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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE



ttlontesuma BOition

THE WORKS OF WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT
TWENTY-TWO VOLUMES

VOL. IV



The Montezuma Edition of William H. Prescott's
Works is limited to one thousand copies, of which
this is



flDonte.5uma EMtton



HISTORY OF THE

Conquest of Mexico



WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT



BY



EDITED BY

WILFRED HAROLD MUNRO

PROFXS8OR OF IVIOPEAN HISTORY IN BROWN I'NIVCRSITT



Vittricea aquilas alium laturua in orbem.

LCCAN. Pharnlia, lib. ., *.



VOL IV



PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON
J. B. LIPP1NCOTT COMPANY

eai-aoo aaoiaa THOUOSH








GCATEMOZIU BROUGHT BEFORE CORTES
Page 102



flDoutc.nima Edition



HISTORY OF THE

Conquest of Mexico



* U> . 14 .



BY



WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT



EDITED BY

WILFRED HAROLD MUNRO

PROFESSOR OF EUROPEAN HISTORY IN BROWN UNIVERSITY



Victrices aquilas alium laturus in orbem.

LUCAN. Pharsalia, lib. v., v. 288



VOL. IV



PHILADELPHIA AND LONDON
J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



T~73

V.f



Copyright, 1843, by WILLIAM H. PRESCOTT

Copyright, 1871, by WILLIAM G. PRESCOTT

Copyright, 1873, by J. B. LIPPINCOTT & Co.

Copyright, 1904. by J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



Electrotyped and Printed by
J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, U. S. A.



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV



BOOK VI

SIEGE AND SURRENDER OF MEXICO
(CONTINUED)

CHAPTER V

INDIAN FLOTILLA DEFEATED OCCUPATION OF THE CAUSEWAYS
DESPERATE ASSAULTS FIEING ON THE PALACES SPIRIT OF THE
BESIEGED BARRACKS FOR THE TROOPS

PAGE

Sandoval marches on Iztapalapan 3

Cortes takes Command of the Fleet 3

Indian Flotilla defeated 5

Cortes occupies Xoloc 6

Sandoval advances to Cojohuacan 7

Skirmishes on the Causeway 8

Blockade completed 9

Simultaneous Assaults on Mexico 9

Ramparts raised by the Aztecs 10

Brigantines enfilade the Causeway 10

Spaniards enter the City 12

Allies demolish the Buildings 12

Fierce Battles in the City 13

Spaniards reach the Square 15

Storm the Pyramid 15

Hurl the Priests headlong 15

The Aztecs rally 16

Spaniards give Way 16

Cavalry to the Rescue 17

Retreat to their Quarters 17

Ixtlilxochitl in the Camp 19

A second Assault 20

Spaniards penetrate the City .20

Fire the Palace of Axayacatl 21

Royal Aviary in Flames 22

v



vi CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV



PAGE



Rage of the Mexicans 23

Their Desperation 24

Sufferings of the Spaniards 26

Operations of Guatemozin 27

His Vigilance 27

Ambuscade among the Reeds . . 28

Resources of the Indian Emperor 29

Accession of Allies to the Spaniards 30

Barracks for the Troops 31

Hard Fare of the Besiegers ........ 31

Spirit of the Aztecs 33



CHAPTER VI

GENERAL ASSAULT ON THE CITY DEFEAT OF THE SPANIARDS
THEIR DISASTROUS CONDITION SACRIFICE OF THE CAPTIVES
DEFECTION OF THE ALLIES CONSTANCY OF THE TROOPS

Views of the Spaniards 35

Council of War 36

General Assault on the City . .37

Cortes rebukes Alvarado 38

The Enemy give Way 39

Their cunning Stratagem 40

Horn of Guatemozin sounds 41

Aztecs turn upon their Foe 41

Terrible Rout of the Spaniards 42

Imminent Danger of Cortes 43

Self-devotion of his Followers 44

Sharp Struggle on the Causeway .45

His Division retreats . 46

Sandoval and Alvarado . . 46

Their Troops driven from the City 47

Sandoval visits the General 49

His Interview with him 50

Great Drum beat in the Temple 51

Sacrifice of the Captives 52

Sensations of the Spaniards 53

Rejoicings of the Aztecs .'. 54

Prophecy of the Priests . ' 55

Defection of the Allies 56

Gloomy Condition of the Spaniards 56

Their Constancy 58

Heroism of their Women ... .58



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV vii

CHAPTER VII

SUCCESSES OF THE SPANIARDS FRUITLESS OFFERS TO GUATEMOZIN
BUILDINGS RAZED TO THE GROUND TERRIBLE FAMINE THE
TROOPS GAIN THE MARKET-PLACE BATTERING ENGINE

PAGE

Allies return to the Camp 60

Accession of Confederates 62

Plan of the Campaign 63

The Breaches filled 65

Famine in the City 66

Fruitless Offers to Guatemozin 67

Council of the Aztecs 67

Result of their Deliberations 69

Buildings razed to the Ground 69

Single Combats 71

Guatemozin's Palace in Flames 72

Sufferings of the Besieged 73

Neglect of their Dead 73

Their unconquerable Spirit 75

Conflagration of the Teocalli 76

Success of Alvarado 77

Spaniards in the Market-place 79

Corts surveys the City . . .80

Its Desolation . .81

Battering Engine v . . .82

Its Failure 83

CHAPTER VIII

DREADFUL SUFFERINGS OF THE BESIEGED SPIRIT OF GUATEMOZIN
MURDEROUS ASSAULTS CAPTURE OF GUATEMOZIN EVACUA-
TION OF THE CITY TERMINATION OF THE SIEGE REFLECTIONS

Dreadful Famine in the City 85

Cannibalism 86

The Corpses fill the Streets 87

Pestilence sweeps off Multitudes ....... 88

Alarming Prodigies 88

Spirit of Guatemozin 89

Cortes requests an Interview with him 90

Guatemozin consents 90

He avoids a Parley 91

Murderous Assault 93

Appalling Scene of Carnage 93

Preparations for the final Attack . . , . . . .96



viii CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV

PAGE

Cortes urges an Interview 97

The Signal given 98

Aztecs attempt to escape 99

Capture of Guatemozin 100

Cessation of Hostilities 101

Person of Guatemozin . 102

Brought before Cort6s 102

His Wife, Montezuma's Daughter 104

Furious Thunder-storm 106

Mexicans abandon their City . .106

Number of those who perished . . . . . . 108

Amount of the Spoil .109

Cortes dismisses his Allies 109

Rejoicings of the Spaniards 110

Solemn Thanksgiving Ill

Reflections Ill

Aztec Institutions .112

Their moral Influence 114

Cruelty ascribed to the Spaniards 114

The Conquest as a military Achievement 117

Notice of the Historian Soils 119

His Life and Writings 121

Sahagun's Twelfth Book 125



BOOK VII

CONCLUSION SUBSEQUENT CAREER OF CORTES

CHAPTER I

TORTURE OF GUATEMOZIN SUBMISSION OF THE COUNTRY RE-
BUILDING OF THE CAPITAL MISSION TO CASTILE COMPLAINTS
AGAINST CORTES HE is CONFIRMED IN HIS AUTHORITY

Small Amount of Treasure

Disappointment of the Soldiers

Torture of Guatemozin

His Fortitude unshaken

Submission of the Country

The Southern Ocean reached

Rebuilding of the Capital



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV ix

PAGE

Aztec Prophecy accomplished 136

Mission to Castile 136

Envoys captured by the French 138

Charges against Cortes 139

Tapia sent to New Spain 140

Insurrection of the Natives 141

Quelled by Sandoval 141

Fonseca's Hostility to Cortes 143

His Cause referred to a select Tribunal 143

Accusations against Cortes 144

Defence by his Friends 144

Acts of Cortes ratified 146

He is confirmed in the supreme Authority 147

He triumphs over Fonseca 147

Mortification of Velasquez 148

His Death and Character . . 149



CHAPTER II

MODERN MEXICO SETTLEMENT OF THE COUNTRY CONDITION OF
THE NATIVES CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES CULTIVATION OF THE
SOIL VOYAGES AND EXPEDITIONS

Mexico rebuilt . . . 151

Edifices in the City . 152

Its Fortress . . . -. . .153

Its Population 154

Settlement of the Country - . .155

Encouragements to Marriage 156

The Wife of Cortes arrives in Mexico 158

Her Death . . . . .159

System of Repartimientos 159

Reward of the Tlascalans 161

Treatment of the Natives . . 162

Franciscan Missionaries 163

Their Reception by Cortes 164

Progress of Conversion 166

Settlements of the Conquerors . . . ^ . .- . 167

Cultivation of the Soil 168

Fleet burnt at Zacatula v * . 169

Voyages to discover a Strait . ; . , . *..> * , . 170

Expedition of Alvarado 172

Results of the Enterprises of Cort6s 173



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV



CHAPTER III

DEFECTION OF OLID DEEADFUL MARCH TO HONDURAS EXECU-
TION OF GUATEMOZIN Dof?A MARINA ARRIVAL AT HONDURAS

PAGE

Defection of Olid 175

Cortes prepares to visit Honduras 176

The General's Retinue 177

Obstacles on the March 179

Passes near Palenque 180

Lost in the Mazes of the Forests 181

Builds a stupendous Bridge 182

Horses sink in the Marshes 182

Reports of a Conspiracy 183

Guatemozin arrested 184

His Execution 185

His Character 185

Feelings of the Army 187

Cause of the Execution 187

Cortes' Remorse 188

Prosecution of the March 189

Lake of Peten 189

Dofia Marina 190

Her Meeting with her Mother 190

She marries a Castilian Knight 191

Her Son Don Martin 192

Missionaries in the Isles of Peten 192

Passage of " the Mountain of Flints " 193

Army arrives at Honduras 194

Famine in the Colony 195

Cortds reaches Truxillo 196

Prepares to reduce Nicaragua 196

His romantic Daring 197

Tidings from Mexico 198

CHAPTER IV

DISTURBANCES IN MEXICO RETURN OF CORTES DISTRUST OF THE
COURT CORTES RETURNS TO SPAIN DEATH OF SANDOVAL
BRILLIANT RECEPTION OF COHTES HONOHS CONFERRED ON HIM

Misrule in Mexico 199

Cortds attempts to return 200

Driven back by the Tempest 200

His Despondency 201

Embarks once more for Mexico . . 201



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV xi

PAGE

Lands near San Juan de Ulua ....... 201

Progress to the Capital 202

Cortes re-enters Mexico in State 202

Distrust of the Crown 204

Ponce de Leon sent as Commissioner 205

He dies on his Arrival 205

Appoints Estrada his Successor 207

Affronts to Cortes 208

He leaves the City 209

The Commission of the Royal Audience 210

Cortes determines to return to Spain 210

News of his Father's Death 212

Preparations for Departure . . 212

He lands at Palos 213

His Meeting with Pizarro 213

Death of Sandoval 215

His Person and Character 215

Brilliant Reception of Cortes 217

Sensation caused by his Presence 217

Admitted to an Audience by the Emperor 218

Charles V. visits him when ill 219

He is made Marquis of the Valley . ... . . 220

Grants of Lands and Vassals 220

Refused the Government of Mexico . . -.-. . 222
Reinstated in his military Command . '. . . . . 222

Cortds' second Marriage . . 223

Splendid Presents to his Bride 223

His Residence at Court . . . .'._. . 224

CHAPTER V

CORTES REVISITS MEXICO RETIRES TO HIS ESTATES His VOYAGES
OF DISCOVERY FINAL RETURN TO CASTILE COLD RECEPTION
DEATH OF CORTES His CHARACTER

Cortes embarks for Mexico 225

Stops at Hispaniola 225

Proceedings of the Audience 226

Cortes lands at Villa Rica 228

Reception in Mexico 229

Retires to his Estates 229

His Improvement of them 231

His Voyages of Discovery 232

He embarks for California . . . ' 233

Disastrous Expedition 233

Arrival of a Viceroy . 234

Policy of the Crown 234



xii CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV

PAGE

Maritime Enterprises of Cortes 236

His Disgust with Mendoza 237

His final Return to Castile 238

He joins the Expedition to Algiers 239

His cold Reception by Charles V 240

Cortes' last Letter to the Emperor 241

Taken ill at Seville 242

His Will 242

Scruples of Conscience as to Slavery 243

Views entertained on this Topic 244

He moves to Castilleja 245

Death of Cort6s . . . 246

His funeral Obsequies 246

Fate of his Remains 248

Posterity of Cortes 249

His Character ^ 251

His Knight-errantry 251

His military Genius 253

Power over his Soldiers 254

Character as a Conqueror 256

His enlightened Views 256

His private Life 258

His Bigotry .259

His Manners and Habits 261



APPENDIX

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS

Aztec Mother's Advice to her Daughter 267

Translations of NezahualcoyotFs Poem 272

Palace of Tezcotzinco 279

Punishment of the guilty Tezcucan Queen 281

Velasquez's Instructions to Cortes 284

Extract from Las Casas' History 290

Deposition of Puerto Carrero 291

Extract from the Letter of Vera Cruz 296

Extract from Camargo's Tlascala 299

Extract from Oviedo's History 302

Dialogue of Oviedo with Cano 307

Privilege of Dona Isabel de Montezuma 318

Military Ordinances of Cortes 324

Extracts from the Fifth Letter of Cortes 331

Last Letter of Cortes 337

Account of his funeral Obsequies ....... 342



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



PAGE

GTJATEMOZIN BROUGHT BEFORE CORTES Frontispiece

From a painting especially made for this edition by L. Kowalsky.

THE STANDARD OF CORTES 46

From a photograph of the original, especially made for this edi-
tion, in the National Museum at Mexico.

VIEW OF THE GREAT SQUARE IN MEXICO 76

After the drawing by Raphael Ximeno, engraved by Bouquet.

THE TORTURE OF GUATEMOZIN 130

After the painting in the Academy of Fine Arts at Mexico.

FAC-SIMILE OF THE SIGNATURE OF CORTES 220



PORTRAIT OF HERNANDO CORTES
After a painting at Madrid.



xiii
Mexico IV



BOOK VI

SIEGE AND SURRENDER OF MEXICO

(CONTINUED)



CONQUEST OF MEXICO



CHAPTER V

INDIAN FLOTILLA DEFEATED OCCUPATION OF THE
CAUSEWAYS DESPERATE ASSAULTS FIRING OF
THE PALACES SPIRIT OF THE BESIEGED BAR-
RACKS FOR THE TROOPS

1521

NO sooner had Cortes received intelligence
that his two officers had established them-
selves in their respective posts, than he ordered
Sandoval to march on Iztapalapan. The cava-
lier's route led him through a country for the most
part friendly; and at Chalco his little body of
Spaniards was swelled by the formidable muster
of Indian levies who awaited there his approach.
After this junction, he continued his march with-
out opposition till he arrived before the hostile city,
under whose walls he found a large force drawn up
to receive him. A battle followed, and the natives,
after maintaining their ground sturdily for some
time, were compelled to give way, and to seek
refuge either on the water, or in that part of the
town which hung over it. The remainder was
speedily occupied by the Spaniards.



4 CONQUEST OF MEXICO

Meanwhile, Cortes had set sail with his flotilla,
intending to support his lieutenant's attack by wa-
ter. On drawing near the southern shore of the
lake, he passed under the shadow of an insulated
peak, since named from him the "Rock of the Mar-
quis." It was held by a body of Indians, who
saluted the fleet, as it passed, with showers of stones
and arrows. Cortes, resolving to punish their au-
dacity, and to clear the lake of his troublesome en-
emy, instantly landed with a hundred and fifty of
his followers. He placed himself at their head,
scaled the steep ascent, in the face of a driving
storm of missiles, and, reaching the summit, put
the garrison to the sword. There was a number of
women and children, also, gathered in the place,
whom he spared. 1

On the top of the eminence was a blazing beacon,
serving to notify to the inhabitants of the capital
when the Spanish fleet weighed anchor. Before
Cortes had regained his brigantine, the canoes and
piraguas of the enemy had left the harbors of
Mexico, and were seen darkening the lake for
many a rood. There were several hundred of them,
all crowded with warriors, and advancing rapidly
by means of their oars over the calm bosom of the
waters. 2

1 " It was a beautiful victory," exclaims the Conqueror. " E en-
trdmoslos de tal manera, que ninguno de ellos se escap6, excepto las
Mugeres, y Nifios; y en este combate me hiridron veinte y cinco Es-
panoles, pero fu6 muy hermosa Victoria." Rel. Terc., ap. Lorenzana,
p. 241.

2 About five hundred boats, according to the general's own esti-
mate (Ibid., loc. cit.) ; but more than four thousand, according to
Bernal Diaz (Hist, de la Conquista, cap. 150) ; who, however, was not
present.



1521] INDIAN FLOTILLA DEFEATED 5

Cortes, who regarded his fleet, to use his own
language, as " the key of the war," felt the impor-
tance of striking a decisive blow in the first en-
counter with the enemy. 3 It was with chagrin,
therefore, that he found his sails rendered useless
by the want of wind. He calmly awaited the ap-
proach of the Indian squadron, which, however,
lay on their oars at something more than musket-
shot distance, as if hesitating to encounter these
leviathans of their waters. At this moment, a light
air from land rippled the surface of the lake; it
gradually freshened into a breeze, and Cortes, tak-
ing advantage of the friendly succor, which he may
be excused, under all the circumstances, for regard-
ing as especially sent him by Heaven, extended his
line of battle, and bore down, under full press of
canvas, on the enemy. 4

The latter no sooner encountered the bows of
their formidable opponents than they were over-
turned and sent to the bottom by the shock, or so
much damaged that they speedily filled and sank.
The water was covered with the wreck of broken
canoes, and with the bodies of men struggling for
life in the waves and vainly imploring their com-
panions to take them on board their over-crowded
vessels. The Spanish fleet, as it dashed through
the mob of boats, sent off its volleys to the right

8 " Y como yo deseaba mucho, que el primer reencuentro, que con
ellos obiessemos, fuesse de mucha victoria; y se hiciesse de manera,
que ellos cobrassen mucho temor de los bergantines, porque la Have
de toda la Guerra estaba en ellos." Rel. Terc., ap. Lorenzana, pp.
241, 242.

4 " Plugo d. nuestro Senor, que estdndonos mirando los unos & los
otros, vino un viento de la Tierra muy favorable para embestir con
ellos." Ibid., p. 242.



6 CONQUEST OF MEXICO

and left with a terrible effect, completing the dis-
comfiture of the Aztecs. The latter made no at-
tempt at resistance, scarcely venturing a single
flight of arrows, but strove with all their strength
to regain the port from which they had so lately
issued. They were no match in the chase, any more
than in the fight, for their terrible antagonist, who,
borne on the wings of the wind, careered to and
fro at his pleasure, dealing death widely around
him, and making the shores ring with the thunders
of his ordnance. A few only of the Indian flotilla
succeeded in recovering the port, and, gliding up
the canals, found a shelter in the bosom of the city,
where the heavier burden of the brigantines made
it impossible for them to follow. This victory,
more complete than even the sanguine temper of
Cortes had prognosticated, proved the superiority
of the Spaniards, and left them, henceforth, undis-
puted masters of the Aztec sea. 5

It was nearly dusk when the squadron, coasting
along the great southern causeway, anchored off
the point of junction, called Xoloc, where the
branch from Cojohuacan meets the principal dike.
The avenue widened at this point, so as to afford

5 Rel. Terc., ap. Lorenzana, loc. cit. Oviedo, Hist, de las Ind., MS.,
lib. 33, cap. 48. Sahagun, Hist, de Nueva-Espana, MS., lib 12, cap.
32. I may be excused for again quoting a few verses from a beauti-
ful description in "Madoc," and one as pertinent as beautiful:

" Their thousand boats, and the ten thousand oars.
From whose broad bowls the waters fall and flash,
And twice ten thousand feathered helms, and shields.
Glittering with gold and scarlet plumery.
Onward they come with song and swelling horn;

On the other side

Advance the British barks; the freshening breeze
Fills the broad sail; around the rushing keel
The waters sing, while proudly they sail on,
Lords of the water."

MADOC, Part 2, canto 25.



1521] OCCUPATION OF THE CAUSEWAYS 7

room for two towers, or turreted temples, built of
stone, and surrounded by walls of the same mate-
rial, which presented altogether a position of some
strength, and, at the present moment, was garri-
soned by a body of Aztecs. They were not nu-
merous, and Cortes, landing with his soldiers, suc-
ceeded without much difficulty in dislodging the
enemy and in getting possession of the works.

It seems to have been originally the general's de-
sign to take up his own quarters with Olid at Co-
johuacan. But, if so, he now changed his purpose,
and wisely fixed on this spot as the best position for
his encampment. It was but half a league distant
from the capital, and, while it commanded its great
southern avenue, had a direct communication with
the garrison at Cojohuacan, through which he
might receive supplies from the surrounding coun-
try. Here, then, he determined to establish his
headquarters. He at once caused his heavy iron
cannon to be transferred from the brigantines to
the causeway, and sent orders to Olid to join him
with half his force, while Sandoval was instructed
to abandon his present quarters and advance to Co-
johuacan, whence he was to detach fifty picked
men of his infantry to the camp of Cortes. Hav-
ing made these arrangements, the general busily
occupied himself with strengthening the works at
Xoloc and putting them in the best posture of de-
fence.

During the first five or six days after their en-
campment the Spaniards experienced much an-
noyance from the enemy, who too late endeavored
to prevent their taking up a position so near the



8 CONQUEST OF MEXICO

capital, and which, had they known much of the
science of war, they would have taken better care
themselves to secure. Contrary to their usual prac-
tice, the Indians made their attacks by night as
well as by day. The water swarmed with canoes,
which hovered at a distance in terror of the brigan-
tines, but still approached near enough, especially
under cover of the darkness, to send showers of
arrows into the Christian camp, that fell so thick as
to hide the surface of the ground and impede the
movements of the soldiers. Others ran along the
western side of the causeway, unprotected as it was
by the Spanish fleet, and plied their archery with
such galling effect that the Spaniards were forced
to make a temporary breach in the dike, wide
enough to admit two of their own smaller vessels,
which, passing through, soon obtained as entire
command of the interior basin as they before had
of the outer. Still, the bold barbarians, advancing
along the causeway, marched up within bow-shot
of the Christian ramparts, sending forth such yells
and discordant battle-cries that it seemed, in the
words of Cortes, "as if heaven and earth were
coming together." But they were severely pun-
ished for their temerity, as the batteries, which
commanded the approaches to the camp, opened a
desolating fire, that scattered the assailants and
drove them back in confusion to their own quar-
ters. 6

* " Y era tanta la multitud," says Corte"s, " que por el Agua, y por
la Tierra no viamos sino Gente, y daban tantas gritas, y alaridos,
que parecia que se hundia el Mundo." Rel. Terc., p. 245. Oviedo,
Hist, de las Ind., MS., lib. 33, cap. 23. Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich.,
MS., cap. 95. Sahagun, Hist, de Nueva-Espana, MS., lib. 12, cap. 32.



1521] DESPERATE ASSAULTS 9

The two principal avenues to Mexico, those on
the south and the west, were now occupied by the
Christians. There still remained a third, the great
dike of Tepejacac, on the north, which, indeed,
taking up the principal street, that passed in a di-
rect line through the heart of the city, might be re-
garded as a continuation of the dike of Iztapala-
pan. By this northern route a means of escape was
still left open to the besieged, and they availed
themselves of it, at present, to maintain their com-
munications with the country and to supply them-
selves with provisions. Alvarado, who observed
this from his station at Tacuba, advised his com-
mander of it, and the latter instructed Sandoval to
take up his position on the causeway. That officer,
though suffering at the time from a severe wound
received from a lance in one of the late skirmishes,
hastened to obey, and thus, by shutting up its only
communication with the surrounding country, com-
pleted the blockade of the capital. 7

But Cortes was not content to wait patiently the
effects of a dilatory blockade, which might exhaust
the patience of his allies and his own resources. He
determined to support it by such active assaults on
the city as should further distress the besieged
and hasten the hour of surrender. For this pur-
pose he ordered a simultaneous attack, by the two
commanders at the other stations, on the quarters
nearest their encampments.

On the day appointed, his forces were under

7 Rel. Terc. de Cortes, ap. Lorenzana, pp. 246, 247. Bernal Diaz,
Hist, de la Conquista, cap. 150. Herrera, Hist, de las Ind., dec. 3,
lib. 1, cap. 17. Defensa, MS., cap. 28.



10 CONQUEST OF MEXICO

arms with the dawn. Mass, as usual, was per-
formed; and the Indian confederates, as they
listened with grave attention to the stately and
imposing service, regarded with undisguised ad-
miration the devotional reverence shown by the
Christians, whom, in their simplicity, they looked
upon as little less than divinities themselves. 8 The
Spanish infantry marched in the van, led on by
Cortes, attended by a number of cavaliers, dis-
mounted like himself. They had not moved far
upon the causeway, when they were brought to a
stand by one of the open breaches, that had for-
merly been traversed by a bridge. On the farther



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