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and the legislature of Massachusetts has directed the Sec-
retary of the state to furnish the institution with two copies
of all their laws and other publications, which the^ now
have or jnay hereafter have. The society has experi^iced
Uke indulgence from the legislatures of most of the other
states. For the preservation and proper ai'rangement of the
library and cabinet, a commodious and substantial building
bas been erected at the expense of the president of the so-
ciety, Isaiah Thomas, Esq. of Worcester ; whose munifi-
cence in this instance, as well as in his valuable dona-^
lions to the library of the socie^, and in the aid he has af-
forded towards completing the examination and surveys of
the antiquities in the western country, justly entitle him to
an honorable rank among the benefactors of the literature
of the union.

The volume mentioned above, is the first in the series of
the proposed publications of the society. After a hi^oricat



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358 , Jirehaohgia ^mericaim.

account of the origin and progress of the society, the volume
commences with Father Hennepin's narrative of the discov-
ery of the river Mississippi and the adjacent country, by the
lakes ; and of La Salle's undertaking to discover the same
river, by the gulf of Mexico. Then follow several highly
interesting communications from Caleb Atwater, Esq. of
Circleville, Ohio, respecting the ancient fortifications and
tumuli, which exist in that and the adjacent states. We have
next, a full aQCount of the Indian tribes inhabiting Ohio, by
John Johnson, Esq. conjectures respecting the ancient inhabit-
ants of North America, by Moses Fiske, Esq. and a communis
cation on the antiquities and curiosities of western Pennsylvft^-
nia, by President Alden. After these, follow several highly val-
uable papers written and published at different times, by S.L.
Aljtchell, LL. D. '' showing the progress of his mind in coming
to the conclusion, that the three races of Malays, Tartars, and
Scandinavians contribute to make up the American popular*
tion." To these are subjoined, a description of a cave in
Kentucky, by J. H. Farnbam ; - of a mummy found in the
same cave, by Charles' Wilkins, Esq. ; of the Caraibs who
inhabited the Antilles, by William Sheldon, Esq. ; and of a
great and very extraordinary cave in Indiana.

It is not our object to give a review, or an abstract of this
volume :*— the latter would, indeed, be scarcely practicable
without the accompanying engravings to illustrate the de-
scriptions. We would merely invite the attention of the
public to the work, which we think highly creditable to the
individuals who have contributed to its pftges, and to the so-
ciety in whose name it appears. It is a point of no small
consequence gained, when a man of the intelligence, zeal
and activity of Mr. Atwater can be brought heartily to en-
gage in an undertaking so extensive and arduous, as a com-
plete examination and survey of the numerous vestiges of
the ancient population, which, there is little reason to doubt,
once extended from the straits of Bbering to Mexico; and
perhaps through the whole of the American continent. It
is much to be hoped that this gentleman will be enconraged
to proceed, and to give to the public as ample descriptions
of the antiquities in the country west of the Mississippi and
on the gulf of Mexico, as he has now done of those in his
own state and neighborhood. There is undoubtedly av gen-
eral similarity in all tbeSe ancient works, irt whatever part of



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^Tchaologia Amtneana. 3£9

the coDtinent they are situated ; yet the examination of the
whole will be useful ; as the few weapons, ornaments, and
instruments of labor, which may still be found, will afford
new varieties, and furnish impoi^ant aid, in any comparison
between these and similar remains in the northern regions of
Asia and Europe.

The Asiatic tumuli scattered over the whole tract from
the borders of the Wolga and its western branches, to the
lake Baikal, and perhaps to the straits which separate
Asia from America, according to Mr. Tooke, are found only
in plains and extensive deserts, which seem to have been
the abode of a nation which subsisted by pasturage and the
produce of the chase. There is in this respect, a striking
resemblance between the ancient mounds of Asia and Amer-
ica: as none, it is believed, have yet been found in America
in the mountainous regions. It is true Mr. Tooke supposes
these Asiatic monuments to be of comparatively modern
date, and refers them to the Tartars of Jenghis Khan and
their immediate successors, and it is certain that the Ka}-
roues are still in the^habit of burying horses, arms, &c. with
their chiefs. The truth probably is, that these monuments
are of very different ages $ and that there are among them
those of the ancient Scythians, as well as those of the mod-
ern Tartars who have succeeded them. It is by a careful
discrimination of the. different ages of these tumuli; their
several peculiarities, and especially the utensils which may
be discovered in them; and by an exact comparison of
these with similar remains on our own continent, diat we
can hope to approximate towards the time when these latter
works were erected. Whatever may be thought of this, all
will admit, that the subject of these antiquities is one of ra-
tional curiosity.

We consider this publication as adding much to our former
stock of materials for deciding the question which has so
long perplexed historians and antiquaries, and which has
led to so much vague speculation, — we mean, the original
pi^pling of America. While we acknowledge our obliga-
tions to the Antiquarian Society for what they have already
done, we would express a hope they will not relinquii^ the
ioquiries which they have so successfully commenced. It
13 an object which falls 'directly within the design of their as-
sociation and what they have already accomplished will fa-
cilitate their future operations.



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360 JJmeri€M» Oe^logied S ^ ciHg .



2. jSmerican Geelogietd SoeU^.

A stated meeliog of this socie^ was held at the house of'
Professor Ifos, on the eveniog of the first Monday m De^-
ceoiber.

Reports were made to the society of the receipt ;^-^

I. Of a box of spednieiis fix>ia Professor Dbwkt ; tbey
are chiefly pciniitiTe and transitioti rocks, and are iUustratire

Erincipalty of the geology of the vicinity of Williams Col-
»ge^ and of the region between it and the Hodson river.

II. Of two boses firom the president of the society, Wil-
liam Macldub, Esq. } these contain geological specimens,
*^ collected and ticketed" by Mr. Maelure during bis differ'-
ent travels* in Europe, $md are tberefiire a e^stribmion to-
wards a cabwet of forei^ g^ogy.

. III. Of two botes mm Cd. Gkokos Gims, first vice-
presidoit; one c^ these was mentioned in the last rep<Mrt,
and consists of foreign specimens, chiefly in mineralogy;
the pieces are select and nne. The other box b composed
of d«BBestie specimens.

IV. A collection of books from the president of the soci^
ety : they are,

1. The Transactions of the Gedogical Society of Lon-
don, as lar as puUished, in 5 vols* qu«rto, with 150 plates,
chiefly coloured.

2. The Transactions of the Wemerian Society of £dln-
borgb, as far as published, in 2 thick vols. 6vo* with between
40 and 50 plates, principally coloured.

3. Journal de Physique, or Journal of Natural Science,
(Paris,) 54 vob. quarto^ with numerous platesf .

4. Chemical and Economical Memoir on the production
of Saltpetre, quarto.

5. Mineralogy of France, by Rozzin, 1 vol. 8vo.

6. Meidinger's work on Fishes, royal folio, with fifty su*
perb coloured plates.



** Thifl g;entleman has, in person, examined the neology of ahnoet every
portion of Europe, as weU as of the cirilized portions of North America.
He hai visited several cottntries repeatedly, and has inspected moat of the
interesting localities of minerals in Europe and America. ~

t With the prooiie of thirty-lbnr more volumes, as soon as they can be
obtained.



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Jimerican Oeohgital Sockiy. .381

7. Batsch's Elements of the Historf of the Fuogous
Plants, 1 voL quarto, with 42 beautiful coloured plates.

8. Botany of J. J. Rosseau, 1 vol. 8vo.

. 9. Colvet's complete treatise on Nurseries, I vol.

10. Jaquin's descriptipns and representations of the rar6r
plants of the Caesarian Garden, at Schoeabrunn, Vieoda, in
4 vofe. royal folio, with 500 elegant coloured plates — a mag-
nificent work.

11. The able Gardeaer's Almanack for 1808, 1 vol.

12. The Gardener's Calender for 1816, 1 vol.

Besides the above wotks, relating to the physical scien-*
ces and arts, there are several works in the fine arts.

13. Designs of Leonardi de Vinci, 1 vol. folio, with 66
plates chiefly in outline.

14. Collection of designs engraved from the famous mas-
ters — drawn from the collection of the electoral Palatine
academy of the fine arts, at Dusseldorf, 1 vol. folio, with €7
plates in outline.

15. Description of the has reliefs and figures, Sec. found
among the ruins of the baths <lf Titus, and of Livy, engra-
ved for the Cabinet of the Count D'Artois, 1 vol. royal fol-
iO) with 74 fine plates.

16. Pictures, statues, has reliefs and cameos of the Flo-^
rence gallery and the Pitt palace, 2 vols, royal folio, with'
117 plates in the most finished style of Parisian engraving ;
as each plate contains (in a great proportion of instances) two
or three distinct pictures — ^the work comprehends from two
.to three hundred separate designs, executed in the most ex-,
quisite manner and as the subjects are from the pencils of
ttie first artists of Italy and other countries, the entire work
with the accompanying descriptions is unrivalled.

The foUowii^ works are of a Miscellaneous nature.

17. Life of Frederic the second, 7 vols. 8vo.

18. Atlas of the Prussian mdnarchy with statistical tables
and numerous designs illustrative of tactics and the art of
war, in the whole 103 maps and designs in 1 vol. folio.

19. Statistical annals of France in 33 vols«

20. Statistical archives of France in 6 vols.

21. Extracts from the deliberations of the council of

Vol. IIL...No. 2, 46



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SIS2 Jtmmcm Geohgtcd Society.

dtftte — tbe^ and a number of other small worl:^ put in to
fill the triiqk.*

In Mr. Madura's donation, there are more than 1100 fine
plates without reckoning those in the Journal de Physique^
send in the smaller works, which would probably amount to
two. or three hundred more.

Thi« gentleman's liberality to purposes of science and hu-
manity, has been tod often, and too munificently experien^
ced ia this country to demand any eulogium from us. It is
rare that affluence, liberality, and the possession and the love
of science, unite so signally in the same individual.f

V. Count Boumon's Treatise on Mineralogy or rather,
that part of it which relates to the Carbonat of lime, in 3
vols* large quarto with 72 plates, presented by Mr. Wil-
liam C. WooLSET of New-York.

The society directed a committee to procure cases with
glass fronts for the reception of the above books and of -such
as may hereafter be presented to the society. They also
ordered that the name of the society and that of the donors
of the books should be stamped upon them in gold letters.

Since the meeting of the* society, Horadb H. Hayden,
Esq. of Baltimore has presented to the society a copy of
bis geological essays. • [See p. 47 of this volume.]

P. S. — A box of specimens for the society has been re-
ceived from James Pierce, Esq.- — ^this box has not yet been
dpened.

A box is announced as being on its way from Profes-
sor Dewey. This islhe second from this gentleman.

* Mr. Maclttre, in a letter to one of the officers of the Oeolog;ical Society,
remarks that the reason why the coUection of books is of so mixed a nature,
18, that being packed at Paris alone with the whale of his library, they were
not assorted, but were put op indiscriminately, and forwarded to HAVre,
jsi^cc this trunk was ordered to be sent to the Amerioen Geological So-
ciety. Its members will consider themselves ibrtanate that they are thus
fortuitously put into possession of such interesting^ and rare volumes.

t This remaric as respects the present case, will be well understood in
Philadelphia, and ^especially in the academy of Natural Sciences.



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• Stdphat cf Stromm- ^S

3. Remarks an ike study of QtoUgy.

la a recent letter to the editor, from William Maclure^
£sq. President of ti^e Am^ican Geological Socie^, dated
at Paris, are the foUowiag remarks : '^ It has always appear*
ed to me that the science of geology was one of the sim-
plest and easiest to acquire of any : the number of name;s
io be learned is small, and the present nomenclature al-
t^ugfa rather^ eneric than specific, is not tlifficuk. In teadn
ing geology I would have a cabinet of specimens containing
aJi the rocks divided into four classes, or as many of them as
I could procure, keeping alwiys in mind, tbait the most com-
mon are the most useful I would begin by giFiog the stu-
dent an eTs.9ieL idea of all ihe rocks of transitiois, at one end
of which he will find the primitive, and at the other the sec-
ondary, which two classes are so different in their structure
as not to be easily mistaken. The alluvial rocks encroach
(m the secondary^ as soon as they have jnemained in contact
long eiMMigfa to adhere, and take the consistenfee of rocks,
fpr the whole secondary, was at one time, alluvial, when
ibey wi^e ficst deposited by the waters, excepting always
the volcanic.^

We are not willing to withhold an additional mmark >r-
iwh^n speaking of this Journal, he ofaserrc^^ : ^^lo some qf
the memoirs of geology there it a Uide inwccuracy in the
names of the ro^s which should be as strictly scienli&e m
possible; the Wemerian nomencdatiire is still thebeat under-
8tood.^^

Every such hint, coming from such an authority as Mr.
Maclure than whom no man (with the single exception of
Col. Gibbs,) has so good a right to give advice on the sub-
ject of American geology, is worthy of attention and will
have its &A weight in this country.

4. Su^hait of StrotiHan.

&)ta»etof aletterto the ^itor Irom Pro&fnor DchmiIinm ^ifehe Military
Academy at West-Point, dated Black Kock, (N. Y.) May B% .J8^

My Dear Str,

The mineral which I had announced to you upon a slight
examination of it as sulphate of barytes, (see Vol. II. p. 241)



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964 Map of Moumiaifu^-^^EpiM^

woves to be sulphate of strontian. Its specific gravity,^!
find to be 3.86 to 3.90. The crystal a flattened prism of
six angles, formed as it i;vere by the bevilraent of two op«
posite lateral edges of a four sided prism, thus producing
tour obtuse angles of 140"^ each, and leaving the other
two of 76^ each. I have no crystal which will lead me to
the form of its termination.

This mineral is found in a small island, called in our maps
of last summer. Mouse Island; it lies about a mile west
Bass, or Put-in Bay Island* The crystals intersect and
cross each other in every possible direction, as will ap-
pear to you by some of the largest specimens. They easily
separate however, or rather break to pieces by a slight stroke
of the hammer. The gangue is a compact gr^ lime stone.

5* Map of Mountains.

Cummrogs and Billiard of Boston, have just published* an
engraving presenting at one view, the comparative heights of
the principal mountains in the world, with corrections, and up«
wards of one hundred additions of the principal American
mountains. We have a copy of thi^ map and think it weU wor-
thy of being possessed, boUi for geographical and geological
purposes, as it produces, at ^coup d? ceil^ an impression, for
which no description can be an adequate substitute. The
annexed heights, latitudes and names^ give the most impor*
tant particular information, and the map neatly mounted,
coloured and varnished, forms a handson»e parlour picture.

£o.

6. Epidote.

Dr. Websteir informs us, that very beautiful epidote mA
fibrous prehnite have been lately found in the trap rocks of
Nabknt, nine miles north east of Boston.

* PHce ooloared and mounted on vdlcn f&ySS, plain $4,00— ooloured
and not Tarnished $4^.



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'7. ir<Mfem MinervUj or Jtmerkan Jhmtdi (f Knatthd^s
and Literature; a l^uarterly^ Journal to be published m
Lexingtonj Kentuckjf*

The vMAto is un peu detout and corresponds with the
sketch dtfLvm in the prospectus. This literary and scientific
journal will be published quarterly, in Lexington, Kentucky^
m numbers of eighty pages, foraiing every year a volume of
three hundred and twenty pages or more. The first ivimber
was promised for January, 1 821, and the <^er numbers to ap^
pear successively in April, Jiidy and October following. .

8. Annab of JVature.

Professor Rafinesque has published the first number of an
annual or occasional Journal, which he denominates Annals
of Nature, or Annual Synopsis of new Genela, and species
of animals, plants, be. discovered in North America. Thi$
work is established principally for his own discoveries and
for those of hisfri^s. His first number contains sixteen
pages, and is occupied upon s^imals under the classes sucl^
lers, birds, reptiles, fishes, Crustacea, insects, worms, moUusca,
polyps, and poro^tomes ; and upon plants under the classes
eltrogynes,mesogynes, endogynes,symphogynes, amogynes,
gymnogynes, phanerians, cryptians, fusgiims, and avians.
Under these respective classes bodi of animab and plai^
many species are embraced*

9. Fo$sUFiiL

On page 222 of this volume mention is made of the fosafl
fish, found at Sunderland, Mass. by Mr. Edward Hitchcock.
This gentleman at our request, has caused this place to be
more thoroughly explored, and we have now the pleasure
to state, on the authority of a letter from him, dated April
9, 1821, that fifty or sixty specimens of fossil fish have been
discovered at Whitmore's Ferry, Sunderland, by those
whom he has employed. We are informed, that there are
two distinct species of fish, and as we have not yet obtained
the box of specimens, put up for us by the kindness of Mr.
Hitchcock, we subjoin the catalogue received with the letter,
as this will impart some valuable informatiOtt.**-£D.



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am Skoarity of CM «< Platttbmt^i.

Jl^ ^^rgame remaku and mec^mpanymg roeks^ amtmned
in a tix forwarded iQ Prt^mr Smima% by Edward
Hitchcock.

No. 1. Pudding MSome p^ttwipugroMwacke daUj obtained
£ron tiie bottom of Comeclicttt rhrer, Whitmoro's F^iy^
Suadeifaiid, Mass.

SL Slate lyne iaMMdialalf abore No. 1, commaocini; «t
the aor&oe of tae rinr mi extending upvards of ten feet,
€pn(imini$tg one tpedeg offak.

3. Same rock cootainii^ another ^cies effoiL

4. Same rock^^i tutpre^ncmi, twoJUh lying acra$s each
ifther.

5. FishimpressianSf same slate rock.

6. FUk impressums.

7. Organic remains in same date.
S. do. do. do.

9. Spedmen of a reddish slate two hcqulred fcel above
tbe fisb.

40. do. brown slate tbree bandied feet above tbe
fisb.

11. do. do. do. 4o. witb
H vegetable or animal nelic penetrating tbe epeeimens*

12. VegetsMe remains on ibe same general Ibtmation.

13. Slate three bondred &et above the &sh containing it
idum shell.

More particular information will be iownd in tbe bdiefe.

10. Severity of cold at Pfaddmrgk* on Lake Champlain.

Batract of aJetiterto Ae GdiUMv 4atea March 17^ la^, fron JDr. L.jmaB
Foci^ surg^eooi in the Ufuted States Armf .

It is now snowing violently and bas been snowing for
thirty SIX bours ; the inhabitants here caFl it the ** equinox-
lal storm.'' The weather has been very cold at this place,
during the last winter. The lake Champlain is now passa-
1}le on the ice in every direction 5 1 have seen ice cut out of
the lake xhis winter, whicli I should jtidge to be three feet
thick. The thermometer on the 25th of January last, at
Reveilleib stood 23^ below 0. Notwithstanding the intense
cold here, we do not suffer so much as you would natur^Dy

'^Lat.44r4rN.



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Ifttor Spar ((f QiMfu and Wbm^ i89

sMtppose. Every Qi»e prepares for it, and no one ymts^^
out without beiog properly guarded. On that extremely
cold day, Jan. 25 th, wrapped in bujBfaloe skins, furs, &c. I
drove six miles id a sleigh without any inconvenience*

11« Cryittfls of Snow.

Professor Dewey, in a letter to the editor, mentions,
tions, that in a late fall of snow, he obsenred dovik eryeiiih^
formed by a junction of two of the stars of six rays and of
two others of the same form, but with bifurcated points ;
they were, in each instance, united by the ends of the three
contiguous rays, on each crystal, and of course, the middle.^
ray of the three, formed, in each instance, a eontinued right
line passing through both crystals. The single crystals we
suppose to be correctly represented in Figs. 1 and 4 of <
that plate of Vol. II. which illustrates Professor Green's
piece on i^now cry%tals,'^see page 336.

12. Fluor Spar of Gene9ee.

We have just received (May 1, 1821) from Mr. H. R.
Penn, of Rochesterville, Ontario County, N. Y. some spe-
cimens of well crystalized fluor spar, which were discover-
ed by him, half a mile from Rochester on the Genesee riv<-
er in the bed of the great canal. They are scattered in cav-
ities of secondary lime^stone rocks. The discoverer re-»
marks that this mineral is found there in considerable quan-
tities, and that som^ crystals are ad inch and a half square.

N. B. We presume that if this locality be noteitactly the
same as that mentioned page 285 of this volume, it must at
least be in the same formation; the specimens received
from Mr. Boyd and from M,t. Fenn, cannot be distinguished
from each other.— En.

13^ Fluor Spar of Illinois.

At page 52 Vol. I. we mentioned this locality of fluor
spar, aoQ again at page 243 of the present volume. We
kave this day (May 2, 1821) received through the kindness of
Capt. Abm. Hawkins of Shawneetown, some superb speci-
mens, which we mention for the sake of drawing the atten*
4ion of mineralogists to this locality, the most remarkable



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8Mi Slide fi9mMouitUP3a^mt0&e,La^

Ant hsis been obsenred in North America and probably one
of the most interesting in the world. A specimen now lies
before us more than six inches square, on which are depos-
ited between three and four hundred distinct cubes and par-
allelopipeds some of whiph are an inch in diameter, and
others so minute as to be almost microscopic^ they are of a
deep violet and purple colour, and the whole groqp (except
that it has not quite the freshness of specimens which have
been recently taken from the cavities of mines) is scarcely
inferior to the finest pieces of Derbyshire and France*

IL FOREIGN LITEBAJaURE AND SCIENCE.

1. SUdefrom Mount PUatus to the Lake of Lucerne.^

Commmiicated by Professor Grucom.

A slide was erected in 1812, by Mr. Rupp, for the purpose
of bringing down to the lake of Lucerne the fine pine trees
which grow upou Mount Pilatus. The wood was purchas*
ed by a company for 3,000Z and 9,000Z were expended in
forming the slide. The length of the slide is about 44,000
English f^et, or about &i miles, and the difference of level of
ks two extremities is about 2,600 feet.

It is a wooden trough about five feet broad and four deep«.
the bottom of which consists of three trees, the middle one
being a little hollowed, and small rills of water are conduc*
led into it to diminish friction^

The declivity at its commencement is about 22^^, and it
was calculated by Professor Play fair that a heavy body, not
retarded by friction, would describe the whole length of the
trough in 66''.

The large pines with their branches and bows cut off,
are placed in the slide, and descending by their own gravity
they acquire such an impetus by their descent through
the first part of the slide, that they perform their journey of

* Althoiigh these facts have been already published in oUr newsps^rs we
are ^willing^ to present them in a more permanent Ibrm. Indeed it often
hai^ens that articles 6f scientific and literary intelligence go the round oC
our principal newspapekv, before it is^ possible that they should appear in
our more permanetit journals. When the articles are interesting and im-
portant we shall not think this a sufficient reason for omitting to inseft



Online LibraryWilliam HogarthThe American journal of science and arts → online text (page 35 of 38)