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that the Mexican Eve had two sons, Cain and Abel. (Monarch. Ind., lib. 6, cap. 31.) The ancient
interpreters of the Vatican and Tellerian Codices add the further tradition, of her bringing sin
and sorrow into the world by plucking the forbidden rose (Antiq. of Mexico, vol. vi., explan. of
PI. 7, 20) ; and Veytia remembers to have seen a Toltec or Aztec map, representing a garden with
a single tree in it, round which was coiled the serpent with a human face 1 (Hist. Antig., lib. i,
cap. I.) After this we may be prepared for Lord Kingsborough's deliberate conviction, that the
" Aztecs had a clear knowledge of the Old Testament, and, most probably of the New, though
somewhat corrupted by time and hieroglyphics I " — ^Antiq. of Mexico, vol. vi. p. 409.

Page 387 (•).— Ante, vol. i. p. 38.

Page 388 (1).— Veytia, Hist. Antig., lib. i, cap. 15.

Page 388 (2).— -Ibid., Ub. i, cap. 19. A sorry argument, even for a casuist. See, also, the
elaborate dissertation of Dr. Mier (apud Sahagun, lib. 3, Suplem.), which settles the question
entirely to the satisfaction of his reporter, Bustamente.

Page 388 ('). — See, among others, Lord Kingsborough's reading of the Borgian Codex, and
the interpreters of the Vatican (Antiq. of Mexico, vol. vi., explan. of PI. 3, 10, 41), equally well
skilled with his Lordship, — and Sir Hudibras, — in unravelhng mysteries :

" Whose primitive tradition reaches.
As far as Adam's first green breeches."

Page 388 (*). — Antiquit^s Mexicaines, exped. 3, PI. 36. The figures are surrounded by hiero-
glyphics of most arbitrary character, perhaps phonetic. (See also, Herrera, Hist. General, dec. 2,
Ub. 3, cap. I ; — Gomara, Cr6nica de la Nueva Espana, cap. 15, ap. Barcia, torn, ii.) Mr. Stephen
considers that the celebrated " Cozumel Cross," preserved at Merida, which claims the credit
of being the same originally worshipped by the natives of Cozumel, is, after all, nothing but a
cross that was erected by the Spaniards in one of their own temples in that island after the Con-
quest. This fact he regards as " completely invalidating the strongest proof offered at this day,
that the Cross was recognised by the Indians as a symbol of worship." (Travels in Yucatan,'
vol. ii. chap. 20.) But admitting the truth of this statement, that the Cozumel Cross is only a
Christian relic, which the ingenious traveller has made extremely probable, his inference is by no
means admissible. Nothing could be more natural than that the friars in Merida should endeavour
to give celebrity to their convent by making it the possessor of so remarkable a monument as the
very relic which proved, in their eyes that Christianity had been preached at some earlier date
among the natives. But the real proof of the existence of the Cross, as an object of worship va.
the New World, does not rest on such spurious monuments as these, but on the unequivocal testi-
mony of the Spanish discoverers themselves.

457 ■



Conquest of Mexico



Page 388 ('). — " They received it with extraordinary reverence, with humility and tears,
saying that they were eating the flesh of their God." — Veytia, Hist. Antig., lib. i, cap. iS. —
Also, Acosta, lib. 5, cap. 24.

Page 389 (1). — ^Ante, vol. i. p. 40. — Sahagun, Hist, de Nueva Espafia, lib. 6, cap. 37. That
the reader may see for himself, how like, yet how unUke, the Aztec rite was to the Christian, I
give the translation of Sahagun's account, at length. " When everything necessary for the baptism
had been made ready, all the relations of the child were assembled, and the midwife, who was
the person that performed the rite of baptism, was summoned. At early dawn, they met together
in the courtyard of the house. When the sun had risen, the midwife, taking the child in her arms,
called for a little earthen vessel of water, while those about her placed the ornaments which had
been prepared for the baptism in the midst of the court. To perform the rite of baptism, she
placed herself with her face towards the west, and immediately began to go through certain cere-
monies. . . . After this she sprinkled water on the head of the infant, saying, ' O, vay child ! take
and receive the water of the Lord of the world, which is our life, and is given for the increasing
and renewing of our body. It is to wash and to purify. I pray that these heavenly drops may
enter into your body, and dwell there ; that they may destroy and remove from you all the evil
and sin which was given to you before the beginning of the world ; since all of us are under its
power, being all the children of Chalchivitlycue ' (the goddess of water). She then washed the
body of the child with water, and spoke in this manner : ' Whencesoever thou comest, thou that
art hurtful to this child ; leave him and depart from him, for he now liveth anew, and is born
anew ; now is he purified and cleansed afresh, and our mother Chalchivitlycue again bringeth
him into the world.' Having thus prayed, the midwife took the child in both hands, and lifting
him towards heaven, said, ' O Lord, thou seest here thy creature, whom thou hast sent into this
world, this place of sorrow, suffering, and penitence. Grant him, O Lord, thy gifts, and thine
inspiration, for thou art the Great God, and with thee is the great goddess.' Torches of pine
were kept burning during the performance of these ceremonies. When these things were ended,
they gave the child the name of some one of his ancestors, in the hope that he might shed a new
lustre over it. The name was given by the same midwife, or priestess, who baptized him."

Page 389 (^). — ^Among Egyptian symbols, we meet with several specimens of the cross. One,
accoring to Justus Lipsius, signified " life to come." (See his treatise, De Cruce [Lutetiae
Parisiorura, 1598], lib. 3, cap. 8.1 We find another in ChampoUion's catalogue, which he inter-
prets, " support or Saviour." (Precis, tom. ii.. Tableau G^n., Nos. 277, 348.) Some curious
examples of the reverence paid to this sign by the ancients have been collected by M'CuUoh
(Researches, p. 330 et seq.), and by Humboldt, in his late work, Geographic du Nouveau Con-
tinent, tom. ii. p. 354 et seq.

Page 389 ('). — " Aforetime there was grain, which possessed the virtue of winning divine
favour for mankind," says Ovid. (Fastorum, lib. i., v. 337.) Count Carli has pointed out a
similar use of consecrated bread, and wine or water, in the Greek and Egyptian mysteries. (Lettres
Am^ric, tom. i, let. 27.) See, also, M'CuUoh, Researches, p. 240 et seq.

Page 389 (*). — Water for purification and other religious rites is frequently noticed by the
classical writers. Thus Euripides : " First will I cleanse him with purificatory ablutions. The
sea washes away all the evil of mortal men." — Iphig. in Taur., vv. 1192, 1194. The notes on this
place, in the admirable Variorum edition of Glasgow, 1821, contain references to several passages
of similar import in different authors.

Page 389 (').— The difficulty, of obtaining anything like a faithful report from the natives
is the subject of complaint from more than one writer, and explains the great care taken by Sahagun,
to compare their narratives with each other. — See Hist, de Nueva Espafia, Pr61ogo ; Ixtlilxochitl,
Hist. Chich., MS., Pr61. ;— Boturini, Idea, p. 1 16.

458



Notes

Page 389 («). — The parallel was so closely pressed by Torquemada, that he was compelled to
suppress the chapter containing it, on the publication of his book. — See the Proemio to the edition
of 1723, sec. 2.

Page 389 (') " The Devil," says Herrera, " chose to imitate, in everything, the departure of
the Israelites from Egypt, and their subsequent wanderings." (Hist. General, dec. 3, lib. 3,
cap. 10.) But all that has been done by monkish annalist and missionary, to establish the parallel
with the children of Israel, falls far short of Lord Kingsborough's learned labours, spread over
nearly two hundred foUo pages. (See Antiq. of Mexico, torn. vi. pp. 282-410.) Quantum inane I

Page 389 (8). — Interp. of Cod. Tel.-Rem., et Vat., Antiq., of Mexico, vol. vi.— Sahagun, Hist,
de Nueva Espana, lib. 3, Suplem. — Veytia, Hist. Antig. lib. i, cap. 16.

Page 389 ('). — This opinion finds favour with the best Spanish and Mexican writers, from the
Conquest downwards. Solis sees nothing improbable in the fact " that the malignant influence,
so frequently noticed in sacred history, shouM be found equally in profane." — Hist, de la Con-
quista, lib. 2, cap. 4.

Page 390 p^). — ^The bridal ceremony of the Hindoos, in particular, contains curious points of
analogy with the Mexican. (See Asiatic Researches, vol. vii. mem. 9.) The institution of a
numerous priesthood, with the practices of confession and penance, was familiar to the Tartar
people. (Maundeville, Voiage, chap. 23.) And monastic establishments were found in Thibet
and Japan, from the earliest ages. — ^Humboldt, Vues des Cordilleres, p. 179.

Page 390 (2). — " Doubtless," says the ingenious Carli, " the fashion of burning the corpse,
collecting the ashes in a vase, burying them under pyramidal mounds, with the immolation of
wives and servants at the funeral, all remind one of the customs of Egypt and Hindostan." —
Lettres Americ, tom. 2, let. 10.

Page 390 ('). — Marco Polo notices a civilised people in South-eastern China, and another in
Japan, who drank the blood and ate the flesh of their captives ; esteeming it the most savoury
food in the world, — " la piu saporita et migliore, che si possa truovar al mondo." (Viaggi, lib. 2,
cap. 75 ; lib. 3, 13, 14.) The Mongols, according to Sir John Maundeville, regarded the ears
" sowced in vynegre," as a particular dainty. — Voiage, chap. 23. ^

Page 390 (*). — Marco Polo, Viaggi, lib. 2, cap. 10. — Maundeville, Voiage, cap. 20, et alibi.
See also a striKng parallel between the Eastern Asiatics and Americans, in the Supplement to
Banking's " Historical Researches " ; a work embodying many curious details of Oriental history
and manners, in support of a whimsical theory.

Page 390 (»). — Morton, Crania Americana (Philadelphia, 1839), pp. 224-246. The industrious
author establishes this singular fact, by examples drawn from a great number of nations in North
and South America.

Page 390 (•). — Gomara, Crdnica de la Nueva Espana, cap. 202, ap. Barcia, tom. ii. — Clavigero,
Stor. del Messico, tom. i. pp. 94, 95. — M'CuUoh (Researches, p. 198), who cites the Asiatic Re-
searches. Dr. M'Culloh, in his single volume, has probably brought together a larger mass of
materials for the illustration of the aboriginal history of the continent, than any other writer in
the language. In the selection of his facts, he has shown much sagacity, as well as industry ; and,
if the formal and somewhat repulsive character of the style has been unfavourable to a popular
interest, the work must always have an interest for those who are engaged in the study of Indian
antiquities. His fanciful speculations on the subject of Mexican mythology may amuse those
whom they fail to convince.

Page 391 (1). — Ante, vol. i. p. 64 et seq.

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Conquest of Mexico



Page 391 (^). — This will be better shown by enumerating the zodiacal signs, used as the narnes
of the years by the Eastern Asiatics. Among the Mongols, these were — i, mouse ; 2, ox ;
3, leopard; 4, hare ; 5, crocodile ; 6, serpent ; 7, horse; 8, sheep ; 9, monkey; 10, hen; 11, dog;
12, hog. The Mantchou Tartars, Japanese, and Thibetians, have nearly the same terms, sub-
stituting, however, for No. 3, tiger ; 5, dragon ; 8, goat. In the Mexican signs, for the names of
the days, we also meet with hare, serpent, monkey, dog. Instead of the " leopard," " crocodile/'
and " hen," — neither of which animals were known in Mexico at the time of the Conquest, — >ye
find the ocelotl, the lizard, and the eagle. The lunar calendar of the Hindoos exhibits a corre-
spondence equally extraordinary. Seven of the terms agree with those of the Aztecs, namely,
serpent, cane, razor, path of the sun, do^s tail, house. (Humboldt, Vues des Cordilleres, p._ 152.)
These terms, it will be observed, are still more arbitrarily selected, not being confined to animals ;
as, indeed, the hieroglyphics of the Aztec calendar were derived indifferently from them, and other
objects, like the signs of our zodiac. These scientific analogies are set in the strongest light by M.
de Humboldt, and occupy a large, and, to the philosophical inquirer, the most interesting, portion
of his great work. (Vues des Cordilleres, pp. 125-194.) He has not embraced in his tables,
however, the Mongol calendar, which affords even a closer approximation to the Mexican, than
that of the other Tartar races. — Conf. Ranking, Researches, pp. 370, 371, note.

Page 391 ('). — There is some inaccuracy in Humboldt's definition of the ocelotl, as " the tiger,"
" the jaguar." (Ibid., p. 159.) It is smaller than the jaguar though quite as ferocious, and is
as graceful and beautiful as the leopard, which it more nearly resembles. It is a native of New
Spain, where the tiger is not known. (See Buffon, Histoire Naturelle [Paris An. 8], torn, ii.,
vox, Ocelotl.) The adoption of this latter name, therefore, in the Aztec calendar, leads to an
inference somewhat exaggerated.

Page 391 (*). — Both the Tartars and the Aztecs indicated the year by its sign ; as the " year
of the hare," or " rabbit," etc. The Asiatic signs, likewise far from being limited to the years
and months, presided, also, over days and even hours. (Humboldt, Vues des Cordilleres, p. 165.)
The Mexicans had also astrological symbols appropriated to the hours. — Gama, Descripcion,
Parte 2, p. 117.

Page 391 (^). — ^Ante, vol. i. p. 69.

Page 391 (°). — Achilles Tatius notices a custom of the Egyptians, — who, as the sun descended
towards Capricorn, put on mourning ; but, as the days lengthened, their fears subsided, they
robed themselves in white, and, crowned with flowers, gave themselves up to jubilee, like the
Aztecs. This account, transcribed by Carli's French translator, and by M. de Humboldt, is
more fully criticised by M. Jomard in the Vues des Cordilleres, p. 309 et seq.

Page 391 ('). — Jefferson (Notes on Virginia [London 1787], p. 164), confirmed by Humboldt
(Essai Politique, tom. i. p. 353). Mr. Gallatin comes to a different conclusion. (Transactions
of American Antiquarian Society [Cambridge, 1836], vol. ii. p. 161.) The great number of
American dialects and languages is well explained by the unsocial nature of a hunter's life, requiring
the country to be parcelled out into small and separate territories for the means of subsistence.

Page 392 ('). — Philologists have, indeed, detected two curious exceptions, in the Congo and
primitive Basque ; from which, however, the Indian languages differ in many essential points. —
See Duponceau's Report, ap. Transactions of the Lit. and Hist. Committee of the Am. Phil.
Society, vol. i.

Page 392 {f). — Vater (Mithridates, theil iii. abtheil 3, p. 70), who fixes on the Rio Gila and
the Isthmus of Darien, as the boundaries, within which traces of the Mexican language were to
be discerned. Clavigero estimates the number of dialects at thirty-five. I have used the more
guarded statement of M. de Humboldt, who adds, that fourteen of these languages have been
digested into dictionaries and grammars. — Essai Politique, tom. i. p. 352.

460



Notes

Page 392 p). — No one has done so much towards establishing this important fact, as that
estimable scholar, Mr. Duponceau. And the frankness with which he has admitted the exception
that disturbed his favourite hypothesis, shows that he is far more wedded to science than to system.
See an interesting account of it, in his prize essay before the Institute. — Mdmoire sur le Systeme
Grammatical des Langues de quelques Nations Indiennes de I'Amerique. (Paris, 1838.)

Page 392 (*). — The Mexican language, in particular, is most flexible ; admitting of combina-
tions so easily, that the most simple ideas are often buried under a load of accessories. The forms
of expression, though ' picturesque, were thus made exceedingly cumbrous. A "priest," for
example, was called notlazomabuizteopixcatatzin, meaning " venerable minister of God, that I
love as my father." A still more comprehensive word is amatlacuilolitquitcatlaxilahuitli, signify-
ing " the reward given to a messenger who bears a hieroglyphical map conveying intelligence."

Page 392 («). — See, in particular, for the latter view of the subject, the arguments of Mr.
Gallatin, in his acute and masterly disquisition (on the Indian tribes ; a disquisition) that throws
more light on the intricate topics of which it treats, than whole volumes that have preceded it. —
Transactions of the American Antiquarian Society, vol. ii., Introd., sec. 6.

Page 392 ("). — This comparative anatomy of the languages of the two hemispheres, begun by
Barton (Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America [Philadelphia, 1797]), has been extended by
Vater (Mithridates, theil iii. abtheil i, p. 348 et seq.). A selection of the most striking analogies
may be found, also, in Malte-Brun, book 75, table.

Page 392 ('). — Oihomi from otho, " stationary," and mi, " nothing." (Najera, Dissert., ut
infra.) The etymology intimates the condition of this rude nation of warriors, who, imperfectly
reduced by the Aztec arms, roamed over the high lands north of the Valley of Mexico.

Page 392 ('). — See Najera's Dissertatio De Lingua Othomitorum, ap. Transactions of the Ameri-
can Philosophical Society, vol. 5, New Series. The author, a learned Mexican, has given a most
satisfactory analysis of this remarkable language, which stands alone among the idioms of the New
World, as the Basque — the solitary wreck, perhaps, of a primitive age — exists among those of the
Old.

Page 393 Q). — Barton, p. 92. — Heckewelder, chap, i., ap. Transactions of the Hist, and Lit.
Committee of the Am. Phil. Soc, vol i. The various traditions have been assembled by M.
Warden, in the Antiquit^s Mexicaines, part 2, p. 185 et seq.

Page 393 (*). — The recent work of Mr. Delafield (Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiquities
of America [Cincinnati, 1839]), has an engraving of one of these maps, said to have been obtained
by Mr. Bullock, from Boturini's collection. Two such are specified on page 10. of that antiquary's
Catalogue. This map has all the appearance of a genuine Aztec painting, of the rudest character.
We may recognise, indeed, the symbols of some dates and places, with others denoting the aspect
of the country, whether fertile or barren, a state of war or peace, etc. But it is altogether too
vague, and we know too little of the allusions, to gather any knowledge from it of the course of the
Aztec migration. Gemelli Carreri's celebrated chart contains the names_ of many places on the
route, interpreted, perhaps, by Siguenza himself, to whom it belonged (Giro del Mondo, torn. vi.
p. 56) ; and Clavigero has endeavoured to ascertain the various localities with some precision.
(Stor. del Messico, tom. i. p. 160 et seq.) But, as they are all within the boundaries of New Spain,
and, indeed, south of the Rio Gila, they throw little light, of course, on the vexed question of the
primitive abodes of the Aztecs.

Page 393 ('). — This may be fairly inferred from the agreement of the traditionary interpreta-
tions of the maps of the various people of Anahuac, according to Veytia ; who, however, admits
that it is " next to impossible," with the lights of the present day, to determine the precise route
taken by the Mexicans. (Hist. Antig., tom. i. cap. 2.) Lorenzana is not so modest. "The

461



Conquest of Mexico



Mexicans traditionally came from the North," says he, " and know their ancestry very well."
(Hist, de Nueva Espana, p. 8i, nota.) There are some antiquaries who see best in the dark.

Page 393 (*). — Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich., MS., cap. 2, et seq. — Idem, Relaciones, MS. —
Veytia, Hist. Antig., ubi supra. — ^Torquemada, Monarch. Ind., torn. i. lib. i.

Page 393 (=). — In the province of Sonora, especially along the Californian Gulf. The Cora
language, above all, of which a regular grammar has been pubUshed, and which is spoken in New
Biscay, about 30° north, so much resembles the Mexican, that Vater refers them both to a common
stock. — Mithridates, theil iii. abtheil 3, p. 143.

Page 393 (•). — On the southern bank of this river are ruins of large dimensions, described by
the missionary Pedro Font, on his visit there, in 1775. (Antiq. of Mexico, vol. vi. p. 538.) At a
place of the same name, Casas Grandes, about 33° north, and, like the former, a supposed station
of the Aztecs, still more extensive remains are to be found ; large enough, indeed, according
to a late traveller, Lieut. Hardy, for a population of 20,000 or 30,000 souls. The country for
leagues is covered with these remains as well as with utensils of earthenware, obsidian, and other
relics. A drawing, which the author has given of a painted jar or vase, may remind one of the
Etruscan. " There were, also, good specimens of earthen images in the Egyptian style," he
observes, " which are, to me, at least, so perfectly uninteresting, that I was at no pains to procure
any of them." (Travels in the Interior of Mexico [London, 1829], pp. 464-466.) The Lieu-
tenant was neither a Boturini nor a Belzoni.

Page 393 ('). — Vater has examined the languages of three of these nations, between 50° and 60°
north, and collated their vocabularies with the Mexican, showing the probability of a common
origin of many of the words in each. — Mithridates, theil iii. abtheil 3, p. 212.

Page 393 ('). — The Mexicans are noticed by M. de Humboldt, as distinguished from the other
aborigines, whom he had seen, by the quantity both of beard and moustaches. (Essai Politique,
tom. i. p. 361.) The modern Mexican, however, broken in spirit and fortunes, bears as Uttle
resemblance, probably, in physical, as in moral characteristics, to his ancestors, the fierce and inde-
pendent Aztecs.

Page 393 ('). — Prichard, Physical History, vol. i. pp. 167-169, 182 et seq. — Morton, Crania
Americana, p. 66. — M'CuUoch, Researches, p. 18. — Lawrence, Lectures, pp. 317, 565.

Page 393 ("). — ^Thus we find, amidst the generally prevalent copper or cinnamon tint, nearly
all gradations of colour, from the European white, to a black, almost African ; while the com-
plexion capriciously varies among different tribes, in the neighbourhood of each other. See
examples in Humboldt (Essai Politique, tom. i. pp. 358, 359), also Prichard (Physical History,
vol ii. pp. 452, 522 et alibi), a writer, whose various research and dispassionate judgment have made
his work a text-book in this department of science.

Page 394 (1). — :Such is the conclusion of Dr. Warren, whose excellent collection has afforded
him ample means for study and comparison. (See his Remarks before the British Association
for the Advancement of Science, ap. London Athenaeum, Oct., 1837.) In the specimens collected
by Dr. Morton, however, the barbarous tribes would seem to have a somewhat larger facial angle,
and a greater quantity of brain, than the semi-civilised. — Crania Americana, p. 259.

Page 394 ("). — " One cannot refuse to admit that the human species offers no examples of
racial types more closely allied than those of the Americans, Mongols, Manchus and Malays." —
Humboldt, Essai Politique, tom. i. p. 367. — Also, Prichard, Physical History, vol. i. pp. 184-186;
vol. ii. pp. 365-367 j — Lawrence, Lectures, p. 365.

Page 394 ('). — Dr. Morton's splendid work on American crania has gone far to supply the
requisite information. Out of about one hundred and fifty specimens of skuUs, of which he has

462



Notes

ascertained the dimensions with admirable precision, one-third belong to the semi-civilised races ;
and of them thirteen are Mexican. The number of these last is too small to found any general
conclusions upon, considering the great diversity found in individuals of the same nation, not to
say kindred. — Blumenbach's observations on American skulls were chiefly made, according to
Prichard (Physical History, vol. i. pp. 183, 184), from specimens of the Carib tribes, as unfavourable,
perhaps, as any on the continent.

Page 394 (*). — ^Yet these specimens are not easy to be obtained. With uncommon advantages
for procuring these myself in Mexico, I have not succeeded in obtaining any specimen of the
genuine Aztec skull. The difficulty of this may be readily comprehended by any one who con-
siders the length of time that has elapsed since the Conquest, and that the burial-places of the



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