indians upon their feeh'ngs
regarding the English. They were not
satisfied with their treatment, and plainly
told the Commissioners why. The English
did not desire the cultivation of the country,
but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In

1748, the Oliio Company was formed, and
petitioned the king for a grant of land
bej-ond the Alleghenies. This was granted,
and the government of Virginia was or-
dered to grant to them a half million acres,
two hundred thousand of which were to be
located at once. Upon the 12th of June,

1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada
north and west was made to the Loyal
Company, and on the 29th of October,

1751, 100,000 acres were given to the
Greenbriar Company. All this time the
French were not idle. They saw that,
should the British gain a foothold in the
West, especially upon the Ohio, they
might not only prevent the French set-
tling upon it, but in time would come to
the lower posts and so gain possession of
the whole country. Upon the 10th of May,
1774, Vaudreuil, Governor of Canada and
the French possessions, well knowing the
consequences that must arise from allow-
ing the English to build trading posts in
the Northwest, seized some of their frontier
posts, and to further secure the claim of the
French to the West, he, in 1749, sent Louis
Celeron with a party of soldiers to plant
along the Ohio River, in the mounds and
at the mouths of its principal tributaries,
plates of lead, on which were inscribed the
claims of France. These were heard of in

1752, and within the memory of residents
now living along the "Oyo," as the beauti-
ful river was called by the French. One
of these plates was found with the inscrip-

tion partly defaced. It bears date August
16, 1749, and a copy of the inscription with
particular account of the discovery of the
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the
American Antiquarian Society, among
whose journals it may now be found.*
These measures did not, however, deter the
English from going on with their explora-
tions, and though neither party resorted to
arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and it
was only a question of time when the storm
would burst upon the frontier settlements.
In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the
Ohio Company to examine its lands. He
went to a village of the Twigtwees, on the
Miami, about one hundred and fifty miles
above its mouth. He afterward spoke of it
as very populous. From there he went
down the Ohio River nearly to the falls at
the present City of Louisville, and in
November he commenced a survey of the
company's lands. During the winter.
General Andrew Lewis performed a similar
work for the Greenbriar Company. Mean-
while the French were bus}' in preparing
their forts for defense, and in opening
roads, and also sent a small party of soldiers
to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having
heard of the Englisli post on the Miami

* The following is a translation of the inscription on
the plate: " In the year 1749, reign of Louis XV.,
King of Prance, we, Celeron, commandant of a de-
tachment by Monsieur the Marquis of Uallisoniere,
commander-in-chief of New France, to establish tran-
quility in certain Indian villages of these cantons,
have buried this plate at the confluence of the
Toradakoin, this twenty-ninth of July, near the river
Ohio, otherwise Beautiful River, as a monument of
renewal of possession which we have taken of the
said river, and all its tributaries; inasmuch as the
preceding Kings of France have enjoyed it, and
maintained it by their anns and treaties; esp cially
by those of Ryswick, Utrecht, and Aix La Chapelle."



River, early in 1652, assisted by the
Ottawas and Chipp(!\vas, attacked it, and,
after a severe battle, in which fuurteen of
the natives were killed and others wounded,
captured the garrison. (They were prob-
ably garrisoned in a block house). The
traders were carried away to Canada, and
one account says several were burned. This
fort or post was called by the English
Pickawillany. A memorial of the king's
ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in
the center of the territory between the Ohio
and the Wabash. The name is probably
some variation of Pickaway or Picqna, in
1773, written by Rev. David Jones, Pick-

This was the first blood shed between the
French and English, and occurred near the
present City of Piqua, Ohio, or at least at
a point about forty-seven miles north of
Dayton. Each nation became now more
interested in the progress of events in the
Northwest. The English determined to
purchase from the Indians a title to the
lands they wished to occupy, and Messrs.
Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over
Washington at the commencement of the
French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and
Patton were sent in the spring of 1752 to
hold a conference witli the natives at Logs-
town to learn what they objected to in the
treaty of Lancaster already noticed and to
settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June,
these Commissioners met the red men at
Logstown, a little village on the north
bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles
below the site of Pittsburgh. Here had
been a trading point for many years, but it
was abandoned by the Indians in 1750. At
first the Indians declined to recognize the
treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commission-

ers taking aside Montour, the interpreter,
who was a son of the famous Catharine Mon-
tour, and a chief among the Six Nations,
induced him to use his influence in their
favor. This he did, and upon the 13th of
June they all united in signing a deed, con-
firming the Lancaster treaty in its full ex-
tent, consenting to asettleinent of the south,
east of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it
should not be disturbed by them. These
were the means used to obtain the first
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley.

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea
were trying to out-maneuver each other,
and were professing to be at peace. The
English generally outwitted the Indians,
and failed in many instances to fulfill their
contracts. They thereby gained the ill-
will of the red men, and further increased
the feeling by failing to provide them with
arms and ammunition. Said an old chief,
at Easton, in 1758: "The Indians on the
Ohio left you because of your own fault.
When we heard the French were coming,
we asked you for help and arms, but we did
not get them. The French came, they
treated us kindly, and gained our affections.
The Governor of Virginia settled on our
lands for his own benefit, and, when we
wanted help, forsook us."

At the beginning of 1653, the English
thought they had secured by title the lands
in the West, but the French had quietly
gathered cannon and military stores to be
in readiness for tlie expected blow. The
English made other attempts to ratify these
existing treaties, but not until the b nnmer
could the Indians be gathered together to
discuss the plans of the French. They had
sent messages to the French, warning them
away; but they replied that they intended



to complete the chain of forts already be-
gun, and would not abandon the field.

Soon after this, no satisfaction being ob-
tained from the Ohio regarding the posi-
tions and purposes of the French, Governor
Dinwiddie of Virginia determined to send
to them another messenger and learn from
them, if possible, their intentions. For
this purpose he selected a young man, a
surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen,
had received the rank of major, and who
was thoroughly posted regarding frontier
life. This personage was no other than the
illustrious George Washington, who then
held considerable interest in Western lands.
He was at this time just twenty-two years
of age. Taking Gist as his guide, the two,
accompanied by four servitors, set out on
their perilous march. They left Will's
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and
on the 22d reached the Monongahela, about
ten miles above the fork. From there they
went to Logstown, where Washington had
a long conference with the chiefs of the Six
Nations. From them he learned the con-
dition of the French, and also heard of
their determination not to come down the
river till the following spring. The Indi-
ans were non-committal, as they were afraid
to turn either way, and, as far as they
could, desired to remain neutral. Wash-
ington, finding nothing could be done
with them, went on to Venango, an old
Indian town at the mouth of Frencii Creek.
Here the French had a fort, called Fort
Machault. Through the rum and flattery
of the French, he nearly lost all his Indian
followers. Finding nothing of importance
here, he pursued his way amid great priva-
tions, and on tiie 11th of December reached
the fort at the head of French Creek. Here

he delivered Governor Dinwiddle's letter,
received his answer, took his observations,
and on the 16th set out upon his return
journey with no one but Gist, his guide,
and a few Indians who still remained true
to him, notwithstanding the endeavors of
the French to retain them. Their home-
ward journey was one of great peril and
sufi'ering from the cold, yet they reached
home in safety on the 6th of January,

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander
of the French fort, sent by Washington to
Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned that
the French would not give up without a
struggle. Active preparations were at
once made in all the English colonies for
the coming conflict, while the French fin-
ished the fort at Venango and strengthened
their lines of fortifications, and gathered
their forces to be in readiness.

The Old Dominion was all alive. Vir-
o-inia was the center of great activities; vo -
unteers were called for, and from all the
neighboring colonies men rallied to the
conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac
men were enlisting under the governor's
proclamation — which promised two hun-
dred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along
this river they were gathering as far as
Will's Creek, and far beyond this point,
whither Trent had come for assistance for
his little band of forty-one men, who were
working away in hunger and want, to for-
tify that point at the fork of the Ohio, to
which both parties were looking with deep

"The first birds of spring filled the air
with their song; the swift river rolled by
the Allegheny iiillsides, swollen by the
melting snows of spring and the April



showers. The leaves were appearing; a
few Indian scouts were seen, but no enemy
seemed near at hand; and all was so quiet,
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader,
who had been left by Trent in command,
ventured to his home at the mouth of
Turtle Creek, ten miles up the Monongaliela.
But, though all was so quiet in that wilder-
ness, keen eyes had seen the low intrench-
me it rising at the fork, and swift feet had
borne the news of it up the river; and upon
the morning of the 17th of April, Ensign
Ward, who then had charge of it, saw upon
the Allegheny a sight that made his heart
sink — sixty batteaux and three hundred
canoes filled with men, and laden deep with
cannon and stores. * * * That evening
Jie supped with his captor, Oontrecojur, and
the next day he was bowed off bj' the
Frenchman, and with his men and tools,
marched up the Monongaliela."

The French and Indian war had begun.
The treaty of Aix la Chapelle, in 1748, had
left the boundaries between the French and
English possessions unsettled, and the
events already narrated show the French
were determined to hold the country wa-
tered by the Mississippi and its tributaries;
while the English laid claims to the country
by virtue of the discoveries of the Cabots,
and claimed all the country from New-
foundland to Florida, extending from the
Atlantic to the Pacific. The first decisive
blow had now been struck, and the first
attempt of the English, through the Ohio
Company, to occupy these lands, had re-
sulted disastrously to them. The French
and Indians immediately completed the
fortifications begun at the Fork, which they
had so easily captured, and when completed
gave to the fort the name of Du Quesne.

Washington was at Will's Creek when the
news of the capture of the fort arrived. He
at once departed to recapture it. On his
way he entrenched himself at a place called
the " Meadows," where he erected a fort
called by him Fort Necessity. From there
he surprised and captured a force of French
and Indians marching against him, but was
soon after attacked in his fort by a much
superior force, and was obliged to yield on
the morning of July 4th. He was allowed
to return to Virginia.

The English Government immediately
filanned four campaigns; one against Fort
Du Quesne; one against Nova Scotia; one
against Fort Niagara, and one against
Crown Point. These occurred dnrinsr
1755-6, and were not successful in driving
the French from their possessions. The
expedition against Fort Du Quesne was led
by the famous General Braddock, who, re-
fusing to listen to the advice of Washington
and those acquainted with Indian warfare,
suflered such an inglorious defeat. This
occurred on the morning of July 9tli, and
is generally known as the battle of Monon-
galiela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war
continued -with various vicissitudes through
the years 1756-7; when, at the commence-
of 1758 in accordance with the plans of
William Pitt, then Secretary of State,
afterward Lord Chatham, active prepara-
tions were made to carry on the war.
Three expeditions were j)lanned for this
year: one, under General Amherst, against
Louisburg; another, under Abercrombie,
against Fort Ticonderoga; and a third, un-
der General Forbes, against Fort Du
Quesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg
surrendered after a desperate resistance of
more than forty days, and the eastern part



of the Canadian possessions fell into the
hands of tlie British. Abercrombie cap-
tured Fort Frontenac, and when the ex-
pedition against Fort Du Quesne, of which
Washington had the active command, ar-
rived there, it was found in flames and de-
serted. The English at once took posses-
sion, rebuilt the fort, and in lionor of tlieir
illustrious statesman, clianged the name to
Fort Pitt.

The great object of the campaign of
1759, was the reduction of Canada. Gen-
eral Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec; Am-
herst was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown
Point, and General Prideaux was to cap-
ture Niagara. This latter place was taken
in July, but the gallant Prideaux lost his
life in the attempt. Amherst captured
Ticonderoga and Crown Point without a
blow; and Wolfe, after making the memor-
able ascent to the plains of Abraham, on
September 13th, defeated Montcalm, and
on the 18th, the city capitulated. In this
engagement Montcalm and Wolfe both
lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's suc-
cessor, marched to Sillery, three miles
above the city, with the purpose of defeat-
ing the English, and there, on the 2Sth of
the following April, was fought one of the
bloodiest battles of the French and Indian
war. It resulted in the defeat of the
French, and the fall of the city of Montreal.
The Governor signed a capitulation, by
which the whole of Canada was surrendered
to the English. This practically conclu-
ded the war, but it was not until 1763 that
the treaties of peace between France and
England were signed. This was done on
the 10th of February of that year, and un-
der its provisions all tiie country east of
the Mississippi and north of the Iberville

river, in Louisiana, were ceded to England.
At the same time Spain ceded Florida to
Great Britain.

On the 13th of September, 1760, Major
Kobert Rogers was sent from Montreal to
take charge of Detroit, the only remaining
French post in the territory. He arrived
thereon the 19th of November, and sum-
moned the place to surrender. At first the
commander of the post, Beletre, refused,
but on the 29th, hearing of the continued
defeat of the French arms, suri-endered.
Rogers remained there until December 23d,
under the personal protection of the cele-
brated chief, Pontiac, to whom, no doubt,
he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here
to inquire the purposes of the English in
taking possession of the country. He was
assured that they came simply to trade
with the natives, and did not desire their
country. This answer conciliated the sav-
ages, and did much to insure the safety of
Rogers and his party during their stay,
and while on their journey home.

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on Decem-
ber 23d, and was just one month on the
way. His route was from Detroit to Mau-
mee, thence across the present State of
Ohio directly to the fort. This was the
common trail of the Indians in their jour-
neys from Sandusky to the Fork of the
Ohio. It went from Fort Sandusky, where
Sandusky city now is, crossed the Huron
river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to "Mo-
hickon John's Town" Creek, on Mohikon
Creek, the northern branch of White
Woman's river, and then crossed to Bea-
ver's town, a Delaware town on what is
now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's town were
probably one hundred and fifty warriors,
and not less than three thousand acres of



cleared land. From there the track went
up Sandy Creek to and across Big Beaver,
and up the Ohio toLogstown, thence on to
the fork.

The Northwest Territory was now en-
tirely under the English rule. New settle-
ments began to be rapidly made, and the
promise of a large trade was speedily mani-
fested. Had the British carried out their
promises with the natives, none of those
savage butcheries would have been perpe-
trated, and the country would have been
spared their recital.

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of
the leading spirits in these atrocities. We
will now pause in our narrative, and notice
the leading events in his life. The earliest
authentic information regarding this noted
Indian chief, is learned from an account of
an Indian trader named Alexander Henry,
who, in the spring of 1761, penetrated his
domains as far as Missillimacnac. Ponti-
ac was then a great friend of the French,
but a bitter foe of the English, whom he
considered as encroaching on his hunting
grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise
himself as a Canadian to insure safety, but
was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly
reproached him, and the English for their
attempted subjugation of the West. He
declared that no treaty had been made
with them; no presents sent them, and
that he would resent any possession of the ,
West by that nation. He was at the time
about fifty years of age, tall and dignified,
and was civil and military ruler of the Ot-
tawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatomies.

The Indians, from Lake Micliigan to the
borders of North Carolina, were united in
this feeling, and at the time of the treaty
of Paris, ratified February 10, 1763, a gen-

eral conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly
upon the frontier British posts, and with
one blow strike every man dead. Pontiac
was the marked leader in all this, and was
the commander of the Chippewas, Otta-
was, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Dela-
wares and Mingoes, who had, for the time,
laid aside their local quarrels to unite in
this enterprise.

The blow came, as near as can be ascer-
tained, on May 7, 1763. Nine British
posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped
up in the hollow of joined hands," the
blood of many a Briton.

Pontiac's immediate field of action, was
the garrison at Detroit. Here, however,
the plans were frustrated by an Indian
woman disclosing the plot the evening pre-
vious to his arrival. Everything was car-
ried out, however, according to Pontiac's
plans until the moment of action, wlien
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the
post, stepping to one of the Indian chiefs,
suddenly drew aside his blanket and dis-
closed the concealed musket. Pontiac
though a brave man, turned pale and
trembled. He saw his plan was known
and that the garrison were prepared. He
endeavored to exculpate himself from any
such intentions; but the guilt was evident,
and he and his followers were dismissed
with a severe re]3riniand, and warned never
to again enter the walls of the post.

Pontiac at once laid siege to the fort,
and until the treaty of peace between the
British and the Western Indians, conclud-
ed in August, 1764, continued to harass
and besiege the fortress. He organized a
regular commissariat department, issued
bills of credit written out on bark, which to
his credit, it may be stated, were punctu-



ally redeemed. At the conclusion of the
treaty, in which it seems he took no part,
he went farther south, living many years
among the Illinois.

He had given up all hope of saving his
country and race. After a time he endeav-
ored to unite the Illinois tribe and those
about St. Louis in a war with the whites.
His eftbrts were fruitless, and only ended
in a quarrel between himself and some
Kaskaskialndians, oneof whom soon after-
ward killed him. His death was, however,
avenged by the northern Indians, who
nearly exterminated the Illinois in the
wars which followed.

Had it not been for the treachery of a
few of his followers, his plan for the ex-
termination of the whites, a masterly
one, would undoubtedly have been carried


It was in the spring of the year follow-
in o- Rogers' visit that Alexander Henry
went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere
found the strongest feelings against the
English who had not carried out their
promises, and were doing nothing to con-
ciliate the natives. Here he met the chief,
Pontiac, who after conveying to him in a
speech the idea that their French father
would awake soon and utterly destroy his
enemies, said: "Englishman, although
you have conquered the French, you have
not yet conquered us ! "We are not your
slaves! These lakes, these woods, these
mountains, were left us by our ancestors.
They are our inheritance, and we will part
with them to none. Your nation supposes
that we, like the white people, can not live
without bread and pork and beef. But you
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and
Master of Life, has provided food for us

upon these broad lakes and in these moun-

He then spoke of the fact that no
treaty had been made with them, no
presents sent then], and that he and his
people were yet for war. Such were
the feelings of the Northwestern Indians
immediately after the English took posses-
sion of their country. These feelings were
no doubt encouraged by the Canadians and
French, who hoped that yet the French
arms might prevail. The treaty of Paris,
however, gave to the English the right to
this vast domain, aud active preparations
were going on to occupy it and enjoy its
trade and emoluments.

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded
Louisiana to Spain, to prevent it falling
into the hands of the English, who were
becoming masters of the entire "West. The
next year the treaty of Paris, signed at
Fontainbleau, gave to the English the do-
main of the country in q\;estion. Twenty
years after, by the treaty of peace between
the United States and England, that part
of Canada lying south and west of the
Great Lakes, comprehending a large terri-
tory which is the subject of these sketches,
was acknowledged to be a portion of the
United States; and twenty years still later,
in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain
back to France, and by France sold to the
United States.

In the half century, from the building
of the Fort of Crevecoeur by La Salle, in
1680, lip to the erection of Fort Chatres,
many French settlements had been made in
that quarter. These have already been

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