William Henry Perrin.

History of Jefferson County, Illinois online

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was not into the fraj- quite as soon as many
other counties, but when once in she stuck to
it until the old flag waved in triumph again
over every State and Territory.

The Fortieth Infantry is the first regiment
in which we find the county represented, and
only in this by a ver)' few men and officers.



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY



249



The regiment was made up principally in Mar-
ion, Wayne, Hamilton and Franklin Counties,
with a few representatives, as we have said,
from this county. It was commanded by that
brave old warrior-hero of the Black Hawk and
Mexican wars — Stephen G. Hicks. John W.
Baugh was Adjutant, and Albion F. Taylor,
Quartermaster, both honorable citizens of Mount
Vernon, and perhaps others, of whom sketclies
will be found in the biographical department
of this volume.

Stephen Or. Hicks, a Sergeant in the Black
Hawk war, a Captain, and afterward Lieutenant
Colonel in the Mexican war, and Colonel of
this (the Fortieth) regiment, was born for a sol-
dier. He was the son of a soldier, possessed
all the elements for a good soldier, and was
one than whom none braver ever wore the
uniform, nor followed the flag of the Union.
He was bora February 22 (the anniversary
of Washington's birthday), 1809, in Jackson
County, Ga., and was the son of John Hicks,
one of the seven men killed in the battle of
New Orleans, January 8, 1815. Hence, he was
left an orphan at the age of six years, with
few advantages for education or mental culture.
But he was an energetic lad, had a vigorous
body and an active mind, that could not be
content in idleness. After his father's death,
his mother married Jacob Weldon, by whom
young Stephen considered he was cruelly
treated, and long before arriving at manhood
he left the parental roof and hired to a man
living near SpringQeld.. He worked during the
summer, and went to school in winter, thus
picking up a moderate education, and finally
he found his way to the lead mines at Galena.
Returning a few j-ears later, he worked at the
carpenter's trade with iiis uncle, Carter Wilkey.
When the Black Hawk war broke out in 1832
he was among the first to enlist, and was ap-
pointed First Sergeant of Capt. Bowman's
Company, in which position he faithfully served
during the war. He was married, in October,



1829, to Miss Eliza R. Maxey, a daughter of
Burchett Maxey, who still survives him, and is
a resident of Mount Vernon. Mr. Hicks rep-
resented Jefferson Count}' in the Lower House
of the State Legislature from 1842 t6 1848,
and as a legislator proved himself worthy and
efficient, receiving the highest commendations
of his constituents. He studied law, was ad-
mitted to the bar, and practiced law for a
number of years.

At the breaking-out of the Mexican war,
Col. Hicks recruited Company H, of the Third
Regiment (Col. Foreman), and when his term
of service had expired, he re-enlisted as a pri-
vate, but was promoted Lieutenant Colonel of
the Second Regiment as re-organized, before it
left Alton, the place of rendezvous. His rec-
ord throughout the Mexican war was that of
an excellent and efficient officer, and a brave
soldier. The following incident is illustrative
of the man, and of his courage and bravery :
A bad feeling was engendered during the first
year of the war between Maj. Marshall and
himself, and in their difference Col. Hicks pro-
posed to go down on the river bank and fight
it out. Maj. Marshall accepted the proposition,
and, armed with pistols, they were about to
test each other's courage, when the Lieutenant
Colonel of their regiment found it out, and put
a stop to it. He and Lieut. Bagwell had a lit-
tle " spat " also during the first jear in Mexico,
in which Bagwell (juestioned Hicks' bravery.
In the battle of Cerro Gordo, when bullets were
flying as thick as hail, Hicks held his hand
aloft, and cried out, •' Lieut. Bagwell, show
your hand, and we will see who is the bravest."
Both men were brave even to rashness. Bag-
well was at one time Sheriff of Jefferson Coun-
ty. He recruited a company during the late
war, and joined the confederate army, and was
killed in the battle of Shiloh, gallantly fighting
at the head of his men. Hicks became Colonel,
as we have seen, of the Fortieth Infantrj',
in the late rebellion, and served his (Jov-



250



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



ernment faithfully to the close of the
war. He was severely wounded in the bat-
tle of Shiloh. while leading his regiment in
the thickest of the fight. Waving his sword
in the direction of the enemy, and turning in
his saddle to cheer his men, a ball struck him
in the back or shoulder, and he fell from his
horse. His men swept on to avenge his fall,
and Col. Hicks crawled a half a mile to water,
and washed the blood from the wound with his
own hand. During his service in the late war,
he had four horses shot under him. After he
recovered from his wounds, Gen Sherman,
struck with the bravery of Col. Hicks, and in
consideration of the wounds he had received,
offered him the command of any post between
Cairo and New Orleans. Col. Hicks had been
stationed for awhile at Paducah in the early
part of the war, and, liking the place, told Gen.
Sherman he would accept the command of Pa-
ducah. which Sherman readily granted. Hicks
also asked that Capt. Taylor, his Regimental
Quartermaster, and who was his son-in-law,
might be detached, and go with him as Post
Adjutant. This Gen. Sherman also granted.
Col. Hicks remained in command of Paducah
from October, 1863, for about one and one-half
years, and then went to Columbus, where he
remained in command until after the close of
the war. While in command at Paducah, the
place was attacked by the confederate Gen.
Forrest, who sent in a demand to Col. Hicks
for its unconditional surrender, otherwise no
quarter would be shown if it was captured by
force. Hicks sent him word that his Govern-
ment had placed him there to protect its prop-
erty, and he would prove a traitor if he surren-
dered it, and wound up by telling Forrest he
would have to come and take it. Gen. Thomp-
son, of Mayfield, Ky., who commanded a bri-
gade, had asked the favor of Forrest to let
him take the fort where Hicks commanded in
person, and was granted the request. He
attacked it with great fury, but was struck by a



cannon ball and literally torn in pieces, his
bowels being scattered over the ground, and a
portion of his spinal column being thrown sev-
eral rods from where he fell. The battle was
terrible while it lasted, the rebels losing 1.200
men in killed and wounded. The Union forces,
who were protected b}- a fort, lost but seventeen
killed and a number wounded.

Col. Hicks remained in the service until the
establishment of peace. His defense of Padu-
cah was one of the most brilliant achievements
of the war, and won for him unqualified praise,
but did not bring the promotion he merited.
After his return from the war, he made his
home in Salem, Marion County, where he had
some time lived. He died there December 14,
1869, and his widow now lives in Mount Ver-
non, a highly respected elderly lady.

The Forty-fourth Infantry was a regiment in
which Jeflferson County was well represented.
Company F contained some fifteen or twenty
men from this county, together with its first
and Second Lieutenants, William Hicks and
George W. Allen. Hicks resigned April 5,
1862, and Allen was promoted from Second to
First Lieutenant, and resigned January 1. 1865.
The other commissioned officers of the company
were from Ashley and Richview.

Company I was almost wholly from this
county, and was enrolled with the following
commissioned officers ; Jasper Partridge, Cap-
tain ; Russell Brown, First Lieutenant ; and
Jesse C. Bliss, Second Lieutenant. Capt. Part-
ridge and First Lieut. Brown were mustered
out at the end of three years, and Lieut. Charles
M. Lyon was promoted to Captain of the vet-
eran company, and T. J. Abbott became First
Lieutenant. Second Lieut. Bliss was mustered
out at the end of his term, and Andrew J.
Young appointed Second Lieuteuant under re-
organization. The non-commissioned officers
were Cyrus A. Barrett, John A. Wall and Mor-
ris H. Taylor, Sergeants ; and Learner B. Allen,
Franklin S. Parker, Henry P. Daniel, Isaac



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



251



Price, Edwin R. Bliss. Andrew J.Watson. Will-
iam H. Pavey and John C. Crawford, Corpo-
rals. Wall was discharged April 8, 1862, on
account of wounds ; Taylor re-enlisted as a
veteran ; Daniel was discharged April 8, 1862,
from disability ; Price was killed at Stone River,
Decemlier 31, 1862; Watson was discharged
from disability May 29. 1862. and Pavey died
at home, February 1, 1862. The others were
mustered out with the regiment.

The Forty-fourth Infantry was organized in
August, 1861, at Camp Ellsworth, Chicago. It
was mustered into the United States service on
the 13th of September, and the next day pro-
ceeded under orders to St. Louis, Mo., and took
up its quarters in Benton Barracks. It was
supplied with arms from the St. Louis arsenal,
and on the 22d embarked on a steamer for Jef-
ferson City, which was threatened at that time
by the rebel Gen. Price, jubilant over his re-
cent victory at Lexington. It remained here
until the 29th, when it was ordered to Sedalia,
where it was assigned to Gen. Sigel's division.
Here it was engaged in drilling, camp duty,
scouting, foraging, etc., until the 13th of Octo-
ber, when the army took up its line of march
toward Springfield, Mo., arriving at that place
a little too late to participate in the bloody
charge led by Maj. Zagonia (of Gen. Fremont's
body guard) against the rebel cavalry stationed
there. With much marching and counter-
marching, and in dailj- expectation of meeting
the enemy, the fall and winter wore awaj-, and
on the 2d of February, 1862, Gen. Curtis hav-
ing assumed command of the army, it marched
from RoUa, where it had been for some time,
back toward Springfield, where Gen. Price was j
concentrating his forces, with the intention of i
offering fight should he be attacked. But he
'' retired in good order," and the Union forces
took possession of the town on the 13th with-
out serious opposition. Then began an excit-
ing chase, which many of Company I doubtless
still remember, as the Forty-fourth was contin-



ally in advance until the army reached Camp
Halleck, Benton Count}-, Ark. The pursuit
was abandoned on the 20th of February, and
the troops were allowed a few days' rest after
their arduous service. They had marched four
consecutive days, during the most inclement
weather (there being six inches of snow a part
of the time on the ground) and skirmishing
almost continually during the last week's march.
The troops remained here until the 5th of
March, when news was received that the com-
bined forces of Van Dorn, Price and McCul-
lough were advancing to attack them, when
they moved toward Sugar Creek Valley, and in
the afternoon of the sixth the rear guard was
attacked by the enemy and repulsed. This
was the opening of the terrible battle of Pea
Ridge, which resulted so disastrousl}- to the
rebels. Tlie Foi-ty-fourth took a prominent
part in it, and after the enemy had been routed
was one of the regiments selected to follow up
the retreat. For three days they pursued the
fleeing rebels, capturing one stand of colors,
and taking many hundred prisoners, and several
pieces of artillery. They remained in this
vicinity until the 5th of May, when they moved
toward Forsythe, Mo., but was ordered back to
Batesville, Ark. Here the army was re-organ-
ized, and the Forty-fourth became a part of the
brigade commanded by Gen. Osterhaus. On
the 8th, the army was put in motion, and
started for Little Rock, but orders were received
ordering it to Cape Girardeau, Mo., where, upon
its arrival, it embarked for Pittsburg Landing,
to re-enforce the troops then besieging Corinth.
Miss. The troops arrived at Pittsburg Land-
ing on the 26th, and the next day marched up
within supporting distance of the main body of
the army, arriving two days before the evacu-
ation of Corinth. After the evacuation, the
brigade to which the forty-fourth belonged was
attached to Gen. Pope's army, and sent in pur-
suit of the retreating rebels, but owing to bad
roads the pursuit was soon abandoned. The



35i!



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUKTY.



troops returned to Rienzi, Miss., and went into
camp, wiiere tbej' remained until the 26th of
August, when they were ordered to Covington,
Ky.,to protect that place and Cincinnati, Ohio,
against threatened attacks of the enemy. Tbey
arrived there about the 1st of September, and
were on duty there until the 17tb, when tbey
crossed to Cincinnati and proceeded to Louis-
ville, then threatened by Gen. Bragg.

The command remained in Louisville until
the 1st of October, and during the time, it was
again re-organized, the Forty-fourth being
assigned to the Thirty-fifth Brigade, Eleventh
Division, Army of the Ohio. October 1, the
command (including the Forty-fourth) started
on the memorable campaign through Kentucky
in pursuit of Gen. Bragg, and participated in
the battle of Perry ville on the 8th, being at the
time in the division commanded by Gen. Phil
Sheridan. They followed in pursuit of the
enemy to Crab Orchard, and on the 20th of
October marched toward Bowling Green,
arriving there on the 1st of November. Here
Gen. Rosecrans assumed command, and on the
4th the army took up the line of march toward
Nashville, where it arrived on the 7th, reliev-
ing the garrison at that place and re-opening
communication with Louisville. On the 26th
of December, the army moved against the enemy
at Murfreesboro. The Forty -fourth was now
attached to the Second Brigade, Third Division,
Twentieth Army Corps, Col. Schaffer command-
ing the brigade. Gen. Sheridan the division,
and Gen. McCook the corps. The Forty-
fourth took an active part in the bloody battle
of Stone River, losing more than half its
members, killed and wounded, Capt. Hosmer
of Ashley, being among the killed. It re-
mained with the army at Murfreesboro, until
the 26th of June 1863, when it again marched
to the front and crossed swords with the enemy
at Hoover's Gap, Shelbyville and Tullahoma.
In the early part of July, it proceeded to
Stephenson, Ala., where it remained until the



21st of August, when the movement began
against Chattanooga. The Twentieth Corps
moved down toward Rome, Ga., when the
balance of the army was attacked near Chicka-
mauga by Bragg and Longstreet. The Forty-
fourth was ordered to return at once and join
the main army, and after three days and nights
of forced marches, it arrived on the field in time
to take part in the desperate conflict of Septem-
ber 19th and 20th. Falling back to Chattanooga,
it remained there until the latter part of No-
vember, when it again advanced, and on the
25th was one of the foremost regiments in the
bloody charge on Mission Ridge, Gen. Sheri-
dan bestowing unmeasured praise upon it for
having placed one of the first flags on the ene-
my's works. Following the enemy next day, it
captured many prisoners and several pieces of
artillery. On the 27th, it was ordered back to
Chattanooga, to prepare for a forced march to
Knoxville, 150 miles distant, to relieve the
forces then besieged by Gen. Longstreet, but
arrived three days after the siege had been
raised by Gen. Burnside. The Twentieth and
Twenty-first Corps were consolidated at Chatta-
nooga, and the Forty-fourth was assigned to
the First Brigade, Second Division, Fourth
Army Corps, Col. W. T. Sherman commanding
the brigade. Gen. Sheridan the division, and
Gen. Granger the corps. After considerable
maneuvering, the troops went into camp at
Blain's Cross Roads, where they were several
times on the point of starvation, having, for
da3-s at a time, nothing but corn in the ear, and
but a limited supply of that. Said a writer upon
the subject : " Nothing could more fully prove
the patriotism of the men than the fact that
here, on the point of starvation, exposed to the
most inclement weather (it being so cold that
the ink would freeze to the pen as the men
signed their names), over three-fourths of the
regiment voluntarily consented to serve three
years more, for that Government for which



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



253



they had suffered so much daring tlie past two
and a half years."

Tlie regiment remained at Blain's Cross
Roads until the 12th of January, 1864, and
then marched to Dandridge, Tenn. On the
16th and 17th an attack was made by the ene-
my in full force, and the Uniou forces fell back
to Knoxville, and from there marched to
Kingston, where they remained until the 30th,
when the Forty-fourth was ordered to Chatta-
nooga to receive veteran furlough. It arrived
there on the 3d of February, and drew full
rations for the first time in four months, and
started home on the 18th, arriving at Chicago
on the 1st of March. On the 4th the men were
furloughed and started for their homes. From
the time the regiment left its rendezvous in
September, 1861, to the time of its re-enlistment,
it had marched over five thousand miles.

The Forty-fourth reached Nashville April
14, 1864, on its way back to the field, and two
days later marched toward Chattanooga,
where it arrived on the 30th, moving from there
to Cleveland, Tenn., where it was immediately
ordered to the front with tlie main army, then
moving toward Atlanta. It passed through
nearly all the battles and skirmishes of the
Atlanta campaign, among which were Buz-
zard Roost, Rocky Faced Ridge, Resaca,
Adairsville, Dallas, New Hope Church, Ken-
esaw Mountain, Gulp's Farm, Chattahoochie
River, Peach Tree Creek, Jonesboro and At-
lanta. From the 28th of September it was on act-
ive duty, engaged nearly every day in scouting,
skirmishing or fighting until the 30th of No-
vember, when it took part in the battle of
Franklin, Tenn. This was one of the most
desperate battles, while it lasted, in which the
regiment was engaged during the war. The
honor of winning the battle and saving the ar-
my, in a general order, was given to the bri-
gade of which the Forty fourth was a part.
The next day the army reached Nashville, and
the Forty-fourth took part in the battle of



Nashville, December 15 and 16, and fol-
lowed the broken columns of the rebel army
to the Tennessee River. The army weut into
camp at Iluntsville, Ala., on the 5th of Janu-
ary, 1865, where the battered old Forty-fourth
enjoyed a few weeks' rest. Its fighting was
now about over. The confederacy fell soon
after, and with the tableau at Appomattox, the
curtain went down on the bloody drama. But
the war-worn veterans of the Forty-fourth were
not yet permitted to lay aside the trappings of
war. On the 15th of June, it started, under
orders, for New Orleans, arriving on the 22d,
and after remaining thereuntil the 16th of July,
it was ordered into Texas. It remained on
duty in Texas until September 25, 1865, when
it was ordered home, arriving at Springfield on
the 15th of October, and was paid off and
discharged. -

The Forty-ninth Infantry is the next body in
which we find Jefferson County represented.
Company K was from this county, and its
commissioned officers were as follows : Benja-
min F. Wood, Captain ; Joseph Laur, First
Lieutenant, and James G-. Gilbert, Second
Lieutenant. Capt. Wood resigned June 10,
1862 ; Lieut. Laur was promoted to Captain
in his stead, and mustered out with the regi-
ment September 9, 1865. Upon the pro-
motion of Lieut. Laur, Second Lieut. James
Lemmon became First Lieutenant. His
term expired January 9, 1865, and Second
Lieut. Jonathan Foster was promoted in his
stead. Lieut. Gilbert resigned March 5, 1862,
and James Lemmon was promoted to the
vacancy, and afterward to First Lieutenant.
Edward Barbee became Second Lieutenant
upon the promotion of Lieut. Lemmon ; he
resigned July 5, 1865, and Jonathan Foster
was promoted to fill the vacancy. Foster was
promoted to First Lieutenant, when John S.
Brooks became Second Lieutenant, and as such
was mustered out with the regiment.

The Forty-ninth Infantry, Col. William R.



254



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



Morrison commanding, was organized al Camp
Butler December 31, 1861, and mustered into
the United States service. On tiie 3d of Feb-
ruary, 1862, it was ordered to Cairo, 111., and
on the 8th it moved to Fort Henry, where it
was assigned to the Third Brigade of McCler-
nand's division. It moved to Fort Donelson
on the 11th, and participated in that battle,
losing fourteen men killed and thirty-seven
wounded. Among the wounded was Col. Mor-
rison, who commanded the brigade to which
the Fort3'-nintli belonged. The regiment re-
mained at Fort Donelson until the 4th of
March, when the army was put in motion, and
on the 6th the Forty-ninth, with other troops,
embarked for Pittsburg Landing. It bore an
active part in the battle of Shiloh April 6 and
7, and lost in the two engagements seventeen
killed and ninety-nine wounded. Among the
wounded in this engagement were Lieut. Col
Pease, commanding the regiment, and Maj.
Bishop. It was engaged in the siege of Cor-
inth, and on the 4th of June it moved to
Bethel, where it was assigned to the division of
Gen, John A. Logan, district of Jackson,
Maj. Gen. McClernand commanding. On the

th of March, 1863, the regiment moved from
Bethel to Grand Junction, and from thence to
Germantown, and on the 12th to White Station,
where it was assigned to the Fourth Brigade,
First Division, Sixteenth Armj- Corps, Col.
Sanford commanding the brigade. Gen. Smith
the division, and Gen. Hurlbut the corps. It
was ordered to Helena, Ark., August 21 to
join Gen. Steele's expedition against Little
Rock. September 2 it joined the main array
at Brownsville, Ark., and on the 10th partici-
pated in the capture of Little Rock. From
here it proceeded to Duval's Bluff, and from
thence it returned to Memphis, where it arrived
on the 21st of November.

On the 15th of January, 1864, about three-
fourths of the regiment re-enlisted, and were
mustered as veterans, and were assigned to the



Third Brigade, Col. Wolf commanding. Third
Division, Gen. Smith, and the Sixteenth Arm}-
Corps. It remained on active dut}', was with
Gen. Sherman ^on the Meridian campaign, was
assigned to the Red River expedition and
served in Louisiana until June 24, when it
was ordered home on veteran furlough. The
non-veterans remained in the field, commanded
b}' Capt. Logan, and participated in the battle
of Tupelo Julj' 14 and 15 while their comrades
were at home enjoying themselves. At the
expiration of their furlough, the veterans ren-
dezvoused at Centralia, and proceeded to Cairo,
and from thence to Memphis and Holly Springs,
where they joined the command. August 12,
they participated in the Oxford expedition, and
on the 30th of September embarked for Jeffer-
son Barracks, Mo., and proceeded to Franklin.
They drove the enemy from that place, and
with the main army went in pursuit of Gen.
Price, after which the Forty-ninth returned to
St. Louis on the 18th of November. From St.
Louis thej- were ordered to Nashville, Tenn,,
where they arrived December 1, and took part
in that bloody battle on the 15th and 16th, It
was ordered to Paducah, Ky., on the 24th of
December, where the non-veterans were mus-
tered out of the service, their term of enlist-
ment having expired. The veterans remained
on garrison duty at Paducah until September
9, 1865, when they were ordered to Camp But-
ler, 111., and on the 15th were paid off and dis-
charged.

The Sixtieth Infantry contained more Jeffer-
son County men, perhaps, than an}- other regi-
ment of the war. Its second Colonel, William
B. Anderson, is a native of the county, has al-
ways lived here, and is known to nearly every
man, woman and child ; the last Colonel of the
regiment, George W. Evans, is now a promi-
nent citizen of Mount Vernon ; the last Quar-
termaster, James H. Rogers, was also from the
county ; while Jefferson contributed to nearly
every company, and very largely to C, D and



HISTORY OF JEFFERSON COUNTY.



255



G, furnishing more than half the men in those
companies.

William B. Anderson, who, upon the death
of Col. Toler — the First Colonel of the Sixtieth
— succeeded to the command of the regiment,
was born in Mount Vernon April 2, 1830, and
is a son of Gov. Stinson H. and Candace
(Chickering) Anderson. He was educated in
the common schools of Jefferson County, and
at McKendree College, Lebanon, 111., and at
the age of twenty-one years began the study of



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