William J. (William Jacob) Heller.

History of Northampton County [Pennsylvania] and the grand valley of the Lehigh under supervision and revision of William J. Heller, assisted by an advisory board of editors.. (Volume 1) online

. (page 1 of 57)
Online LibraryWilliam J. (William Jacob) HellerHistory of Northampton County [Pennsylvania] and the grand valley of the Lehigh under supervision and revision of William J. Heller, assisted by an advisory board of editors.. (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 57)
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History of Northampton County



The Grand Valley of the Lehigh

Under Supervision and Revision of

Assisted by








NoTE.^ — The historical narrative is paged continuously, and closes in Volume II. The
Biographical matter follows immediately thereafter, and is paged continuously to itself,
extending into Volume III. Historical and Biographical Indexes will be found at close
of Volume III.


Chapter I— Thk Abokigenes — The various Tribes— Their Customs — ^How affected by

the coming of the Whites I

Chapter II — The Penns — William Penn — His Constitution for the new Colony —

Pcnn's sons 25

Chapter III — Scotch-Irish Settlements — Early Families 41

Chapter IV — The Indian Walk — Penn's purchase from the Indians 47

Chapter V — The German Pioneers— Various sects — Influence of the Reformed

Church — Founding of Franklin College 51

Chapter VI — The Moravians — The Unitas Fratrum — Coming of Whitcfield — Founda-
tions of Bethlehem — The Economy — Educational Progress 61

Chapter VII — Indian Mass.\cres — On Mahoning Creek and at Gnadenhutton —

Arrival of Colonel Franklin 77

Chapter VIII — Erection of Northampton County — First County Buildings — ^First

Commissioners 81

Chapter IX — Indian Treaties — The Delaware Embassy — Teedyuscung — Conference

at Easton — Peace Treaty between the Indians and Sir William Johnson 85

Chapter X — Early Roads — Ferries — Bridges — First Stage Lines — Lehigh River Navi-
gation — The Delaware Canal — First Steamboats — Railroads — Trolley Lines 103

Chapter XI — The Pennamite War — The Susquehanna and Delaware Companies —

Proclamation against intruders — Scenes of strife 113

Chapter XII — The Indian Massacre of 1763 — Accounts of various murders 121

Chapter XIII — Batti,e and Massacre of Wyoming — Attacks by Indians and British

— Flight of the survivors 127

Chapter XIV — The Revolutionary Period — Early military companies — Their leaders

— Gen. Sullivan's expedition — ^Attacks by Indians — Early gunmakers 131

Chapter XV — Fries' Rebellion — Resistance to law — Militia called out — Trial of Fries

^Pardon of the culprits 143

Chapter XVI — Opening of Nineteenth Century— War of 1812 — Northampton
County volunteers — An era of speculation— Introduction of Anthracite Coal —
Coal floated to market — Silk manufacture — Forecasters of the Civil War 149

Chapter XVII — The Civil War — Northampton County's troops — Their Military

service l6l

Chapter XVIII — Military Rolls 177

Chapter XIX — The Last Half Century — ^Advance in educational facilities — North-
ampton in Spanish-American and World Wars 235

Chaptpir XX — Political — The Whig and Free Soil Parties — Democratic predominance

— Notable elections 241

Chapter XXI — Bench and Bar — Provincial Courts — First State Constitution — Notable

Lawyers and Jurists 247

Chapter XXII — The Medical Profession — Early practitioners 259

Chapter XXIII — Poets of the Forks of the Dei.aware — Some famous names 265



Chapter XXIV — Iron and Kindred Industries — Early iron working — Hematite ore —
Iron works at Glendon and South Easton — First Foundry and Machine Shop —
The Thomas Iron Works — Works at Hellertown and elsewhere — The Bessemer
process — The Bethlehem Steel Company 269

Chapter XXV — The Slate Industry — Various important companies 279

Chapter XXVI — The Cement Industry — The Portland process — Various manufac-
turing companies 283

Chapter XXVII — The Press — Early newspapers — The first German and first English

newspapers — A notable array of Journalists 289

Chapter XXVIII — The Silk Industry— Various manufactories 301

Chapter XXIX — Diversified Industries — Discovery of Zinc — Cotton manufacture —
Iron and Brass — Boat building — Furniture — Boots and Shoes — Flag manufacture
— Nearly every line of manufactures represented 30S

Chapter XXX — Financial Institutions — Early Banks — Later Banks — Building and

Loan Associations — Clearing House 317

Chapter XXXI — Public Education — The Moravian schools — Early schoolhouses and
schoolmasters — George Wolf, Father of the State Public School System — Able
Superintendents 325

Chapter XXXII — Higher Institutions of Learning — Wolf Academy— Nazareth
Hall — Moravian Seminary and College for Women — Moravian College and Theo-
logical Seminary— Easton Union Academy— Lafayette College— Lehigh University 337

Chapter XXXIII —The Catholic Church— Catholic pioneers — First church and first
priests — Notable names — St. Joseph's Church— St. Anthony's — St. Michael's —
Other churches 361

Chapter XXXIV— City of Easton — Pioneer settlers — Incorporation of Borough —
Incidents of early days — Advance during the present decade — Easton Library —
Historical and Genealogical Society— Hospital and Home for Friendless Chil-
dren—Board of Trade— Insurance Company — Water Company — Early officials-
Military organizations — Early churches — Various denominations and sects —
Advantages of Easton 395

Chapter XXXV— Bethlehem— The Pennsylvania home of the Moravians— Notable
Names— First Sea Congregation— The American Moravian Church— First build-
ings—Borough incorporation — Educational institutions — Fountain Hill — The era
of Electricity— Theological Seminary— The Churches— Civil institutions 43'

Chapter XXXVI— Townships— Lower Saucon— Upper Mount Bethel— Allen—
Bethlehem— Williams— Forks— Plainfield— Moore— Lehigh— Lower Mount Bethel
—Upper and Lower Nazareth— Hanover— Bushkill— East Allen— Palmer— Wash-
ington — Wilson 403

Chapter XXXVII— BoROUCHS—South Easton— Bath— Freemansburg— Nazareth-
Chapman— Glendon— Hellertown— Bangor— Portland— Pen Argyl— West Easton—
Tatamy— Wind Gap— Stockertown— Northampton— Northampton Heights— North
Catasauqua— Roseto — Walnutport S07

THE .\nV YOf,n -



The origin of the North Indian is one of the mysteries of his-
tory ; many have tried to solve it, but it is still an enigma. They were here
to welcome Columbus, the explorer of the Mississippi river, the Cavalier and
Puritan settlers of Virginia and New England.

In the period under review, the area now comprised in the States of
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York was occupied by Indian tribes
known collectively as Algonquins, and embraced in two nations, or rather
groups of nations, called by Europeans the Iroquois and the Delawares, the
former having received their names from the French, and the latter from
the English. The language of both these peoples was the Algonquin, but
materially different dialects.

Among themselves, in the Indian language, the Delawares were known
as the Lenni Lenape, or simply the Lenape, which signifies the "original or
true people," while the Iroquois were called the Mcngwe or Mingoes, this
last being a corruption originating among the more ignorant white men, and
from them adopted by the Delawares, who applied it as a name of reproach
or contempt to their Mcngwe neighbors, between whom and themselves very
little friendly feeling existed. The country of the Mengwe extended from
the shores of Lake Erie to those of Champlain and the Hudson, and from
the headwaters of the Allegheny, Susquehanna and Delaware rivers north-
ward to Lake Ontario, and even across the St. Lawrence, thus really
embracing nearly all of the State of New York and a portion of Canada.
This they figuratively styled their long "Council House," within which,
the place of kindling the grand council fire, was the Onondaga Valley,
where delegates from all the tribes met in solemn deliberation. They ex-
isted as a confederation of tribes, and were usually known in English annals
as the Five Nations. This alliance was composed of the Mohawks, Sene-
cas, Cayugas, Onondagas and Oneidas. They were later joined by the
Tuscaroras from the Carolinas, who had been driven north by white men.
This made the federation the Six Nations.

The Mohawks occupied the country nearest the Hudson river, and were
considered as holding the post of honor — the guarding of the eastern entrance
of the "Long House." The highest chief of the tribe was also always the
leading war chief of the Confederacy. They held the first rank among the
tribes, although the Senecas were the most numerous and were possessed
of the highest degree of warlike spirit and military energy. They defended
the western portal of the "Long House," while the Cayugas were guardians
■over the southern, that is, the frontier of the Delaware and Susquehanna
valleys. The Onondaga nation held the office of chief sachem of the league;
the Oneidas held forth along the northern front. They became very power-
ful, and reduced several rival nations, among them the Lenape, to a state of

NORTH.— 1—1.


The domain of the Delawarcs extended along the seashore from the
Chesapeake to the country border, Long Island Sound to the eastward of
New Amsterdam. Back from the coast it reached beyond the valley of the
Susquehanna, and on the north it joined the jealously guarded hunting
grounds of their supercilious neighbors, the hated "Murgoes." The three
most notable sub-divisions of the Delawares were the tribes of the Turtle,
or Unamies ; the Turkeys, or Wunalachtikos ; and the Wolf, or Minsi. The
Unamies and Wunalachtikos branches of the Delaware nation, comprising
the tribes of Assunpinks, Alators, Chickequaus, Shackmaxons, Tuteloes,
Nanticokes, and others of lesser note, inhabited the lower country towards
the coast, while the more warlike tribes of the Wolf watched their dangerous
northern neighbors. Their lands extended from the Iroquois frontier south
to Mackahneck, and thej- lighted their council fire in the Alinisinks near what
is now Port Jervis. Their principal villages were along the valleys of the
Aquanshicole and the Analomuk (Broadhead creek), and the Upper Dela-
v^rare all above the Blue Mountains. There were no Indian habitations in
the section known as the Forks of the Delaware, that is, the area between
the two rivers and the Blue Mountains prior to 1700; it was a common hunt-
ing ground accessible to all. When the white man reached the Forks, the
first Indians he discovered were from the Jerseys, and who had emigrated
from the southern half of New Jersey to the only nearest land on which they
had rights — the Forks. The Shawnees had a few towns along the Dela-
ware, but not any within the Forks. These towns were placed so as to
protect something of value to the Six Nations, who granted the privilege to
the Shawnees to settle in the country of the Delaware when they were
expelled from their homes in what is now the southern part of the Middle
West. One was at Durham, Bucks county, to look after the jasper mines
and other interests in Rattlesnake Hill ; one on the Flats, at the north end
of Phillipsburg, New Jersey, to guard the marble deposits in the nearby
hills. Their principal town was on Shawnee Island, about four miles above
the Delaware Water Gap ; this town was in plain view of the copper mine.
There were some others of lesser importance ; one of these was on Coplay
creek, in White Hall township, now Lehigh county. When disaffection
arose among the Indians, the Shawnees betook themselves to the lands of
the Alleghenies, leaving the Delawares sole possessors of the Forks country,
where they lived in harmony with the first white settlers until the 3'ear 1742,
when they were so ignominiously banished from their homes by the Six
Nations at the instigation of the proprietors, the avaricious sons of WilUiam

The wars between the Delawares and Iroquois were of long standing,
and finally they discovered that warfare was depleting their numbers, espe-
cially the Iroquois (who, at this period under review, consisted of five
nations, later of six nations), joined the federation, and became known
among the English as the Six Nations, and by the French as Iroquois. The
Delawares called them the Mengwe, and in derision Mingo.

The strength of the Delawares was increased by the addition of the
Shawnees, who were forced out of the southern country and were permitted
to dwell among the upper nations. The Delawares were always too power-


ful for the Iroquois, so that the latter were at length convinced that if they
continued the war, their total extinction would be incvital)lc. They there-
fore sent tlie fcillowing message: "It is not profitable that all the nations
should be at war with each other, for this will, at length, be the ruin of the
whole Indian race. We have, therefore, considered of a remedy, by which
this evil may be prevented. One nation shall be the women. We will place
her in the midst, and the other nations who make war shall be the men, and
live among the women. No one shall touch or hurt the women, and if any
one does it, we will immediately say to him, 'Why do you beat the woman?'
Then all the men shall fall upon him who has beaten her. The women shall
not go to war, but endeavor to keep peace with all, therefore if the men that
surround her beat each other and the war be carried on with violence, the
women shall have the right of addressing them, 'Ye men, what are you about,
why do you beat each other? We are almost afraid; consider that your
wives and children must perish unless ye desist. Do you mean to destroy
yourselves from the face of the earth?' Then shall you hear and obey the

The Delawares not immediately perceiving the intention of the Iroquois,
had submitted to be the women. The Iroquois then appointed a great feast
and invited the Delawares to it, at which time, in consequence of the author-
ity given them, they made a solemn speech containing three capital points.
The first was that they declared the Delaware nation to be the women, in
the following words: "We dress you in a woman's long habit, reaching
down to your feet, and adorn you with ear-rings," meaning that they should
no more take up arms. The second point was thus expressed : "We hang
a calabash filled with oil and medicines upon your arm. With the oil you
shall cleanse the cars of the other nations that they may attend to good and
not to bad words; and with the medicine you shall heal those who are walk-
ing in foolish ways, that they may return to their senses and incline their
hearts to peace." The third point, by which the Delawares were exhorted
to make agriculture their future employment and means of subsistence, was
thus worded : "We deliver into your hands a plant of Indian corn and a
hoe." Each of these points was confirmed by delivering a belt of wampum.
These belts had been carefully laid up, and their meaning frequently repeated.
Ever after this singular treaty, the Iroquois called the Delawares their
cousins. The three tribes of the Delawares were called comrades; but these
titles were only made use of in their council, and when some solemn speech
was to be delivered.

The Iroquois, on the contrary, asserted that they conquered the Dela-
wares, and that the latter were forced to adopt the defenceless state and
appellation of a woman to avoid total ruin. Whether these different accounts
be true or false, certain it is that the Delaware nation were looked upon to
preserve peace, and entrusted with the charge of the great belt of peace and
chain of friendship, which they must take care to preserve. According to
the figurative explanation of the Indians, the middle of the chain of friend-
ship was placed upon the shoulders of the Delawares, the rest of the Indian
nations holding one end, and the Europeans the other. Such were the con-
ditions when the white man first made his appearance at the forks of the


The Lenni Lenape and the nations in league with them resembled each
other, both as to their bodily and mental qualifications. The men were
mostly slender, middle-sized, handsome and straight; there were not many
deformed or crippled among them. The women were short, not so hand-
some, and rather clumsier in appearance than the men, caused principally
by their dress. Their skin was of a reddish brown, nearly resembling
copper, but in different shades — some of a brownish yellow, not much differ-
ing from the mulattoes ; some lighter brown, hardly to be known from a
brown European, except by their hair and eyes ; jet black hair, stiff, lank
and coarse, almost like horsehair, that grew gray in old age ; their eyes were
large and black. The men had a fierce but not dreadful countenance; their
features regular and not disagreeable, but the cheekbones were rather promi-
nent, especially in the women. Both had very white teeth ; the men a firm
•walk, a light step, and could run remarkably swift. Their smell, sight and
hearing w-ere very acute, and their memory so strong that they could relate
the most trivial circumstances which had happened in their councils many
years previous, and tell the exact time of former events with the greatest
precision ; their powers of imagination very lively, which enabled them in a
short time to attain to great skill and dexterity in learning. They compre-
hended whatever belonged to their manner of living or tended to their sup-
posed advantage with the greatest ease ; and their continued practice in
needful accomplishments, to which they were trained up in infancy, gave
them a decided advantage. They had but few objects which required their
whole attention, and therefore were less divided. Their history gives many
instances of their greatness of mental powers and accuracy of deliberation
and judgment, good sense in their intercourse with strangers, and strict
•conformity to the rules of justice and equity, which proved that they saw
things in the proper light. They were far superior to any other uncivilized
people on the face of the globe.

In common life and conversation the Indians observed good manners.
They usually treated one another and strangers with kindness and civility,
without empty compliments ; their whole behavior appeared solid and prudent.
In matters of consequence they spoke and acted with the most cool and
serious deliberation, avoided all appearance of precipitancy, but this was
chiefly due to suspicion, and their coolness was merely affected ; they were
past-masters in the art of dissembling. They were sociable and friendly,
and a mutual intercourse existed between families. Quarrels and offensive
behavior were carefully avoided ; they never put anyone to blush or reproach,
■ even a noted murderer. Their common conversation turned upon hunting,
fighting and affairs of state. Xo one interrupted his neighbor in speaking,
but listened attentively to news, whether true or false. This was one reason
why they were so fond of receiving strangers. Cursing and swearing were
unknown to them, their language containing no such expressions.

Difference of rank was not to be found among them : all were equally
noble and free ; the only difference consisted in wealth, age, dexterity, courage
and office. Whoever furnished much wampum for the chiefs was considered
as a person of quality and riches. Age was everywhere respected, for,
.according to their ideas, long life and wisdom were always related; young


Indians endeavored by presents to gain instruction from the aged. A clever
hunter, a valiant warrior and an intelligent chief, held high honor, and no
Indian, with all his notions of liberty, refused to follow and obey his captain
or his chief. Presents were very acceptable to an Indian, but he was not
willing to acknowledge himself under any obligation to the donor, and even
took it amiss if they were discontinued. Their hospitality was renowned ;
it extended even to strangers who would take refuge amongst them ; they
considered it a sacred duty from which no one was exempted. Whoever
refused hospitality to anyone committed a grievous offence, and made him-
self detested and abhorred by all, and also liable to revenge from the offended
person. In their conduct toward their enemies they were cruel and inexor-
able, and when enraged, bent upon nothing but murder and bloodshed.
They were, however, remarkable for concealing their passions and waiting
for a convenient opportunity of gratifying them. If they could not satisfy
their resentment they even called upon their friends and posterity to do it.
The longest space of time could not cool their wrath, nor the most distant
place of refuge afford security to their enemy.

The Indians in general, but especially the men, loved ease; and even
hunting, though their chief employ, was attended to with perseverance but
for a few months of the year, the rest being chiefly spent in idleness. The
women were more employed, for the whole burden of housekeeping lay
upon them, and nothing but hunger and want could rouse the men from
their drowsiness and give them activity.

Tlie honor and welfare of the nation were considered by them as a most
important concern, for, though they were joined together neither by force
nor compact, yet they considered themselves as one nation, of which they
had an exalted idea, and professed great attachment to their particular tribe*
Independence appeared to them to be the grand prerogative of Indians.
Considered either collectively or as individuals, they franklj' owned the
superiority of the Europeans in several arts, but despised them as submitting
to laborious employments; the advantages they themselves possessed in
hunting, fishing, and even in their moral conduct, appeared to them superior
to any European refinements. This public spirit of the Indians produced
the most noble exertions in favor of their own people. They were fearless
to danger, suffered any hardship, and met torments and death itself with
composure, in the defence of their country. Even in their last moments they
possessed the greatest appearance of insensibility in honor of their nation,
boasted of their intrepidity, and with savage pride defied the greatest
sufferings and tortures which their enemies could inflict upon them.

The Delaware and Iroquois were the principal languages spoken
throughout eastern North America, and all others were dialects of them,
but the Delaware language bore no resemblance to the Iroquois. Though
the three different tribes of the Delaware had the same language, yet they
spoke different dialects. The Unamies and Wunalachtikos, who inhabited
the eastern coast of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, nearly agree in pronuncia-
tion, but the dialect of the Minsi, who lived in the Minisinks above the
Blue Mountains, differed so much from the former that they would hardly
be able to understand each other did they not keep up a continual intercourse.


The language of the Delawarcs had an agreeable sound, both in common
conversation and public delivery. The dialect spoken by the Unamies and
Wunalachtikos was peculiarly grateful to the ear, and much more easily
learned by an European than that of the Minsi, which was rougher and
spoken with a broad accent. However, the Minsi dialect is a key to many
expressions in the dialect of the other two tribes. The pronunciation of
the Delaware language was generally easy, only the ch is a very strong
guttural. The letters f, v, p, k and r are wanting in their alphabet. They
omitted them entirely in foreign words, or pronounced them differently;
for example: Pilipp for Philip, Petelus for Petrus, Pliscilla for Priscilla.
The sense of many words depended entirely on the accent, and great care
was necessary in defining the meaning, as an Indian was loath to repeat
his utterances.

In matters relating to common life the language of the Indians was
remarkably coi)ious ; they had frequently several names for one and the
same thing under different circumstances. For instance, the Delawares had
ten different names for a bear, according to its age or sex; such names had
often not the least resemblance to each other. They had no terms for the

Online LibraryWilliam J. (William Jacob) HellerHistory of Northampton County [Pennsylvania] and the grand valley of the Lehigh under supervision and revision of William J. Heller, assisted by an advisory board of editors.. (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 57)