William Jackson Hooker.

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of the evergreen region of Italy south of latitude 41", and
struggles through the lower woodland region up to the upper
limits of the beech, about 3000 feet above the sea, growing
in exceedingly dense tufts on limestone rocks. We have,
however, specimens gathered by Mr. Grove at 5000 feet
elevation, in the valley of Orienda of the Abruzzi.

Descb. a glabi'ous hairy or pubescent decumbent herb,
with slender branches six to ten inches long springing
from a woody perennial root-stock. Leaves scattered, long-
petioled ; the lower ovate or rounded-ovate, acute or obtuse,
coarsely crenate-toothed, shorter than the petioles, which
are one and a half inch long; the upper narrower and
shorter petioled. Flmvers axillary and in lax terminal
corymbs, pedicelled, bright pale blue. Calyx-tube sub-
globose, grooved; lobes three-fourths the length of the
corolla, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, quite entire, sinus
without a fold. Corolla one and a half to two inches in
diameter, almost flat, the tube being but slightly concave,
five-lobed to about the middle ; lobes broadly ovate, sub-
acute. Style long, slender ; stigmas three, oblong, obtuse.
—J. D. H.



Fig. 1, Top of style and stigma: — enlarged.



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Tab. 6505.
BBRBERIS BuxiFOLiA.
Native of Chili.



Nat. Ord. Bbbbebidejb. — Tribe Besbebb^.
Genus Bebbebis, Linn.; (Benth, et SooJk,/, Gen, Plant vol. i. p. 43.)



Bebbebis huxifolia; erecta, glaberrima, foliis fascicalatis oboTatis v. caneato-
obovatis obtusis acatis v. pungentibos coriaceis integerrimis v. paucidentatis
sessilibus ▼. in petiolum angustatis, pednnculis solitariiB l-floria foliis longioribus,
floribus aurantiacis sepalb 3 exterioribas ovatis quam interiora orbiculata
retosa dnplo brevioribos, petalis oblongis fosco-aurantiacis staminibus paulo
longioribos, baccis globosis, stylo distincto valido, stigmate majusculo peltato.

B. buiifolia, Lamk, III. Gen. t. 253, f . 3 ; DC. Frodr. vol. i. p. 107 ; Gay Fl,
Chil. vol. i. p. 91.

B. dulcis, Sweet Brit. Fl. Gard. Ser. 2, t. 100; Paxt. Mag. Bot. vol. x. t. 171.



The nomenclature of the species of Berberis presents
many diflBculties, and though I am satisfied as to the
present plant being the B. huxifolia of Lamarck, figured
in his '' Illustrations'* in 1802, and B. dulcis of Sweet,
published in 1838, I am not persuaded that it may not
have an earlier name than either of these. The difficulties
referred to arise from the extreme variability both of the
foUage and the inflorescence. Of these the latter is used
for sectional characters, according as the flowers are soli-
tary, fascicled, or corymbose; but when the corymb is
sessile, the flowers appear fascicled, and it is often the case
that the flowers of the fascicles are reduced to one. Thus
I in the " Flora Antarctica,'' and De Candolle in his
Systema (vol. ii. p. 15), have referred to this species
Forster's B. microphylla^ a Fuegian plant, found by me as
fer south as Cape Horn itseU, which has short three-
flowered peduncles, which are often reduced to one-flowered
ones, when it closely resembles B. huxifolia^ but it differs
in a character which is almost unique amongst the high

JULY 1st, 1880.



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southern species of the genus, of the leaves, which are very
small, being deciduous, and the flowers appearing with the
very early leafy shoots. More similar still to the present
plant is Ruiz and Pavon's B. virgata (Fl. Peru and Chili,
vol. i. p. 51, tab. 281, f. B.), a native of the mountains of
Peru; but here again the flowers (though described as
solitary by De CandoUe) are stated by its authors to be
three, or sometimes two or four, and the peduncles are
short, compared with those of B. huxifoUa.

Berberis biixifolia ranges from Chili to the Straits of
Magellan, and probably further south, but in Fuegia it is
replaced by B. ilicifoUa and B. microphylla. It was intro-
duced into cultivation by seeds collected by Mr. Anderson,
the botanical collector attached to Captain King's survey
of the Magellan Straits, which were raised in Mr. Low's
nursery at Clapton. It has long been cultivated at Kew.
The berries are eatable.

Descr. An erect glabrous rigid shrub. Leaves tufted ;
one to one and a half inch long, very coriaceous, sessile or
contracted into a petiole, obovate or cuneate-obovate, acute,
obtuse or mucronate, quite entire or rarely with a few
small spinous teeth, deep bright green. Flowers solitary
on long stout glabrous or puberulous pedicels, which are
longer, and sometimes twice as long as the leaves, globose,
half an inch in diameter, orange-yellow. Sepals ovate,
obtuse, three outer half as long as the inner, which are
orbicular and retuse. Berry nearly globose, dark blackish-
purple ; style stout, distinct ; stigma orbicidar. — J. D. H.



Fig. 1, Flower cut longitudinally; 2, petal and stamen; 3, front and back view
of stamens ; 4, pistil : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6506.
INDIGOFERA Anil.
Native of the West Indies.

Nat. Ord. LBGUiiiNOSiB.— Tribe Gileoe^.
Genus Ikdioofeba, Linn,; {Benth. et Hook./, Oen, Plant, vol. i. p. 494.)



Indioofeba (Enindigofera) Anil; snffrutescens, cano-pnberula, foliis pinnatis,
pinnis 3-7-jugi8 oppositis oblongis ellipticis obovatis v. lineari- v. obovato-
oblongis obtasis v. retasis, Btipnlis suoalatis, racemis Bubsessilibus erectis
strictis folio brevioribns, cal^cis lobis triaDgnlaribus, vexillo parvo rotnndato,
alia anguRte oblongia obtnsis carinam sequantibus, legnmine lineari-oblongo
arcnato-recurvo roatrato obtuse 4-goni leevi G-lO-spermo sutara dorsali
incrass&to.

I. Anil, Linn. Mant, p. 272 ; Sloane, Hist. Jam, t. 179, f. 2 ; Lamk, Encycl.
t. 626; Did. 8c. Nat, t. 262; Trait, Archiv. t. 72; Tussac, Fl, Antill.
t 72; DC. Prodr, vol. ii. p. 225, excL var, y; Griseb. Fl. Brit. W, Ind,
p. 181 ; Bentk. in Mart, Fl. Bras. Legum, p. 40.

I, nncinata, G. Don Gard. Diet. vol. ii. p. 208.

I. micrantba, Dew. in Ann. Se. Nat. Ser. i. vol. ix. p. 410.



This, the indigenous Indigo of the West Indies, is the
representative of the I. tinctoria or Indigo of the Old World ;
but both of these plants having been cultivated for some
centuries for the extraction of the well-known dye, are now
naturalized in the tropics of the Old and the New World.
Of the two species, I. tinctoria was known for its product
from very early times, being in use by the Egyptians and
described by Dioscorides; whereas the I. Anil could not have
been known in Europe or the East until after the discovery
of America. An Indigo appears, however, to have been
used by the natives of the New World before it was brought
into competition with the plant of the Old; for Sloane
(Hist. Jam. vol. ii. p. 37) says, *' Robt. Tomson ap. Hakl.
p. 454, found it about Mexico, where it is used to die blue."
It is, however, very doubtful if the plant here alluded to be
the Indigofera Anil. It is a somewhat singular fact that
although the Indigofera tinctoria has been for so many centu-
ries the only Indigo-plant known in the Old World, the first
species recognized by botanists was the West Indian I. Anil.

JULY IST, 1880.



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According to Sir Jas. Smith (in Rees' Bncyclop80dia),Gerarde
in 1597, and Johnson in 1632, knew nothing of any Indigo-
plant, Parkinson in 1640 being the first to treat of it as
"Indico or Indian Woad," giving a figure of the leaf from De
La3t,and describing it, first from Ximenes in Lset^s description
of America, and secondly from Mr.WilUam Finch, in Purchas*
Pilgrims. Ray, in 1688, says that it is not agreed from
what plant Indigo is made, and suggests that it is from a
leguminous one allied to Golutea ; he describes it from
Hernandez and Margraaf, and subjoins the description of
the (Indian) " Ameri " from Rheede's Hortus Malabarius.
Here for the first time the American and Indian species
are botanically both alluded to, though as one, nor were
they distinguished till a much later period. Linnasus, in the
1753 edition of the Species Plantar um, describes only the
Indian species, nor was it till the pubUcation of his Man-
tissa, in 1771, that the American was recognized as
dififerent, by its much smaller flowers and more curved
pods, which are even (not beaded). For further informa-
tion on the much-vexed question of the L Anily I must
refer to A. De CandoUe's " Geographic Botanique," vol. ii.
p. 855. Our figure of L Anil is taken from a plant that
flowered in the Economic House at Kew. The artist, Mrs.
Barnard, observes that the petals of the keel separate
elastically when touched.

Desor. An erect shrub, three to six feet high, faintly
hoary, with appressed hairs which are attached by the
middle. Leaves four to five inches long, pinnate ; pinnules
one to one and a half inches long, in three to seven pairs,
variable in shape, from linear-oblong to obovate-oblong,
or almost obcordate; stipules subulate. Racemes sessile,
stiff, erect, much shorter than the leaves, many-flowered.
Flowers a quarter of an inch long, shortly pedicelled.
Calyx very short, with triangular teeth. Standard hairy
on the back, orbicular, greenish, pale pink within. Wings
oblong, pink, equalhng the narrow keel. Pods numerous,
an inch long, linear-oblong, obtusely four-angled, curved
upwards, beaked, smooth, six- to ten-seeded. — J. JD. H.

^ Fig. 1, Side, and 2, front view of flower ; 3, calyx ; 4, standard ; 6, wings ;
6, keel ; 7, stamens ; 8, pistil : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6507.
BUCKLANDIA populnea.

Native of the Eastern Himalaya.

Nat Ord. Hahamelide£.
Genus Bucklandia, Br.; {Benth, et HooJc.f, Gen. PL vol. i. p. 669.)



BucELANDiA pojmlnea; arbor elata, ramulis articulatis, foliis altemis petiolatis
late cordato^vatis v. orbicalatis coriaceis palmatinerviis acuminatis inte^rrimis
■tipalisqae sanguineo-coloratis ianioribas S-cuspidatis, petiolo terete eiongato,
stipulis 2-ni8 magnis oblique obovato-oblongis apice rotundatis crasse coriaceis
nervosis ramulos juniores geniculatim inflexos pedunculosve amplectentibns,
florum capitula globosa polygama v. uiiisexuaiia pedanculata pilosa, caly-
cibas conflnentibus eonnatis, caljcis tubo ovario adnato, in fl. ^ obscaro,
limbo (v. disco) carnosulo truncato repando-2-lobo, petalis namero incertis 4-5
y. paucioribas lineari-spathulatis ssepe in stamina matatis carnosalis, sestivatione
incarvis v. in fl. $ Sfepios nidimentaria, staminibus in fl. ^ 10-14 in $ nallis,
filamentis subulatis, antberis basiifixis, ovario ^-infero 2-localari, stjlis 2
subnlatis recurvis, capsula subglobosa, seminibus in loculis ad 6, saperioribus
osseis embryone 0» fertilibos snpeme longe alatis.

B. populnea, Br, in Wall. Cat, n. 14t\4i,etin Vermischte SchrtftenyYoX, v. p. 374;
Uriff. in Asiat, Research, vol. xix. t. 13, 14 ; Hooh.f. et Thorns, in Joum,
Linn, Soe, vol. ii. p. 86 ; C. B. Clarke in Fl, Brit. Ind. vol. ii. p. 429.

Liquidambar tricospidata, MiquelFl, Ind. Bot, i. pars i. 1097, Sappl. 139, 346, t. 4.



One of the most beautiful trees of the forests of the
Sikkim Himalaya, at elevations of 4000 to 6000 feet ; also
not unfrequent in the Khasia mountains, where, however, it
does not attain the same stature, in so far as I have seen ;
and of the mountains of Sumatra. From the elevations at
which it grows in the Himalaya, there is no prospect of
Bucklandia being hardy in England, but as a greenhouse
ornament no plant of the class can be more attractive.

The trunk is cylindric and straight in well-grown trees,
and, together with the oblong crown of evergreen foliage,
attains 100 feet in height. The wood-vessels are annu-
late and the pith punctate as in the wood of Magnoliaceoe^
which, with the remarkable stipules resembling those of
Liriodendro7ij establish a resemblance between these other-

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wise very different genera. Nothing can exceed the beauty
of the young foliage of Bucklandiay and this has induced
me to figure it for the Botanical Magazine without fresh
flowers, which will probably not be produced for several
years. The foliage figured is that of young trees, three to
five feet high, at present standing on the shelves of the
Temperate House at Kew, and which are about as many
years old ; they were raised from seeds sent by Dr. King,
of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, and Mr. Gammie, of Dar-
jeeling. The figure represents by no means the largest
leaves on the plants, some of which are nearly a foot in
diameter. The leaves of the young plant have often three
to five cusps irregularly placed beyond the middle. Those
of the full-grown tree are much smaller and are always
entire and green.

Desck. a tall erect evergreen tree. Leaves long-petioled,
four to six inches broad and rather longer, broadly ovate- or
orbicular-cordate, acuminate, coriaceous, glossy green with
red midrib and nerves, the young more or less deep blood-
red throughout beneath, but above shot with green ; petiole
red, cylindric, two to three inches long ; stipules in pairs,
one to two inches long, obUquely oblong or broader upwards,
coriaceous, nerved, closely applied face to face in the young
state, and enclosing a young branch, or the inflorescence,
which is shai-ply bent inwards. Flmoers in globose uni-
sexual or polygamous heads an inch in diameter, on bracteate
silky simple or branched peduncles ; bracts oblong, caducous.
GalyX'tubes confluent; Umb a five-crenate fleshy margin
(perhaps the disk). Petals linear-oblong, very irregular in
number, size, and position. Stamens numerous, filaments
short, slender ; anthers basifixed, oblong. Ovary two-celled.
Styles two, divergent, subulate. Capsules in a globose head,
each two-celled, with about six seeds in each cell; two
upper seeds fusiform and angular, quite solid, without an
embryo; lower with a long flat ascending wing from one
side ; embryo with oblong flattened cotyledons and a short
superior radicle. — J. D. H.



Y\z, 1, Male head ; 2, petals ; 3 and 4, stamens ; 5, a female head ; 6, disk and
carpels ; 7, vertical section of ditto, with petal ; 8, transverse section of ditto ; 9,
fertile seed; 10, section of ditto ; 11, embryo; 12, imperfect seed : — aUhutJig9, 1
and 5 enlarged.



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Tab. 6508.

STENOMBSSON 'luteovieide.

Native of Ecuador,

Nat Ord. AMABYLLiDACEiB. — Tribe Pancbatibje.
Genus Stbnombsson, Serb.; {Baker in Ref. BoU sub t. 308.)



Stenombsson (Coburfi^ia) luteo-viride ; bulbo globoso tunicis membranaceis
brunneis collo elongato cylindrico semipedali, follis synanthiis lineari-loratis
viridibus, scapo ancipiti terminali sesquipedali, umbellis 5 - 6-flori8 pedicellis
brevibus, spathse valvis magnis ovato-lanceolatis, perianthio luteo-viridi 4-
pollicari, ovario oblon^ifo, tubo subcyliiidrico, Hegmentis oblongis cuspidatis tubo
2-3-plo brevioribus, filamentis dimidio inferior! in coronam coalitis margine
inter filamentorum partem liberam dentibus deltoideis integris vel obs.'ure
dentatis praedito, antneris fulvis lineari-oblongis, stylo exserto.



This is a new species from the high Andes of Ecuador,
which flowered for the first time in the spring of 1879 with
Messrs. E. G. Henderson and Son, of the Pine Apple
Nurseries, Maida Vale. It is nearly allied to the well-known
Coburgia trichroma of Herbert (Bot. Mag. tab. 3867), and
quite similar to it in its cultural and climatic requirements.
The present plant differs from trichroma in the colour of its
flowers and by its longer corona and more acute green
leaves. There does not appear to be any valid character to
separate Coburgia as a genus from Stenomesson^ and the
latter has the claim of priority. I do not think we can
properly regard the first six species of Coburgia as admitted
in Kunth's Synopsis as more than mere varieties of the
plant that was first described by Ruiz and Pavon in 1802
under the name of Pancratium variegatum.

Descb. Bulb globose, two or three inches in diameter,
with thin brown membranous tunics, which extend up the
cylindrical neck to a length of six or eight inches. Leaves
about four, contemporary with the flowers in spring, linear-
lorate, fleshy, bright green, glabrous, a foot long at the
flowering-time, an inch broad, narrowed gradually to the

AUGUST IST, 1880.



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point. Scape green, ancipitous, produced from the end of
the neck of the bulb, a foot and a half long. Umbel five- or
six-flowered; pedicels very short; spathe- valves ovate-
lanceolate, green at the flowering-time, two or three inches
long. Ovary oblong-trigonous, green, half an inch long;
perianth-tube subcylindrical,' greenish-yellow, between two
and three inches long ; segments oblong, cuspidate, perma-
nently ascending and much imbricated, yellow with a
distinct green keel, an inch long. Corona green, half an
inch long, inserted at the throat of the perianth-tube,
furnished with a simple or obscurely toothed deltoid process
between the base of the free portion of each filament ;
anthers fulvous, linear-oblong, versatile, under half an inch
long. Style finally much longer than the perianth ; stigma
capitate. — J. O. Baker.



Fig. 1, Section of flower : — of the natural *ize.



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Tab. 6509.
EPIMEDIUM Pbrealdebianqm.
Native of Algeria.

Nat. Ord. BBEBEBiDEa. — Tribe Bbbbbre^.
Genus Epimbdium, Linn.; (Bentk, et Hook.f, Gen. Plant, vol. i. p. 44.)



Epimbdium Perralderianum ; sparse paten ti m piloea, foliis S-foliolatis, foliolis
coriaceis perennantibos cordato-ovatis acutis ciliato-dentatis, siau elong<ito
angnsto, anricnlis rotandatis, pedancalo radical! petiolo seqailongo, rauemo
maltifloro glandaloso-piloso,- pedioellis graoilibas horizontaliter pateatibas,
floribos aureis, sepalis extimis minutia oolongis obtusis cadacis, intimis fere
orbicolaribus horizontalibus late imbricatis, petilorum lamina erecta mii'gine
dentata, calcare incurva robasta obtusa laminse sequilonga, staminibus petalis
triplo longioribus flavis.

E. Perraideriannm, Cosson in Kralik PL Alger. Sel. exsicc. No. 100, et in Bull.
8oc. Bot. France, vol. ix. p. 167 (1867) ; Baker in Qard. Chron. 1880, p. 683.



This is the African representative of the Persian and
Caucasian Epimedium pinnatum^ tab. 4456, from which it
is distinguished by its leaves being invariably only tri-folio-
late, and by its much more strongly ciliate-toothed leaflets,
which are perennial, and when young of a beautiful bronze-
colour shot with green. In the form and colouring of the
sepals and petals these two species are so alike that they can
hardly be ranked higher than geographical forms, and it is
far from improbable that specimens connecting them will be
found in Southern Europe, if not in Africa. The texture of
the leaves is so firm that even in this climate they persist
during the winter.

Epimedium PerraldeHanum is a native of the moun-
tain-woods of Babor, Foughell and Tababor in Eastern
Khabylie, at elevations of 3000 to 5000 feet, whence it was
introduced into cultivation by Dr. Cosson. The plants
from which our figure is taken are perfectly hardy in Kew,
and were presented by Dr. Reichenbach.

AUGUST IST, 1880.



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The species is named by Dr. Cosson after H. de
Perraudi^re, one of his companions during an expedition
into the mountains of Eastern Khabylie in 1861, when the
species was discovered. It flowers early in June.

Descr. Sparsely clothed with spreading lax scattered
hairs. Leaves 3-foliolate, petiole slender, rigid, flexuous, a
span long and under ; leaflets rigid, coria<3eous, two to three
inches long by one and a half to two broad, ovate-cordate
or orbicular-ovate, acute, acutely closely ciliate-toothed, basal
sinus deep narrow, the rounded basal lobes sometimes over-
lapping, rigid, when young of a fine red bronze colour shot
with green; petiolules one to one and a half inch long. Scape
equalling the leaves, springing directly from the root-stock,
many-flowered ; raceme glandular-pubescent, twelve^ to
twenty- flowered ; pedicels slender, one-third to two-thirds
of an inch long, horizontal; bracts small, caducous. Floivers
bright yellow, three-quarters to two-thirds of an inch in
diameter. External sepals minute, oblong, caducous ; inner
orbicular or broadly oblong, horizontally spreading, broadly
imbricate. Petals with a cucuUate toothed lamina ; spur
stout, obtuse, cylindric, incurved, about as long as the blade.
Stamens twice as long as the petals ; anthers narrowly
linear. Ovary cylindric, undulate on the ventral face ; style
incurved. — J. D. H.

Pig. 1, Petal ; 2, stamens ; 3, ovary : — all enlarged.



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Tab. 6510.

CHIONOGRAPHIS Japonica.
Native of Japan.



Nat. Ord. Mel anthacbje.— Tribe Helonibjb.

Genus Chionogbaphis, Maxim.; {Baker in Joum. Linn, Soc. Land. vol. xvii.

p. 469.)



Chionogbaphis japonica ; glaberrima, foliis radicalibus rosulatis sessilibus v. in
petiolom angustatis late v. anguste elliptico-oblongis y. elliptico-Ianceoiatis
acntis plus rainusve dentatis oosta distincta nervis valde obliquis canlinis
linearibus, scapo angulato, epica brevi et oblonga v. elongata erecta multiflora,
racbi acute angulata, perianthii »R)i Hegroentis 4 v. 6 anguste linearibuR obtusia
a basi ad apicem obtusam sensim dilatatin, 2 superioiibus longioribus, 2 inferi-
oribus minutis v. obsoletis, filamentis brevissimis crassis, antheris didyrais
Bubextroreum debiscentibua, ovario sub^loboso 3-lobo 3-loculare, stigmatibus
3 clave) lati8, ovulis in loculis 2 medio angulo interiori affixis anatropis,
micropjle lata supera, rapbe ventrali.

C. japonica, Maximovicz in Bull. Acad. 8c, St. Petersb. vol. vi. p. 209 (Dec. iii.) ;
branch, et Sav. JSnum. PL Jap, vol. ii. p. 86 ; Baker in Journ, Linn. Soc,
vol. xvii. p. 469.

Melanthium luteum, Thunh, Fl. Jap, p. 152.

M. japonicum, Wtlld. in Berl. Mag. vol. ii. p. 22.

Heloniaa ? japonica, Schultes fil, SyU, Veg, vol. [vii. p. 1567 ; Kunth. Enum,
vol. iv. p. 176.

Cbamselirion luteum, Miq, in Ann, Mus. Lugd. Bat, vol. iii. p. 144, non A. Crratf,



Though originally described by Thunberg nearly a century
ago, this is a very rare and little-known plant, of which we
have seen no native specimens but those collected by
Maximovicz in 1863, and one communicated by Captain
Blomfield, R.N., in 1873. It is referred by Mr. Baker in
his valuable paper on the aberrant tribes of Liliacece to the
group HeloniecBy and its immediate affinity is with the
Eastern N. American genera Helonias and Ghamcelirium. It
is the only species of the genus.

This very singular plant was raised from seed sent by
Mr. Maries to Messrs. Veitch, with whom it flowered in
April of the present year.

Desor. a quite glabrous perennial herb, six to twelve

AUGUST IST, 1880.



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inches high, with rosulate radical leaves, and a simple
slender leafy scape, bearing a spike of white flowers with
very long pi rianth-segments and minute stamens. Leaves^
radical two to three inches long, sessile or narrowed into a
stout or slender petiole, variable in shape, from linear-oblong
to broadly elliptic, acute, irregularly toothed or almost en-
tire, dark green on both surfaces, midrib very distinct,
nerves very oblique ; cauline leaves linear, quite sessile.
Scape strict, acutely angled, as is the rachis of the spike.
Spike at first oblong, obtuse, usually lengthening to four or
five inches, strict, erect, many-flowered. Flowers quite
sessile and appressed to the rachis ; bracts and bracteoles
none. Perianth about three-quarters of an inch in diameter
across the segments, pure white ; segments six, or four, the
two lower being suppressed, or three, with the throe lower
suppressed, all widely spreading, strict, narrowly linear, but
slightly dilated from the base to the obtuse point; two
upper (when four or six) the longest, about half an inch
long ; two lateral about one-third shorter, ascending ; two
lower very short, deflexed. Stamens six, filaments very


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Online LibraryWilliam Jackson HookerCurtis's botanical magazine → online text (page 7 of 11)