William Jackson Hooker.

Muscologia britannica: containing the mosses of Great Britain and Ireland systematically arranged and described with plates illustrative of the characters of the genera and species online

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Leskea dendroides. Hedw. Sp. Muse. WahL

Neckera dendroides. Swartz.



DIPLOPERISTOMI. 169

Climacium dendroides. Mohr. Moug. et Nestl. n. 138. Schwaegr.
Suppl. v. 1. P. //. p. 141. t. 81. Funck, Deutschl Moose, t. 33. f. 1.
Dill. Muse. t. 40. /. 48.

HAB. In woods; not very frequent in fructification, but
found in that state near Manchester, by Mr. Hobson.
About Oxford. Mr. Oglander. And in several sub-
alpine spots in Scotland.

The columella of this moss is protruded, and reaches the top
of the lid, which, when the capsules are ripe, and in a dry state
of the atmosphere, it raises up, turning in a spiral manner ;
and then, perhaps, permitting the discharge of the seeds. If
in this state, moisture be applied to the mouth of the capsule,
the lid on the top of the columella will descend, as this last
performs a spiral volution, and the capsule becomes completely
closed again. The segments of the interior peristome being
cleft at the base, has induced Weber and Mohr to make a dis-
tinct genus of this moss.

f f Stems below leafy.
-t Capsules erect.

30. H. curvatum ; branches fascicled curved, leaves ovato-ellipti-

cal concave serrated at the points nerve disappearing beyond
the middle, capsule ovate erect, lid rostrate. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum curvatum. Swartz, Muse. Suec. p. 64. Turn. Muse. Hib.
p. 139. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1284. Engl Bot. t. 1566. Moug. et
Nestl. n. 331. Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 144. Hobson, Brit. Mosses,
v. 1. n. 75. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 87. Funck, Deutschl.
Moose, t. 46. / 52. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 267. Arn.
Disp. Muse. p. 64.

Hypnum myosuroides. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 8. Dill. Muse. t.
41. /. 50.

Hypnum myurum. Brid. Meth. p. 184.

HAB. On trees and rocks.

The nerve is, as Mohr has justly observed, sometimes forked.
In habit it somewhat resembles the two last species, but is con-
siderably smaller, and the stems are leafy throughout

31. H. myosuroides ; branches fascicled curved, leaves lanceolato-

acuminate serrated margins reflexed at the base their nerve



170 D I P L O P E R I S T O M I.

disappearing near the middle, capsule ovate-cylindrical erect,

lid rostrate. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum myosuroides. Linn. Sp. PI p. 1596. (not of Hedw.)

Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 140. Smith, Fl Brit. p. 1285. Engl Bot. t.

1567. Moug. et Nestl n. 330. Punch, Deutschl. Moose, t. 46. / 53.

Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 144. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. I. n. 76.

Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. I. n. 88. Brid. Meth. p. 165. Schwaegr.

Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 267. Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 64 Dill. Muse. t.

41. / 51.

HAB. On trunks of trees and rocks.

This can only be confounded with the preceding species, but
its more slender habit, its leaves more acuminated, less concave,
with their shorter nerve, reflexed margins, serrated nearly their
whole length, will ever keep it distinct.

-i -t- Capsules cernuous.
Stems bi-tripinnate.

32. H. splendens ; stems tripinnate, leaves ovate with a suddenly

acuminated serrated point concave faintly two-nerved at the
base margin below recurved, capsule ovate cernuous, lid
rostrate. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum splendens. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 67. /. 7 9. Turn. Muse.
Hib. p. 156. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1295. Engl Bot. t. 1424. Mowj.
et Nestl. n. 42. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 42. / 3. Hook. FL Scot.
P. II. p. 144. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 80. Drummond, Muse.
Scot. v. 1. n. 90. Brid. Meth. p. 163. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. I. P. II.
p. 237. Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 64.

Hypnum parietinum. Swartz DHL Muse. t. 35. f. 13.

HAB. Heaths and hedgebanks in woods.
Whole plant glossy, whence its specific name. It has much
affinity with the H. umbratmn of Ehrh. and Hedw. (but not of
British authors) in its ramification. This last, although so
common on the Continent, has never been found in Britain,
and may readily enough be distinguished from our present
plant by its cordato-triangular foliage and conical lid.

33. H. proliferum ; stems tripinnate, leaves serrated papillose on
the back the cauline ones cordate-acuminate striated with a
nerve running nearly to the point, those of the branches

16



Hypnum.'] D I P L O P ER I S T O M I. 171

more ovate with a single or double nerve at the base, lid
conico-rostrate. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum proliferum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1590. Turn. Muse. Hib.
p. 157. Smith, Fl Brit. p. 1297. Engl Bot. t. 1494. Hook. Fl.
Scot. P. II. p. 145. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 81. Drummond,
Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 91. Btid. Metk. p. 163. Arn. Disp. Muse. p.
64.

Hypnum tamariscinum. Hediu. Sp. Muse. p. 261. t. 67. f. 1 5.
Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 236. Brid. Meth. p. 164.

Hypnum recognitum. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 35. Smith, Fl. Brit,
p. 1298. Engl. Bot. t. 1495.

Hypnum delicatulum. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t. 33. Schwaegr. Suppl.
v. 1. P. II. p. 236.

Hypnum fuciforme. Brid. Meth. p. 163.

Hypnum parietinum. Willd. Dili. Muse. t. 35. / 14. and S3. f. 6.

HAB. Woods and banks in heathy places, abundant.
Stems reddish, leaves yellowish-green, dark, and opaque.
This moss has been found in every part of Europe ; as well as
in Jamaica, New Holland, and on the mountains of Nepaul.*

* We are sensible of the errors in the synonym of this plant in the first
edition of our Muscologia, which Sir James Smith has corrected in his " Re-
marks upon Hypnum recognitum," &c. published in the Thirteenth volume of
the Transactions of the Linnsean Society, p. 459. But we cannot so readily
subscribe to the correctness of the observation on U. recognitum there made :
" This moss, being, as I trust, clearly defined in the Flora Britannica, and
figured in English Botany, t. 1495, I am somewhat surprised at the obscurity
in which it is involved in the Muscologia Britannica, where it is not allowed
the rank of a species, or even of a variety, being altogether confounded with the
common Hypnum proliferum. Neither are the above works, where alone it has
been hitherto announced as a British plant, cited at all !"

If, indeed, we could for a moment bring ourselves to believe that the H.
recognitum had characters that would entitle it to rank as a species, or even a
permanent variety, we should think that by omitting it we had obscured the
subject ; and if our valued friend had only given himself the trouble to refer to
our account of Hypnum proliferum, published in the new edition of the Flora
jLondinensis, he would have assured himself that we had by no means neglected
references to his works, (of whose well merited fame none can be more sensible
than ourselves,) and farther, that we had given the subject the attention it
deserved, although we have come to different conclusions from himself. Those
remarks, too, were published long before our Muscologia Britannica, and we
here subjoin some of them :
This species is, according to Sir James Smith, to whom wo must ever



172 DIPLOPERISTOMI. [llypnwn.

34. //. prolong um ; stems subbipinnate, leaves distantly placed
patent cordate or ovate acuminated serrated the nerve disap-
pearing below the summit, capsule ovate cernuous, lid rostrate.

(TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum prselongum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1591. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4.
t. 29. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 160. Moug. et Nestl n. 422. Smith,
Fl. Brit. p. 1299. Engl Bot. t. 2035. Hook. Fl Scot. P. II. 145.
Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. I. n. 82. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. I. n. 89.
Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 48. / 60. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. \. P. II. p.
277. Brid. Meth. p. 156. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 64.

look as the highest authority in such cases, the true Hypnum proliferum of
Linnaeus, although confounded by him with the Hypnum splendens of Hedwig-
As a further proof of the correctness of Sir James Smith's assertion, it may be
remarked, that Linnaeus refers to a figure in Dill. (t. 35. f. 14.) which it is
impossible should be mistaken. We cannot, therefore, but wonder at what
Wahlenberg has said in his Flora Lapponica, under his Hypnum parietinum,
(Schreberi, Hedw.) : " H. Tamariscinum, Hedw. (our prolif.J in Suecia vix
crescere videtur, itaque Limueo incognitum f uit ; nee dubitandum quin inse-
quens (H. splendens, Hedw.) ejus H. proliferum constituent. " p. 373. Swartz
has, nevertheless, given it a place in Muse. Suecica."

" Authentic specimens of H. recognitum in Mr. Turner's valuable Herbarium,
have satisfied me that Hedwig's plant, published under that name in the
Stirpes, differs in no particular from H. proliferum. It is true the specimens
which I examined did not possess their opercula, in which a character is said to
exist ; but in this particular Mohr will set us right, for he had the opportunity
of seeing perfect specimens of H. recognitum, and says " nee levissimum discri-
men est inter haecce specimina et ea H. tamarisc. Operculum prse primis
minime, prout Hedw. deliniavit, conicum, sed reapse ut in H. tamarisc.
rostratum. Procul omni dubio itaque posthac H. H. recogn. et tamarisc.
Hedw. unam tantum speciem sistunt." We must add, too, the opinion of the
learned author of the Muse. Hib. in confirmation of our own : " Statura
minore operculoque conico differre videtur H. recognitum Hedw. muscis Brit-
tanicis a eel. Smithio nuper ascriptum, sed, pace Hedwigii, dubitare ut specie
vere discrepet." Sir James Smith, indeed, seems to have satisfied himself of
the distinctness of his H. recognitum, founding that distinction almost entirely
upon the shape of the lid ; a circumstance which, we have already observed in
our description, is somewhat variable, and we have seen it to be so in different
capsules on the same individual plant, although not to that degree that is ex-
pressed in the figures in Engl. Bot. of the plants in question. We have neither
seen in any specimens the operculum so short as in the recognitum represented
in Engl. Bot. or so long as in the proliferum of the same work. We may add,
that the operculum in many mosses, especially if the capsules be not quite ripe,
is shorter in the dried specimen of the plant than when the vessels are filled



D 1 P L O P E R I S T O M I. 173

Hypnum Stokesii. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 159. t. 15. /. 2. Smith,
Fl. Brit. p. 1300. Engl Bot. t. 2036.

Hypnuin Swartzii. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 151. t. 14. f. 1 and 2.
Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1293. Engl Bot. t. 2034.

Hypnuin atrovirens. Swartz.

Hypnum strigosum. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 46. / 54. Dill.
Muse. t. 36. f. 15.

Hypnum speciosum. Brid. Meth. p. 156.

with juices in their fresh state ; and this will account for some difference.
The leaves are the same in both, though neither of them is well figured in
Engl. Bot., nor is either of them three-nerved as they are there said to be."

" The next species to be considered is the Hypnum delicatulum of Hedwig; a
native, indeed, of Pennsylvania ; yet according to specimens we have received
both from Dr. Muhlenberg and Professor Richard, differing only in its smaller
size from our H. proliferum. An excellent figure of this is given in Dillenius,
(t. 83. / 6.) The differences noted by Hedwig are of small moment; and
what he says of the larger segments of the internal peristome being perforated,
is a circumstance that varies in different individuals. In H. proliferum they
are sometimes entire, and sometimes perforated. Linnaeus, in speaking of H.
delicatulum, remarks " Prsecedenti (H. prolif.J simillimum, sed longe tenerius et
forte sola varietas."

In addition to what in the above extract refers to H. recognitum, we need
say no more, than, that since these remarks were published, we have seen Sir
James Smith's own specimens, and are only the more confirmed in our opinion
that they are merely varieties of H. proliferum, and such as would be likely to
arise from the situation of the plant, " clothing the surface of shady broken
rocks, and filling up many of their interstices, in loose patches or tufts. "Smith
says H. delicatulum of Hedwig is not the recognitum of the same author ; but
Schwaegrichen, the possessor of the Hedwigian Herbarium, and the steady
follower in the steps of his great master, unites the two in his late supplemen-
tary volume, and adds "operculi rostrum magis vel minus acuminatum in
utroque."

Some reply is still required to another passage in the same Memoir by Sir
James Smith, in allusion to our not having in our first edition referred
to the Flora Britannica " which might, perhaps, according to general
usage, and not without advantage, have been quoted in the Muscologia." To
this we answer, that since it was a professed object with us to bring the
volume to as small a compass as possible, (see Introduction to the first edition,
p. vii. at bottom,) and since the English Botany contained the latest opinions
of the author upon almost every species, accompanied by figures, we did deem
it sufficient to quote that alone. We omitted every synonym that we thought
unnecessary, even our own labours in the Flora Londinensis 1 and for the same
reason.



174 DIPLOPEHISTOMI. [Hypnum.

HAS. Moist shady banks, and on trunks of trees, especially

on such as are in a state of decay.

Mohr has justly observed how extremely variable is the mode
of growth of this plant, nor have we brought together so many
synonyms without a cautious examination of authentic specimens.
In mountainous marshy situations the variety named StoJtesii,
with closely set, bipinnate branches, occurs ; and in wet hollows
in banks is found the variety Swartzii, which is well represented
in the magnified figure of Turner's Muse. Hib. t. 14. f. 2. 6.
It, is characterized by its slender straggling branches, narrow
and black-green foliage.

Stems pinnate, or irregularly branched.

35. H. flagellare; stems pinnate (or irregularly bipinnate),
leaves thickly set cordato-acuminate serrated very faintly

x two-nerved at the base, capsule oblong cernuous, lid conical.
(TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum flagellare. Dicks. PI Crypt. Fasc. 2. p. 12. Smith, FL
Brit. p. 1322. (notofHedw.) Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 145. Hobson,
Brit. Mosses, v. 2. n. 65. Brid. Meth. p. 184. Am. Disp. Muse. p.
64.

Hypnum umbratum. Engl. Bot. t. 2565. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 158.
(not ofHedw.J

HAB. Rocks in alpine countries. Plentiful in Ireland.
By means of authentic specimens from Mr. Dickson of his
H. flagellare, we have ascertained that it is the H. umbratum
of Turner and Smith, and not of Hedwig, which differs in its
ramification, its striated, much more strongly serrated leaves,
and its longer divided nerve, approaching very nearly to H.
triquetrum; especially that variety of it called brevirostre by
Ehrhart. Hedwig's H. flagellare is H. plumosum.

36. H. abietinum ; stems pinnate, leaves serrated papillose on the

back the margins reflexed the nerve running nearly to the
point the cauline ones cordato-acuminate those of the branches
cordato-acute, capsules cylindrical inclined, lid conical. (TAB.
XXV.)

Hypnum abietinum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1591. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4.
t. 32. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 162. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1300. Engl.



Hypnum.] DIPLOPERISTOMI. 175

Bot. t. 2037. Moug. et Nestl n. 226. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 41.
/ 25. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 70. Brid. Meth. p. 163.
Schwaegr. Suppl v. 1. P. II. p. 232. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 64 Dill
Muse. t. 35. / 17.

Hypnum Scitum. Brid. Meth. p. 163.

HAB. On the ground in mountainous, and principally cal-
careous soils, rare in Scotland ; found on the sands of
Barrie by Mr. Drummond.

Swartz's specimens are very different from our own in hav-
ing a remarkable furrow in the leaf as seen from above, and
consequently a projecting keel beneath; nor is there any nerve.
We are sorry not to have had the opportunity of ascertaining
whether the Linnsean species be the same. Ours coincides
precisely with what we have received from various Continental
Botanists. The fruit is extremely rare, and never, that we
have heard of, produced in this country.

37. H. Blandovii ; stems pinnate, leaves serrated smooth on the

back margins reflexed the cauline ones cordato-acute with a
short nerve, those of the branches ovato-acuminate with the
nerve disappearing beyond the middle, capsules cylindrical
inclined, lid conical. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum Blandovii. Web, et Mohr. Fl. Crypt. Germ. p. 332.
Sturm. Deutschl. Fl. (with a jig.) Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 3. p. 158. t.
142. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 41. / 26. Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 64.
Brid. Meth. p. 163.

HAB. Rocks in subalpine countries.

For this interesting addition to the British Mosses we are
indebted to Mr. Joseph Woods, who found it on the rocks at
Tunbridge. Mohr, who first distinguished it from the preced-
ing species, says very justly, " facies H. abietini, a quo tamen
diifert ut H. splendens ab H. tamariscino."

38. H. piliferum ; stems somewhat pinnate, leaves ovate with a
long narrow acumination serrated the nerve disappearing be-
low the middle, capsule cernuous, lid conico-acuminate. (TAB,
XXV.)

Hypnum piliferum. Schreb. Fl. Lips. p. 91. Hedw. St. Or. v. 4.
t. 14. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 178. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1319. Engl
Bot. t. 1516. Moug. et Nestl. n. 624. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 43.
/ 35. Hook. FL Scot. P. II. p. 145. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 2.



176 DIPLOPERISTOMI. IHypnum.



71. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II. p. 239. uBnW. JIM. p. 173.
Z)zsp. Muse, p. 65.

HAB. Banks ; rare in fructification. In fruit at Auchin-
denny, near Edinburgh. Mr. Arnott.

This is a distinctly marked plant in its exactly ovate stem
leaves, with a long point so suddenly acuminated, that they
appear, especially when dry, to he hair-pointed. Those of the
stem terminate more gradually, and scarcely justify the specific
name.

A remarkable variety of this moss has been found on the
rocks at the summit of Ben Lawers by Mr. Arnott ; seeming
to connect the species with Schwaegrichen's H. cirrhosum.

39. H. blandum ; stems somewhat pinnated, leaves closely imbri-

cated nearly erect ovate concave acute without striae serrulated
the nerve disappearing below the point, fruitstalks rough, lid
conico-acuminate. (SUPPL. TAB. V.)

Hypnum blandum. Lyell. MSS.Hook. in Fl. Lond. Neio Series.
cum ic.~Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 60.

HAB. On a bank in Cadnam Lane, New Forest, Hamp-

shire. C. Lyell, Esq.

We know of no other station for this pretty moss than that
above given. It is allied on the one hand, to Hypnum murale,
on the other, to H. rutabulum ; but sufficiently distinct from
both in the characters above given.

40. H. rutabulum ; stems variously branched, leaves patent ovate

acuminated serrated at the points striated their nerve reach-
ing half Way, capsule ovate cernuous, fruitstalks rough, lid
conical. (TAB. XXVI.)

Hypnum rutabulum. Linn. Sp. PI. p. 1590. Hedw. St. Cr. v.
4. t. 12. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 179. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1320. Moug.
et Nestl n. 143. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 44. / 40. Schwaegr.
Suppl v.l. P. II. p. 244. Brid. Meth. p. 173. Hook. Fl. Scot. P
II. p. 145. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 86. Drummond, Muse.
Scot. v. 2. n. 72. Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 65.

Hypnum flavescens, chrysostomum, hians, and graminicolor ? of Brid.
Meth.

Hypnum brevirostre. Engl. Bot. t. 1647. (not ofEhrh.J

Hypnum crenulatum. Engl. Bot. t. 1261.

Hypnum Starldi. Funck, Deutschl Moose, t. 44. / 41. Dill. Muse.
t. 38. / 29.






Jfypnum.] DIPLOPERISTOMI. 177

HAB. On trees and on banks, extremely common.
Jff. brevirostre, a name previously given by Ehrhart to a
variety of H. triquetrum, can never be applied to the present
species.

41. H. velutinum; stems variously branched, leaves erecto-patent

ovate often approaching to lanceolate acuminated serrated
striated their nerve reaching half way, capsule ovate cernuous,
fruitstalk rough, lid conical. (TAB. XXV.)

Hypnum velutinum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1595. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4.
t. 27. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 167. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1305. Engl
Bat. t. 2421. Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 145. Hobson, Brit. Mosses,
v. 1. n. 85. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 94. Schwaegr. Suppl.
v. 1. P. II. p. 253. Brid. Meth. p. 169. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 65.

Hypnum intricatum. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 44. f. 45. Schwaegr.
Suppl v. 1. P. II. p. 233. Brid. Meth. p. 170.

Hypnum Teesdalii. Dicks? DM. Muse. t. 42. /. 61.
HAB. Woods and hedgebanks, common.
The character here given will show how closely this species
is allied to the preceding ; and, indeed, except in its smaller
size, somewhat narrower leaves, and their more upright direc-
tion, we can find no point of distinction. So also is it with
the H. intricatum of authors, the specimens that we have seen
are smaller than our H. velutinum^ and the leaves even less
broad. Hedwig mentions a difference in the annulus, which we
have not been able to verify.

42. H. ruscifolium ; stems variously branched, leaves loosely im-
bricated subpatent broadly ovate acute serrated concave their
nerve reaching nearly to the summit, capsule ovate cernuous,
lid rostrate. (TAB. XXVI.)

Hypnum ruscifolium. Neck. Meth. Muse. Turn. Muse. Hib. p.
153. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1290. Engl. Bot. t. 1275. Hook. Fl. Scot.
P. II. p. 145. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. I. n. 84. Drummond, Muse.
Scot. v. 1. n. 92. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 65.

Hypnum riparioides. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t, 4. Moug. et Nestl. n.
427. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 38. / 5. Schwaegr. Suppl v. 1. P.
II. p. 195.

Hypnum prolixum. Dicks.

Hypnum atlanticum. Desfont. Fl. Atlant. and Brid. Meth. p. 174.
together with H. rusciforme, inundatum, and fontium, of the same author.
DHL Muse. t. 38. /. 31 and 32.

HAB. Upon wood and stones in pools and rivers.
M



178 DIPLOPERISTOML [Hypnum.

The stems often exceed a span in length, and the leaves, in
certain situations, attain a greater size than in any British
species of Hypnum.

43. H. striatum ; stems variously branched, leaves patent cordato-

acuminate serrated striated their nerve reaching beyond the
middle, capsule oblongo-ovate cernuous, fruitstalks smooth, lid
rostrate. (TAB. XXVI.)

Hypnum striatum. Schreb. Fl. Zips. p*J)I. Hedw. St. Cr. v. 4. t.
13. Turn. Muse. Hib. p. 180. Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1321. Engl Bot.
t. 1648. Moug. et Nestl. n. 142. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 40. / 34.
Schwaegr. Suppl v. 1. P. II. p. 238. Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 145.
Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 87. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 1. n. 84.
Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 65.

Hypnum longirostrum. Ehrh. Brid. Meih. p. 174. Dill. Muse. t.
38. / 30.

HAB. Woods and on shady banks, common.
This species comes near to H. rutabulum ; but is a larger and
more robust plant, with leaves more patent, broader, and more
decidedly striated, with a shorter point, and longer nerve ; the
fruitstalks are smooth, and the lid rostrate.

44. H. confertum ; stems variously branched, leaves erecto-patent

ovate acuminated concave serrated their nerve reaching half
way, capsule ovate cernuous, fruitstalk smooth, lid rostrate.
(TAB. XXVI.)

Hypnum confertum. Dicks. PL Cr. Fasc. 4, t. II. f. 4. Smith,
Fl Brit. p. 1304. Engl. Bot. t. 2407. Schwaegr. Suppl. v. 1. P. II.
p. 199. t. 90. Brid. Meth. p. 157. Hook. Fl. Scot. P. II. p. 145.
Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 2. n. 67. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v. 2. n. 73.
Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 38. / 8. Arn. Disp. Muse. p. 65.

Hypnum serrulatum. Hedw. Sp. Muse. t. 60. Engl. Bot. t. 1262.
Brid. Meth. p. 154. together with orthorhynchum, laetevirens, planiuscu-
lum, Schleicheri, intertextum, Megapolitanum ? of the same author.

HAB. Trunks of trees, old rails, and on banks.
We have compared this with the Pennsylvanian H. serrula-
tum of Hedwig, and cannot even find the trifling difference
which Molir has noticed. A small variety, growing on trees,
has the leaves occasionally subsecund.

B. Leaves squarrose.

45. H. cuspidatum; leaves loosely set ovate concave nerveless



Hypnum.-} D I PL O PERI ST OMI. 179

entire the lower ones squarrose those at the summit closely

imbricated into a cuspidate point, capsule oblong curved

cernuous, lid conical. (TAB. XXVI.)

Hypnum cuspidatum. Linn. Sp. PL p. 1595. Turn. Muse. Hib.

p. 177. (excl. var. &.J Smith, Fl. Brit. p. 1317. Engl, Bot. t. 2407.

Moug. et Nestl n. 227. Funck, Deutschl. Moose, t. 41. /. 22. Schwaegr.

Suppl v. 1. P. //. p. 228. Brid. Meth. p. 159. Hook. FL Scot. P. II.

p. 146. Hobson, Brit. Mosses, v. 1. n. 83. Drummond, Muse. Scot. v.

2. n. 74. Am. Disp. Muse. p. 66. DM. Muse. t. 39. /. 34.
Hypnum flexile. Brid. Meth. p. 158.
HAB. Bogs.

The habit of this plant is very similar to that of H. cordifo-
lium) a dark variety of which Mr. Turner has made his var. /3.
The present moss is easily known by its sharp cuspidate ex-
tremities ; it grows to a great size in water.

46. H. cordifolium; leaves loosely set squarrose cordato-ovate

obtuse concave entire their nerve running very nearly to the
point, capsule oblong curved cernuous, lid conical. (TAB.


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