William Jackson Hooker.

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narrowly ellipsoid or oblong, narrowed at both ends, usually
slightly curved in a sigmoid manner; testa pale brown,
quite smooth. — J. D. jff.



Fig. 1, fruiting cyme ; 2, stamens ; 3, pistil ; 4, transverse section of pistil :—
all but fig, 1 enlarged.



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Tab. 6i85.

CYANANTHUS lobatus.
Native of tite Himalayan Mcnmtains.

Nat. Ord. Campanulacbje. — Tribe Cahpanulba.
Genus Cyananthus, Wall.; (Benth, el Hook.f. Gen, PL vol. iL p. 667.)



Ctananthus lobatus ; caulibus adscendentibus foliosis pilosis villoeis v. glabratis,
foliis glabratis cuneato-obovatis v. spathulatis irregulariter S^-lobatis v. inciso-
crenatls, floribas breviter pedunoulatis magnis speciosis, oaljcis tubo cylindraceo
subinflato atro dense villoso breviter 5-lobo, lobis triangulari-lanceolatis, coroll»
l»te violaoes lobis patent! -recarvis late obovatis apiculatis apicibus barbellatis.

C. lobatus. Wall. Cat. no. 1473 ; Benth. in Royle HI. Himal. PL p. 309. t 69,
f. 1 ; LindL in Bot. Beg. N. 8. vol. xx. t. 6 > Be^el Gartenfl. t 888 ; tiook.f,
and Thorns, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vol. ii. p. 19.



This is certainly one of the most beautiful of the alpine

Himalayan herbaceous plants, forming broad patches on

the bare mountain flanks at elevations of 12,000 to 14,000

feet from Kumaon eastwards to Sikkim, enlivened with a

profusion of briUiant violet-blue horizontal or nodding

flowers. It was discovered in Kumaon and Nepal by

Wallich's collectors in 1821, and was introduced into the

Horticultural Gardens in 1845 by that gallant soldier and

accomplished botanist. General Munro, C.B., whose lamented

death took place a few weeks ago. There, however, it

seems to have flowered very imperfectly, the specimen

figured in the Botanical Register having a shorter green

faintly hairy calyx, and pale corolla with narrower lobes

than in the specimen here figured. In his description of

the plant Dr. Lindley alludes to the anomalous character of

its wholly superior ovary and naked style, as opposed to its

being placed in Campanulacece, to which Order Bentham

had rightly referred it, and wherein it has been retained by

all succeeding botanists.

Cyananthus lobatus may be successfully treated as a rook-

APBiL 1st, 1880.



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work plants, and though once long lost to cultivation, is not
likely to be so again, now that herbaceous plants are fast
becoming favourites with intelligent collectors. The speci-
men here figured was raised from Himalayan seeds, and
flowered in the open border in July and August.

Descb. a soft densely tufted low herb, with faintly milky
juice. Stems decumbent, sending up numerous ascending
slender usually simple one-flowered leafy branches, that are
covered with brown spreading hairs or glabrate. Leaves
one-half to one inch long, alternate, narrowly cuneate or
cuneate-obovate, three- to five-lobed, the lobes entire or
crenately cut, narrowed into a broad petiole, glabrous or
sparingly hairy. Flowers solitary, terminal, erect in bud,
then horizontal, one to one and a quarter of an inch long.
Calyx broadly tubular and somewhat inflated, brown-black
and clothed densely with dark brown long soft hairs ; lobes
about one-fourth the length of the tube, triangular-lanceo-
late, acute, erect. Corolla-tube broad, longer than the calyx ;
limb one to one and a quarter of an inch in diameter, throat
open, bearded ; lobes spreading and recurved, deep violet-
blue, paler towards the throat, obovate with a minute
bearded point. Stamens forming a membranous five-toothed
tube around the ovary, filaments at length free and slender;
anthers remaining united and bursting inwards. Ova/ry
wholly superior, ovoid, five-grooved and five-celled; style
rather short, glabrous, stigma with five short spreading
teeth. — J. D. H.

Fig. 1, young ovary and staminal tabe; 2, stamens; 3, transyerse section of
ovary : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6486.
lonicera tombntblla.

Native of the 8%khim Himalaya.



Nat. Ord. Capbifoliacke. — Tribe Lokicsbbjb.
Qenos Lohicbba, Linn,; {Benth. et Hook./. Gen. PL toL ii. p. 5.)



LoKiCBEA (Xjlosteam) tomentella ; erecta, ramolis rigidis strictis foliis<^ae subtus
pilosis tomentellisye, foliis parvis breviter petiolatis ovato-oblongis obtasis
coriaceis supra slabris y. Duberulis opacis nereis ioconspicuis, petiolo tomentoso,
pedunculis axillaribus solitariis v. 2-nis brevibus tomentosis 2-floris, braoteis
parvis lineari-oblongis recorvis, bracteolis in cupnlam basin ovariornm amplec-
tentem glabram oonnatis, floribns pendulis alois inodoris, ovariis libens y.
per paria oonnatis glabris, caljoe breviter 5-dentato, corolIsB tabo anguste
infundibulari piloso, limbi subseanalis lobis brevibus rotundatis, stylo glabro,
baocis piriformibus globosis y. didymis, seminibus parris.

L. tomentella. Hook. f. and Thorn*, in Jbum. Linn. Sor. vol. ii. p. 167 ; C. B.
Clarke in Hook.f. Fl. Brit. Ind. vol. iii. p. 12 (ined.).



Honeysuckles abound in the Himalaya, where no fewer
than twenty-two species have been detected, some of which
attain an elevation of 16,000 feet above the sea-level. The
Indian mountains are, in fact, the head-quarters of the genus,
all Europe containing but seventeen species ; the Oriental
region (from Greece to AfEghanistan) possesses exactly the
same number, according to Boissier's " Flora Orientalis ;"
the Russian dominions from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean
contain only thirteen, and North America about a dozen.

L. tomentella is a native of the interior valleys of the
Sikkim Himalaya, at elevations of 8,000 to 12,000 feet,
where I discovered it in 1849, forming a shrub ten to twelve
feet high. The specimen figured was from a plant culti-
vated at Kew from seeds, sent by me in the above-mentioned
year ; it flowers annually in July.

Descb. a rigid bush, ten to twelve feet high, with stiff
spreading branches and slender usually densely softly
tomentose branchlets. Leaves two-thirds to one and a half
inch long, subdistichous, shortly petioled, ovate-oblong or

IPBIL IST, 1880.



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almost elliptic, rounded at both ends, dark dull-green and
puberulous or glabrous and opaque above, paler beneath and
more or less pubescent or tomentose ; midrib stout, nerves
obscure; petiole one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch long,
tomentose. Peduncles axillary, solitary or in pairs (from
opposite axils), very short, rarely one-sixth of an inch long,
decurved, two-flowered, densely tomentose; bracts small,
linear-oblong, spreading and recurved, green ; bracteoles
united into a glabrous cup which embraces the bases of the
ovaries. Flowers in pairs, the ovaries glabrous, united or
free. Calyx-tube hardly produced, with five triangular teeth.
Corolla two-thirds of an inch long, tube narrowly funnel-
shaped, not gibbous at the base, slightly hairy, white ; limb
of five subequal short rounded spreading lobes, white tinged
with pink. Stamens included. Ovary two- to three-celled.
Style glabrous, stigma capitate. Berries the size of a small
pea, globose, blue-black, many-seeded. — /. D. H.



Fig. 1, flowers, bracts, and peduncles ; 2, corolla laid open ; 3, bracteoles and
ovaries ; 4, stamens ; 5, style and stigma ; 6, fruit : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6487.
EICHORNIA AzuREA.

Native of Brazil,

Nat Ord. Pontbdbbiacbje.
Genus Eichobnia, Kunih. ; {JEnum, Plant, vol. iy. p. 129.)



IsliCHOBinA azurea; rhizomate crasso, foliia orbicnlatis y. rhombeo-orbiculaiia
obtosia in petiolum elon^atam crassum basi rix intamescentem angnistatU,
pedoncnlo crasao in spauiam solitariam brevem recuryam obtoaam dilatato,
racemo moltifloro, rachi robusto, floribas 2-ni8 breviter pedioellatis aparsia,
periantbio extoa piloso, aegmentis obovato-oblongia obtuais ezterioriboa
majoribua, interioribus marginiboa erosia, staminiboa fere inclaaia, saperioribna
8ub«eqaaliter inaertis 3 inferiorum poatioo demissioa inserto, filamentda omniam
breyibiia anbnlatis subteqnilongia pubemlia, stylo gracili paberalo.

E. azurea, Kunth,Enum, Plant, vol. iv. p. 129; Gri9eh, FL Brit. W. Ind. 690;
Seubert in Mart, Fl. Bras, vol. iii. part j. p. 90 ; Schlecht. in Halle Ahhandl,
Nat, Oesell. vol. vi. p. 149, ctim Ic. ; Hemsley in The Garden, 1880, p. 220.

Pontederia azurea, Swartz, Fl, Ind, Dec. vol. i. p. 609 (non Bot. Mag, t. 2932).

P. tumida, Willd, Herb. n. 6369 (ex Kunth, I, c),

P. aquatica. Veil. Fl. Flum. Ic, vol. iii. t. 164.



The plants belonging to the Order Pordeden'acece are de-
scribed in systematic works in a very unsatisfactory manner;
this is due to the fact that their very fugacious flowers
cannot be analyzed in herbarium specimens, on account of
their membranous consistence, and to the variations to
which the leaves and stems of the same plant are subject,
according to whether it grows in deep or shallow water or
in mud. The genus Pontederia of Linnaeus was in 1843
rightly divided into two by Kupth, who retained the old
name for the species with one-ovuled ovarian cells, and
founded upon the many-ovuled the new genus Eichornta.
Seubert, in Martins and Endlicher's Flora of Brazil, has
adopted those genera, describing six S. American species
of the former and eight of Eichornia. It is with the latter
we have to do in the matter of the plant here figured, and

APBIL IST, 1880.



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I am unable from the descriptions to refer it altogether
satisfactorily to any described species. Of these, only one
of the species with racemose inflorescence has been hitherto
well figured, namely, that referred (t. 2932) to Swartz's
Pontederia azurea (which is also figured in Martius' " Nova
Genera et Species," as P. crassipes^ Martius). This Kunth
considers not to be Swartz's plant, and makes a new species
of it ; E. speeiosa, Kth. In so doing he is very probably
justified, though it is to be regretted that he did not retain
Martius' characteristic name of crassipes, especially as he
quotes that author's description and figure. Swartz's P.
azurea, then, is Kunth' s Eichornia azurea, and the doubt
in my mind is whether the subject of the present plate is
referable to it. On the one hand, it appears to agree with
a specimen of the only Jamaica species known to me which
could be considered as Swartz's azurea, gathered by Purdie,
and which Grisebach considers the tnie one ; on the other
hand, neither Swartz, nor P. Browne in his full description,
alludes to the beautifully-toothed inner perianth segment
of our plant, nor can the latter author's description of the
stamens be regarded as quite satisfactory : " filamenta . . 3
superior a ad basim tubo adnata ; 3 inferiora in fundo floris
sita." Browne adds, " I observed this plant in most of
the Lagoons about the Ferry ; " and Purdie's ticket bears
" Habitat, behind the Ferry," which must be regarded as
settling the point in the present state of our knowledge.

The figure cited of Schlechtendahl, appears to represent
a larger-flowered plant than this, with flowers not in pairs,
almost orbicular-obovate, much larger inner perianth lobes,
and the eye-like spot rounded.

E. azurea is, as far as can be ascertained by a comparison
of dried specimens, a common tropical South American
water-plant, extending from South Brazil to Jamaica; it
varies greatly in the size and form of the leaves and length
of the petiole, and is found either floating, or rooted and
erect in the muddy bottom of shallow water. It was
introduced into the gardens of the Royal Botanic Society,
Regent's Park, from Brazil, and flowered there in Julv of
last year, and I am indebted to Mr. Sowerby for the plant
here figured.

Descr. Stems as thick as the thumb, floating and rooting,
green, smooth, flexuous. Leaves on long or short petioles.



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whicli are not inflated, very variable in size and shape,
three to eight inches in diameter, from rounded cordate to
trapeziform or rhomboid or very broadly oblate and obcor-
date, rounded retuse or subacute at the tip. Scape often
as stout as the petiole, curved, gradually dilated into a
solitary short recurved very obtuse cucullate spathe.
Flowers scattered or crowded in pairs along a stout hairy
sessile rachis. Perianth one and a half inch long, funnel-
shaped, hairy externally, bright pale-blue ; tube often split
between the segments ; outer segments elliptic-lanceolate,
acute, sub-equal, margins entire; inner segments obovate,
obtuse, margins erose, upper rather the largest with a
yellow heart-shaped eye which is margined with white.
Filaments sub-equal, all short, papillose; three upper
shortly exserted, three lower included in the tube, one
placed lower than the others ; anthers short, ovoid-oblong.
Ovary glabrous three-celled, cells many-ovuled ; style very
slender, pubescent. — J. D. H.



Fig. 1, perianth laid open ; 2, stamens ; 3, ovary ; 4, stigma ; 5, ovary cut
across : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6488.
SENECIO sPEOiosus, DC.

Native of South Africa,

Nat Ord. CoMFOSiTiB.— Tribe Sbneciohidb^.
QeauB Senicio, Linn,; (Benth, et Hook, f. Gen. PL vol. ii. p. 446.)



Sbkbcio 9peeio9u$ ; herbacens, glandnloso-pubescens v. hirsatns, radice perennante,
foliis carnoBulis radioalibus obovato-lanoeolatis sabacutis v. obtusia crenato-
serratis ▼. sinuato-dentatis, scapo elongate robusto flexuoso, foliis cauUnit
obloDgis inferioribas auricalato-l-amplexicaulibas obtnsis, superioribas sessi-
libas acutU, oorymbis laxis, capitulis longe peduncalatis roeeo-purpureis disco
saturatiore, iavolucro subcampanulato basi rotandato bracteis panels dissitis
instracto, bracteis propriis anguste linearibus glandaloso-hirsutis, floribus radii
6-20, li^la lineari stricta patente apiee minute 3-dentata, acheniis sulcatia
paberulis.

a specioeus, Willd. 8p. PI vol. iii. pars 3, p. 1991; DC. Prod, vi 407; Lodd.
Bot. Cab, 1. 1113 ; Xer in Bot, Beg. t. 41 ; Ait, Hort. Kew, vol. v. p. 43 ;
N. Bi-ovm in Qard. Chron, 1879, p. 616.

S. psendo-china, Andr, Bot, Bep, t. 291, non Linn,

S. concelor, Haro, et Sond, Fl, Cap, iiL 362, in part,

S. concolor var, hispido-scabra, DC. L e, 4/y7,



Mr. N. Brown has, in the "Grardeners* Chronicle'* quoted
above, cleared up the confused synonymy and history of
this beautiful plant. It was published first in 1806, by
Andrews, as the Linnaean S.pseudo-china, it being supposed
to have been introduced from that country, and to afibrd
the drug called " China-root," which, however, involved a
second mistake, as that drug is the produce of a Smilax.

It next appeared in Willdenow's *^ Species Plantarum,"
the author of which, recognizing its difference from
Linnasus' 8. psetido-china^ called it S. speciosus. In 1816
Ker figured it under Willdenow's name in the " Botanical
Register," observing that the native country of the plant
was not precisely determined, it being called Siberian by
some and Chinese by others. Ten years afterwards
Loddiges figured it in his " Botanical Cabinet," as intro-
duced by him from the Mauritius, adding that it is a
supposed native of China. In 1837 De CandoUe, having
South African specimens of Ecklon and Drege before him,

APBIL IST, 1880.



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and not recognizing their identity with 8. speciosus^ pub-
lished it as a variety of his 8. concolor^ placing it, however,
close to the supposed Chinese 8. speciosus^ whose true
relationship to the otherwise wholly African group of this
diflScult genus he had the sagacity to discern. Lastly,
Harvey, in the "Flora Capensis," describes it as var.
hispidus of 8. concolor, DC, and suggests that it should be
regarded as the type of that species. In this he clearly
errs, 8. speciosus being a very different and far finer plant
than 8, concolor, with which, however (and with very few
others of the genus, and these all, according to Mr. Brown,
South African), it agrees in the disk flowers being almost
concolorous with the ray.

The specimen here figured was fiowered in July last in
the Royal Botanical Gardens of Edinburgh, from seeds
collected in December, 1878, on the battle-field of Quintana,
by Sergeant D. WiUiamson. It has a wide range in South
Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope itself to Natal, and,
as Mr. Brown remarks, its supposed Chinese origin is pro-
bably due to its having been brought by one of the home-
ward-bound China-ships, which regularly touched at the
Cape. According to the " Hortus Kewensis," it was
introduced into England about 1789 by G. Slater, Esq.

Desor. Boot stout, fleshy, perennial. Leaves four to
seven inches long, obovate lanceolate or narrowly linear
spathulate, crenately toothed or sinuately lobed, rarely sub-
pinnatifid, subacute or obtuse, clothed more or less densely
with glandular hairs, sometimes almost hispid when dry.
8cape a foot high or less, with spreading glandular hairs,
and alternate rather distant erect linear- oblong leaves, the
lower of which are cordate and semi-amplexicaul. Corymbs
spreading, with few long-peduncled heads, which are one
and a half inch in diameter, and of a bright- purple colour.
Involucre broadly campanulate, densely glandular-hairy,
calyculate by a few short bracts at the rounded base ; bracts
narrowly Imear. Bay-flowers six to twenty; ligules
narrowly linear, spreading straight out, minutely toothed
at the tip. Achenes slender, grooved, pubescent ; pappus
hairs very slender, scaberulous, silky, white. — J. D. H.

Pig. 1, involucre cut open; 2, ray- flower; 3, its style-arras; 4, disk-flower;
6, pappus hair ; 6, stamen ; 7, style-amis : — alt enlarged.



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Tab. 6489.
xiphion kolpakowskianum.

Native of Turkesta/n.

Nat. Ord. Isidac&b. — Tribe Xiphionidea.
Genus Xiphiok, Taumef, ; {Baker in Joum, Linn. Soc, Bot. vol. xvi. p. 122).



XiPHiOK KolpaJcowshianum ; bulbo eloboso, tunicis exterioribus fibrosis fibris
validis irregulariter anastomosantibas, foliis pancis an^uste linearibus pallide
viridibus profunde canaliculatis albo-vittatis post anthesin accrescentibus, scapo
brevissimo hypogseo unifloro, spatha elongata cylindrica pallide yiridi bivalvi,
ovario cylindrico pedioellato, tnbo cylindrico bipollicari pallide lilacino, limbi
s^mentis sequilongis, exterioribus oblongo-lanceolatis acotis lon^e unguicalatis,
lamina flore expanso patula saturate lilacino-purpurea, carina aurantiaca
imberbi, segmentis interioribus oblanceolatis unguiculatis erectis pallide lilacinis
concoloribus, stylis perianthio paulo brevioribus pallide lilacinis, cristis lanceo-
latis, antheris albis, filamentLi liberis. *

Iris (Xipbion) Eolpakowskiana, Begel Descript, part v. p. 47 ; Gartenjl, vol. xxvii.
(1878), p. 40 and 161, tab. 939.



This is one of the many interesting bulbous plants which
have been discovered during the last few years by the
Russian explorers in Central Asia, and which have been
sent alive to St. Petersburg by the exertions of Dr. Albert
Kegel, and liberally distributed by his father amongst the
European public gardens and amateurs. The present
plant is a close ally of the well-known Xiphion reticulatum
of the Orient and the Caucasus, of which a good figure
under the name of Iris reticulata will be found Bot. Mag.
Tab. 5577. The principal diflTerence between the two is
not in the flower, but in the bulb and leaves. It flowers at
the same time, and has something of the same violet odour,
and in all likelihood will prove equally hardy. It grows
plentifully in fields near Wernoje, in Turkestan, and was
named by Dr. Kegel in compliment to General Von Kol-
pakowsky. Our plate was made from specimens and a
coloured sketch, sent by Mr. F. W. Burbidge, with whom
it flowered under glass in the botanic garden at Trinity

JLPfilL l8T, 1880.



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College, Dublin, in tlie middle of January this present
year.

Desob. Bulb globose, half an incli in diameter; outer
tunics fibrous, th© fibres strong and anastomosing irregu-
larly. Leaves wrapped round at the base by a sheath two
or three inches long, which reaches to the surface of the
ground ; produced leaves four to six, narrow linear, gla-
brous, rounded and faintly keeled on the back, deeply
channelled down the face with a distinct white central
band like a Crocus, pale green, not glaucous, very short at
the flowering time, but growing much longer as the spring
advances. Scape very short, hypogaeous, one-flowered.
Spathe cylindrical, pale green, about two inches long, two-
valved. Ovary cylindrical, pedicellate inside the spathe.
Perianth about four inches, the tube and the hmb of equal
length, the former cylindrical, pale lilac, protruded con-
siderably above the top of the spathe ; outer segments with
a long erect claw and a spreading oblong-lanceolate acute
blade, which is deep violet-purple, with a beardless bright
yellow keel ; inner segments just the same length as the
outer, oblanceolate-unguiculate, erect, pale lilac, concolo-
rous. Styles the same colour as the inner segments, and
falling but little short of them ; crests lanceolate, a third
of an inch long. Anthers cream- white, under half an inch
long ; filaments free, as long as the anthers. — J. G. Baker.



Fig. 1, a bulb, natural size ; 2, section of a leaf; 3, an inner segment of the
perianth ; 4, style and anther : — the tico latter about natural size.



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6490.



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Tab. 6490.

CYPRIPEDIUM Spioebunum.
Native of the East Indies.

Nat Ord. OfiCHiDBiB.— Tribe Ctpxipbpibjb.
GeniiB Ctpsipidiuh, Zhtn, ; (EndL Oen. PL p. 220.)



Ctpbipbdivm S^ncerianum ; foliis distichis Uneari-obloogis sabacatis carinatis basi
complicatis luride viridibos, scapo pnbescente purpureo gracili 1-floro, bractea
oblonga viridi purpareo-striolata ovario porpureo pubescente malto breyiore,
sepalo dorsali maeno e basi erecto Tirefioeiite birsato in laminam albam
porrectam late reniformi-rotundatam marginibua recuryis auricalffiformibns et
apice ooropUcato erecto dilatato, sepalis lateraHbus in unum late ovatum acntom
labello subpositum connatis, petalis brevibus deflexis lineari-oblongis flavo-
▼iridibus et mbro striolatis marginibiu crispato-undolatis, labello saocato
anriculis rotnndatis saturate fusco-purpureo, sinu lato acuto, staminodio rotnn-
dato l»te porpareo marginibns albis recnrvis, columna hinata.

C. Spiceriannm, Beiehb.f. ex Gard. Chron. 1880, p. 40 et 74, e^ Ic. xylog. p. 41,
tine descriptione.



Very distinct from any described species of Gypripedium,
and belonging to the prolific group of the genus of which
C. insigne, Wall., is the first-published example. Of its
history little is known ; I have found no description of it,
and the only information which I have gathered regarding
it is from a passage in the " Gardeners' Chronicle, to the
effect that " it is understood to have been received from
India, some time ago, by Mr. Spicer, amongst a mixed
collection of Orchids, without any indication whatever as
to its habitat. When it flowered for the first time, a bloom
was sent to Prof. Reichenbach, who named the plant in
compliment to the gentleman through whose instrumenta-
hty it was introduced into British gardens, and for whom
Messrs. James Veitch and Sons purchased the stock." I
am indebted to Messrs. Veitch for the specimen here
figured, which flowered in October, 1879, in their establish-
ment at Chelsea.

Desob. Stemless. Leaves few, distichous, five to eight

APEIL l8T, 1880.



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inches long by one to one and a quarter inch broad, nar-
rowly linear-oblong, dark green and deeply channelled
down the centre above, keeled beneath, complicate at the
base, where the sheathing portion is mottled with purple.
Scape about as long as the leaves, with an oblong com-
pressed basal sheath, slender, dark red-purple, pubescent,
one-flowered; bract linear-oblong, obtuse, compressed,
much shorter than the red-purple ovary, green streaked
with purple dots. Flowers erect, three inches long from


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Online LibraryWilliam Jackson HookerCurtis's botanical magazine → online text (page 4 of 11)