William Jackson Hooker.

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pedancuUs axilTaribus soiitariis v. 2-nis brevibus tomentosis 2-flori8, braoteis
pairis lineari-obloDgis recurvis, bracteolis in cnnulam basin ovariornm amplec-
tentem glabram connatis, floribus pendulis alois inodoris, ovariis libens v.
per paria connatis glabris, caljce breviter 6-dentato, corollas tubo anguste
infnndibulari piloso, limbi subsBqaalis lobis brevibos rotundatis, stylo glabro,
bacois pirifonnibas globosis v. didymis, seminibus parvis.

L. tomentella, Hook. /. and Thorns, in Jbum. Linn, Sor, yoL ii. p. 167 ; C, B,
Clarke in Hook.f, Fl. Brit, Ind. vol. iii. p. 12 (ined.).



Honeysuckles abound in the Himalaya, where no fewer
than twenty-two species have been detected, some of which
attain an elevation of 16,000 feet above the sea-level. The
Indian mountains are, in fact, the head-quarters of the genus,
all Europe containing but seventeen species ; the Oriental
region (from Greece to Affghanistan) possesses exactly the
same number, according to Boissier's " Flora Orientalis ;'*
the Russian dominions from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean
contain only thirteen, and North America about a dozen.

L. tomentella is a native of the interior valleys of the
Sikkim Himalaya, at elevations of 8,000 to 12,000 feet,
where I discovered it in 1849, forming a shrub ten to twelve
feet high. The specimen figured was from a plant culti-
vated at Kew from seeds, sent by me in the above-mentioned
year ; it flowers annually in July.

Descb. a rigid bush, ten to twelve feet high, with stiff
spreading branches and slender usually densely softly
tomentose branchlets. Leaves two-thirds to one and a half
inch long, subdistichous, shortly petioled, ovate-oblong or

APRIL 1st, 1880.



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almost elliptic, rounded at both ends, dark dull-green and
puberulous or glabrous and opaque above, paler beneath and
more or less pubescent or tomentose ; midrib stout, nerves
obscure; petiole one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch long,
tomentose. Peduncles axillary, solitary or in pairs (from
opposite axils), very short, rarely one-sixth of an inch long,
decurved, two-flowered, densely tomentose; bracts small,
hnear-oblong, spreading and recurved, green ; bracteoles
united into a glabrous cup which embraces the bases of the
ovaries. Flowers in pairs, the ovaries glabrous, united or
free. Calyx-tube hardly produced, with five triangular teeth.
Corolla two-thirds of an inch long, tube narrowly funnel-
shaped, not gibbous at the base, shghtly hairy, white ; limb
of five subequal short rounded spreading lobes, white tinged
with pink. Stamens included. Ovary two- to three-celled.
Style glabrous, stigma capitate. Berries the size of a small
pea, globose, blue-black, many-seeded. — /. X>. H.



Fig. 1, flowers, bracts, and pedancles ; 2, corolla laid open ; 3, bracteoles and
ovaries ; 4, stamens ; 5, stjle and stigma ; 6, fruit : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6487.

EICHORNIA AZURBA,

Native ofBraziL

Nat Ord. Povtedbbiacb^.
GenuB EiCHOBHiA, Kunth,; (JSnum, Plant, toI. \y, p. 129.)



EiCHOBViA azwrea; rhizomate craaso, foliis orbicnlatis ▼. rhombeo-orbicnlatu
obtuflis in petiolum elongatum crassnm baai vix intumeaceDtem anguatatisy
pedancnlo crasso in spatnam Bolitariam brevem recarvam obtosam dilatato,
raoemo moltifloro, rachi robuato, floribaa 2-ni8 bre?iter pedioellatis sparaia,
perianthio extus piloso, aegmentia obovato-oblongia obtuaia exterioribua
majoribus, interiorious marginiboa erosis, staminibua fere inclnaia, aaperioribua
Bubteqnaliter itiaertis 3 inferiorum poatioo demisaiua inserto, filamentia omnium
breTibna aubulatis aabsequilongis puberulia, atylo gracili paberulo.

E. azurea, Kunth, Enum, Plant vol. iv. p. 129; Chriseb. FL Brit, W, Ind. 690;
Seubert in Mart, Fl, Bra^, vol. iii. part i. p. 90 ; Sckleeht, in Halle Ahhandl,
Nat, Gesell, vol. vi. p. 149, ctim Ic; Hemsley in The Garden, 1880, p. 220.

Pontederia aznrea, Swartz, Fl, Ind, Occ, vol. i. p. 609 (now Bot, Mag. t. !

P. tomida, Willd, Herb. n. 6369 (ex Kunth, I, c),

P. aqnatica, Veil. Fl, Flum, Ic, vol. iii. 1. 164.



The plants belonging to the Order Pontederiacece are de-
scribed in systematic works in a very unsatisfactory manner;
this is due to the fact that their very fugacious flowers
cannot be analyzed in herbarium specimens, on account of
their membranous consistence, and to the variations to
which the leaves and stems of the same plant are subject,
according to whether it grows in deep or shallow water or
in mud. The genus Po7ded.eria of Linnaeus was in 1843
rightly divided into two by Kunth, who retained the old
name for the species with one-ovuled ovarian cells, and
founded upon the many-ovuled the new genus Eichornia.
Seubert, in Martins and Endlicher's Flora of Brazil, has
adopted those genera, describing six S. American species
of the former and eight of Eichornia. It is with the latter
we have to do in the matter of the plant here figured, and

APBIL IST, 1880.



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I am unable from the descriptions to refer it altogether
satisfactorily to any described species. Of these, only one
of the species with racemose inflorescence has been hitherto
well figured, namely, that referred (t. 2932) to Swartz's
Pontederia azurea (which is also figured in Martius' " Nova
Genera et Species,'' as P. crassipes, Martius). This Kunth
considers not to be Swartz's plant, and makes a new species
of it ; E. speeiosa, Kth. In so doing he is very probably
justified, though it is to be regretted that he did not retain
Martius' characteristic name of crassipes, especially as he
quotes that author's description and figure. Swartz's P.
azureay then, is Kunth' s Eichornia azurea^ and the doubt
in my mind is whether the subject of the present plate is
referable to it. On the one hand, it appears to agree with
a specimen of the only Jamaica species known to me which
could be considered as Swartz's azurea^ gathered by Purdie,
and which Grisebach considers the tnie one ; on the other
hand, neither Swartz, nor P. Browne in his full description,
alludes to the beautifully-toothed inner perianth segment
of our plant, nor can the latter author's description of the
stamens be regarded as quite satisfactory : " filamenta . . 3
superiora ad basim tubo adnata ; 3 inferiora in f undo floris
sita." Browne adds, " I observed this plant in most of
the Lagoons about the Ferry ; " and Purdie's ticket bears
" Habitat, behind the Ferry," which must be regarded as
settling the point in the present state of our knowledge.

The figure cited of Schlechtendahl, appears to represent
a larger-flowered plant than this, with flowers not in pairs,
almost orbicular-obovate, much larger inner perianth lobes,
and the eye-like spot rounded.

E. azurea is, as far as can be ascertained by a comparison
of dried specimens, a common tropical South American
water-plant, extending from South Brazil to Jamaica; it
varies greatly in the size and form of the leaves and length
of the petiole, and is found either floating, or rooted and
erect in the muddy bottom of shallow water. It was
introduced into the gardens of the Royal Botanic Society,
Regent's Park, from Brazil, and flowered there in July of
last year, and I am indebted to Mr. Sowerby for the plant
here figured.

Descr. Stems as thick as the thumb, floating and rooting,
green, smooth, flexuous. Leaves on long or short petioles.



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which are not inflated, very variable in size and shape,
three to eight inches in diameter, from rounded cordate to
trapezif orm or rhomboid or very broadly oblate and obcor-
date, rounded retuse or subacute at the tip. Scape often
as stout as the petiole, curved, gradually dilated into a
solitary short recurved very obtuse cucullate spathe.
Flowers scattered or crowded in pairs along a stout hairy
sessile rachis. Perianth one and a half inch long, funnel-
shaped, hairy externally, bright pale-blue ; tube often split
between the segments ; outer segments elliptic-lanceolate,
acute, sub-equal, margins entire ; inner segments obovate,
obtuse, margins erose, upper rather the largest with a
yellow heart-shaped eye which is margined with white.
Filaments sub-equal, all short, papillose; three upper
shortly exserted, three lower included in the tube, one
placed lower than the others ; anthers short, ovoid-oblong.
Ovary glabrous three-celled, cells many-ovuled ; style very
slender, pubescent. — J. D. H.



Pig. 1, perianth laid open ; 2, stamens ; 3, ovary ; 4, stigma ; 5, oyary cut
acroM : — afl enlarged.



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Tab. 6488.
SENBCIO sPEOiosus, DC.

Native of South Africa.

Nat Ord. CoMPOSiTiB. — Tribe SsKXCiONiDSiB.
Qenns Surscio, Linn, ; {Benth, et Hook, /. Gen, PL vol. ii. p. 446.)



(



SsNBCio speeiostu; herbaceus, glanduloRO-pubescens v. hirsutaB, radice perennante,
foliiB carnosalis radicalibus obovato-Ianceolatis subacntis y. obtusia crenato-
aerratis v. Rinuato-dentatis, Bcapo elongato robusto flexuoeo, foliis caaliDis
oblongis inferioribas auricalato-l-amplexicauHbus obtasis, superioribus sessi-
libas acotifl, corymbia laxis, capitulia longe pedancnlatis roeeo-purpureis disco
aataratiore, involacro subcampanulato basi rotundato bracteis paucia dissitia
instracto, bracteia propriis anguste linearibas gland uloao-hirautia, floriboa radii
6-20, li^la lineari stricta patente apice minute 3-dentata, acheniia anlcatia
pubenilia.

S. apeciosna, Willd, 8p. PL vol. iii. para 3, p. 1991; DC, Prod. vi. 407; Lodd,
BoL Cab, t. 1113 ; Zer in Bat, Beg. t. 41 ; Ait. Rort. Keto, vol. v. p. 43 ;
N, Brovm in Qard. Chron. 1879, p. 616.

S. paendo-cbina, Andr, Bot, Bep. t. 291, non Linn,

8. ooncolor, Harv, et Sand. FL Cap, iii. 362, in part.

S. oonoolor var. biapido-acabra, DC, L c. 407.



Mr. N. Brown has, in the "Gardeners' Chronicle" quoted
above, cleared up the confused synonymy and history of
this beautiful plant. It was published nrst in 1806, by
Andrews, as the LinnaBan 8. pseudo-china^ it being supposed
to have been introduced from that country, and to aflford
the drug called " China-root," which, however, involved a
second mistake, as that drug is the produce of a Smilax.

It next appeared in Willdenow's *' Species Plan tar urn,'*
the author of which, recognizing its difference from
Linnaeus' 8. pseudo-chinUy called it 8. speciosus. In 1816
Ker figured it under Willdenow's name in the " Botanical
Register," observing that the native country of the plant
was not precisely determined, it being called Siberian by
some and Chinese by others. Ten years afterwards
Loddiges figured it in his " Botanical Cabinet," as intro-
duced by him from the Mauritius, adding that it is a
supposed native of China. In 1837 De Candolle, having
South African specimens of Ecklon and Drege before him,

APBII. l8T, 1880.



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and not recognizing their identity with 8. spectosus, pub-
lished it as a variety of his 8. concolovy placing it, however,
close to the supposed Chinese 8. speciosus^ whose true
relationship to the otherwise wholly African group of this
difficult genus he had the sagacity to discern. Lastly,
Harvey, m the "Flora Capensis," describes it as var.
hispidus of 8. concolor, DC, and suggests that it should be
regarded as the type of that species. In this he cleariy
errs, 8. speciosus being a very diflTerent and far finer plant
than 8. concolor, with which, however (and with very few
others of the genus, and these all, according to Mr. Brown,
South African), it agrees in the disk flowers being almost
concolorous with the ray.

The specimen here figured was flowered in July last in
the Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh, from seeds
collected in December, 1878, on the battle-field of Quintana,
by Sergeant D. Williamson. It has a wide range in South
Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope itself to Natal, and,
as Mr. Brown remarks, its supposed Chinese origin is pro-
bably due to its having been brought by one of the home-
ward-bound China-ships, which regularly touched at the
Cape. According to the " Hortus Kewensis," it was
introduced into England about 1789 by G. Slater, Esq.

Descb. Boot stout, fleshy, perennial. Leaves four to
seven inches long, obovate lanceolate or narrowly linear
spathulate, crenately toothed or sinuately lobed, rarely sub-
pinnatifid, subacute or obtuse, clothed more or less densely
with glandular hairs, sometimes almost hispid when dry.
8cape a foot high or less, with spreading glandular hairs,
and alternate rather distant erect linear-oblong leaves, the
lower of which are cordate and semi-amplexicaul. Corymbs
spreading, with few long-peduncled heads, which are one
and a half inch in diameter, and of a bright-purple colour.
Involucre broadly campanulate, densely glandular-hairy,
calyculate by a few short bracts at the rounded base ; bracts
narrowly linear. Bay-flowers six to twenty; ligules
narrowly linear, spreading straight out, minutely toothed
at the tip. Achenes slender, grooved, pubescent; pappus
hairs very slender, scaberulous, silky, white. — /. D. H.

Fig. 1, involucre out open; 2, i-ay-flower; 3, its style-arms; 4, disk -flower;
5, pappus hair ; 6, stamen ; 7, style^arms : — alt enlarged.



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Tab. 6489.
xiphion kolpakowskianum.

Native of TurJcestcm.

Nat. Ord. Ibidacbjb. — Tribe Xiphiokidsjb.
Geniu XiPHiOK, Taum^,; {Baker in Joum. Linn. Soc, Bot, yol, xyi. p. 122).



XiFHioir KolpaJeotoshianum ; bulbo eloboso, tunicis exterioribas fibroeis fibris
▼alidiii irregulariter anastomosantibiu, foliis panels anj^ste linearibns pallide
viridibus profunde canaliculatis albo-yittatis post anthesin acereecentibus, soapo
breyissimo hypogsBO uniiloro, spatha elongata cjlindrica pallide yiridi biyalyi,
oyario c^Iindrico pedicellate, tubo cylindrico bipoUicari pallide lilacino, limbi
Begmentia squilongia, exterioribus oblongo-lanceolatis acutis lon|^ unguicolatis,
lamina flore exfMinflo patula saturate lilacino-purpurea, canna aurantiaca
imberbi, segmentis interioribus oblanceolatis unguicuiatis erectis pallide lilacinis
ooncoloribuB, stylis perianthio paalo breTioribos pallide lilacinis, cristis lanceo-
latis, antheris albis, filamentis liberis.

Iris (Xipbion) Kolpakowskiana, Regel Deseript part y. p. 47 ; Oartenjl. yol. xxyii.
(1878), p. 40 and 161, tab. 939.



This is one of the many interesting bulbous plants whicli
have been discovered during the last few years by the
Russian explorers in Central Asia, and which have been
sent alive to St. Petersburg by the exertions of Dr. Albert
Kegel, and liberally distributed by his father amongst the
European public gardens and amateurs. The present
plant is a close ally of the well-known Xiphion reticulatum
of the Orient and the Caucasus, of which a good figure
under the name of Iris reticulata will be found Bot. Mag.
Tab. 5577. The principal diflTerence between the two is
not in the flower, but in the bulb and leaves. It flowers at
the same time, and has something of the same violet odour,
and in all likelihood will prove equally hardy. It grows
plentifully in fields near Wemoje, in Turkestan, and was
named by Dr. Regel in compliment to General Von Kol-
pakowsky. Our plate was made from specimens and a
coloured sketch sent by Mr. F. W. Burbidge, with whom
it flowered under glass in the botanic garden at Trinity

APfilL iBT, 1880.



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College, Dublin, in the middle of January this present
year.

Dbsce. Bulb globose, half an inch in diameter; outer
tunics fibrous, the fibres strong and anastomosing irregu-
larly. Leaves wrapped round at the base by a sheath two
or three inches long, which reaches to the surface of the
ground ; produced leaves four to six, narrow linear, gla-
brous, rounded and faintly keeled on the back, deeply
channelled down the face with a distinct white central
band like a Crocus, pale green, not glaucous, very short at
the flowering time, but growing much longer as the spring
advances. Scape very short, hypogaeous, one-flowered.
Spathe cylindrical, pale green, about two inches long, two-
valved. Ovary cylindrical, pedicellate inside the spathe.
Perianth about four inches, the tube and the limb of equal
length, the former cylindrical, pale lilac, protruded con-
siderably above the top of the spathe ; outer segments with
a long erect claw and a spreading oblong-lanceolate acute
blade, which is deep violet-purple, with a beardless bright
yellow keel ; inner segments just the same length as the
outer, oblanceolate-unguiculate, erect, pale lilac, concolo-
rous. Styles the same colour as the inner segments, and
falling but little short of them ; crests lanceolate, a third
of an inch long. Anthers cream-white, under half an inch
long ; filaments free, as long as the anthers. — /. G. Baker.



Fig. 1, a bulb, natural size; 2, section of a leaf; 3, an inner aegment of the
perianth ; 4, style and anther : — the ttco latter about natural size.



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Tab. 6490.
CYPRIPBDIUM Spiceeunum.

Native of the East Indies.

Nat. Ord. Obchipeje.— Tribe Ctpbipepisjb.
Genus Ctpbifbdium, Linn, ; (Endl, Oen. PL p. 220.)



Ctpbifbdiux Spicerianum ; foliis dUtichis lineari-obloD^s subaoutis carinatis basi
coinplicatis luride vtridibuB, scapo pubesoente pnrpureo gracili 1-floro, bractea
oblonga viridi pnrporeo-striolata ovario purpureo pnbesceDte mnlto breriore,
•epalo dorsali magno e basi erecto yireBcente hirsuto in laminam idbam
porrectam late Tenifonni-rotundatain margioiboa recurvis auriculsformibus et
apice oomplicato erecto dilatato, sepaliB lateralibos in unum late ovatum acntom
labello aabpositam connatie, petalis bre?ibu8 deflexia lineari-obiongis flavo-
▼iridibua et mbro Btriolatis marginibos crispato-undulatis, labello saccato
anricalis rotundatis saturate fasco-pnrpareo, sinn lato acuto, staminodio rotan-
dato Iste porpareo marginibos albis recanris, columna hirsuta.

C. Spicerianum, Reichb, /. ex Gard, Chron, 1880, p. 40 et 74» «t le. xylog. p. 41,
Hne deseriptione.



Very distinct from any described species of Gypripedium,
and belonging to the prolific group of the genus of which
C. insigney Wall., is the first-published example. Of its
history little is known ; I have found no description of it,
and the only information which I have gathered regarding
it is from a passage in the " Gardeners' Chronicle," to the
effect that " it is understood to have been received from
India, some time ago, by Mr. Spicer, amongst a mixed
collection of Orchids, without any indication whatever as
to its habitat. When it flowered for the first time, a bloom
was sent to Prof. Reichenbach, who named the plant in
compliment to the gentleman through whose instrumenta-
lity it was introduced into British gardens, and for whom
Messrs. James Veitch and Sons purchased the stock." I
am indebted to Messrs. Veitch for the specimen here
figured, which flowered in October, 1879, in their establish-
ment at Chelsea.

Dksoe. Stemless. Leaves few, distichous, five to eight

APBIL l8T, 1880.



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inches long by one to one and a quarter inch broad, nar-
rowly linear-oblong, dark green and deeply channelled
down the centre above, keeled beneath, complicate at the
base, where the sheathing portion is mottled with purple.
Scape about as long as the leaves, with an oblong com-
pressed basal sheath, slender, dark red-purple, pubescent,
one-flowered ; bract Unear-oblong, obtuse, compressed,
much shorter than the red-purple ovary, green streaked
with purple dots. Flowers erect, three inches long from
the base of the sac of the lip to the top of the dorsal sepal,
and about two inches across the petals when these are in
their ordinary deflexed position. Dorsal sepal^ very large,
suddenly expanding from a broad cuneate hairy green
speckled base into an almost horizontal broad snow-white
and obcordate lamina nearly two inches in diameter, the
dorsal margins of which are reflexed and decurved; the
anterior margin stretches forward and is compUcate in the
middle, there forming a very acute compressed erect ridge ;
a thin purple line runs from the base to the top of the
sepal. Lateral sepals combined into a broadly ovate acu-
minate white concave blade, with recurved margins placed
under the lip and shorter than it. Petals much shorter
than the lip, deflexed, linear-oblong, obtuse, with crisped
margins, pale greenish with red stripes and specks. Lip
large, sac bell-shaped with rounded everted auricles and a
broad acute sinus, base rounded, red-brown, glossy.
Column short, hairy, staminode orbicular with strongly
recurved margins, bright purple margined with white. —



Fig. 1, aide, and 2, front view of oolomn and staminode ; 3, apex of colomn and
anther : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6491.

ARIS^MA Gbiffithii.

Native of tlie Eastern, Himalaya,

Nat. Ord. Aboidb^. — Tribe Abisabbjb.
GenuB Abisama, Mart. ; {Engler in A. DC, Monog, Pkan, vol. ii. p. 533.)



AsiSiEMA QriMtkii; robnstum, foliis 2-ni8 3-foliolatiB petiolo ylridi, foliolis Bub-
sessilibas late trapezoideo-ovatis orbicalatisveacuminatis basi cuneatis lateralibas
interdum obliqaia marginibas planiuBcalis flavia rabrisve, nervia viridibas
Bubtoa prominuliB, pedunculo petiolo multo breyiore yiridi, spathae tubo 4-5-
poliican ejlindraoeo malticoBtato albo purpnreoqae striato, lamiDa latiKsima
6-10 poll, lata deflexa inflata marglnibuB incarviB medio antice inflexa et prof unde
2-loba atro-purpurea neryis crassis yalidis yiridibuB tessellatim laxe reticulata,
apadicis parte florifera crasaa oonioo-cylindracea apice abrnpte contracta nuda,
appendioe atro-parparea basi in discum amplam aabiobatum dilatata, dein
fusiformi et in nlam longissime tenuiaaimam tortile deainente, oyariia subglo-
boaia in atjlnm brevem oontractia, atigmate truncato.

A. Griffithii, Schott, Synopa. Aroid. vol. i. p. 26 (1856) ; Frodr, Sust, Aroid.
p. 54; EngLlcbm,

A. Hookerianam, SchoU in (Bit, Bot Wbchenbl. 1867, p. 334 ; Frodr. Syst Aroid.
p. 29.

PyTHOwii 8p, ; Qriff. Fosth. Fapers, yol. ii. p. 201, no. 1179.



This is by far the finest species of the genus as yet
known. It was discovered by GriflBth in Bhotan, at eleva-
tions of 3000 to 5000 feet, and named, from imperfect spe-
cimens, after its discoverer by Schott, who however failed
to recognize it amongst the species subsequently brought
by myself from Sikkim, and transmitted to him for exami-
nation, and he consequently gave to the latter the name of
-4. Hookerianum. A comparison of Griffith's Bhotan speci-
men with my own does not enable me to detect any
difference between them, though the latter appears to affect
a much higher elevation, for I have never gathered it much
below 8000 feet of elevation, and it ascends to 10,000 feet.

Under A. utile (Tab. 6474) I have described the use to
which the tuberous roots of this and other species of
UAY 1st, 1880.



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Anscema are put by the natives of the HimEilaya in times of
scarcity as ai'ticles of food. The plate here given is from
a specimen flowered by H. N. Elwes, Esq., who introduced
this and many other species, aided by a drawing made in
its native country by an artist employed by the late Judge
Cathcart, and preserved in the Kew collection of drawings.
In this drawing the bases of the peduncle and petioles
are subtended by two oblong membranous sheaths, three
and five inches long respectively, which are white and
obscurely mottled or banded with dull grey. It flowered
at Preston House in May, 1879.

Desob. Dioecious. Tuber the size of the fist. Leaves
two ; petiole five to eight inches long, thicker than the
thumb, green ; leaflets three, eight to ten inches long and
broad, from trapezoid-ovate to orbicular, acuminate or
apiculate, subsessile, dark green with deeply-sunk reticulate
veins which are very prominent beneath, margins slightly
undulate yellow or red. Peduncle shorter and hardly so
stout as the petiole, green. 8pathe very large, tubular
portion four to six inches long, cylindric, expanding above


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Online LibraryWilliam Jackson HookerCurtis's botanical magazine → online text (page 4 of 11)