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U. C. L A.




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



HISTORY OF EDUCATION



BY
WILLIAM J. TAYLOR, PH.D.

BROOKLYN TRAINING SCHOOL FOR TEACHERS

FORMERLY LECTURER ON THE HISTORY

AND PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION

IN YALE UNIVERSITY



BOSTON, U.S.A.

D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS
1909

U. C. L.



COPYRIGHT, 1909,
BY D. C. HEATH & Co.



U. C. L A.







PREFACE



THE present volume is the outgrowth of several years'
experience in the use of the syllabus method in teaching the
history of education. The syllabi were originally prepared
in a somewhat elaborate form for use in graduate classes at
Yale University. The teaching method used in the course
at Yale combined extensive library reading with lectures.
Subsequently the syllabi were revised and to some degree
abridged for my classes in the Brooklyn Training School for
Teachers, where they have been of service in directing and
organizing the students' reading. They are now published
in the belief that they will fill a wider field of usefulness in
normal school and college classes.

The student of the history of education is confronted by
two serious obstacles. First, there is the difficulty of amass-
ing and retaining a foundation of fact sufficient to support
the broad generalizations that are needful if a course in the
subject is to fulfill its function of emancipating the peda-
gogical mind from petty prejudices and schoolroom idols.
Second, there is the difficulty of organizing the facts, when
once they are acquired, into a useful system of applicable
knowledge. No one knows the extent of these difficulties
until he has had the responsible office of guiding untraveled
footsteps through the labyrinth constituting the history of
education, within the time-limits imposed by the average
normal school course. Yet unless a full array of facts
is presented and adequately organized, such a course does
not measure up to its educational possibilities.



937220



iv PREFACE

It is as an adjunct to reading and an aid to logical organi-
zation that this syllabus will prove most useful. In order
to encourage as wide a range of reading as possible, page
references to the most accessible text-books and reference
books have been cited. The thought is that where a teacher
prefers the text-book method, and relies on only one book,
references to his favorite text will be found. But in case
the teacher refers to several books, the better method, in
the author's judgment, a sufficient number of references

will be available to meet his needs.

W. J. T.
JUNE 29, 1909.



CONTENTS

PART ONE. ORIENTAL EDUCATION

PAGE

I. EGYPT 3

II. CHINA 4

III. INDIA 4

IV. JUDEA 5

V. PERSIA 5

PART TWO. GR^ECO-ROMAN EDUCATION

Greek Education

I. INTRODUCTORY POINTS 9

II. PRIMITIVE EDUCATION 9

III. OLD GREEK EDUCATION 10

1. The Spartan System 10

2. The Old Athenian System II

IV. NEW GREEK EDUCATION (AT ATHENS) 13

V. GREEK EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS 14

1. Pythagoras 14

2. Socrates 14

3. Xenophon 15

4. Plato 16

5. Aristotle 17

VI. COSMOPOLITAN GREEK EDUCATION 19

VII. ASPECTS OF GREEK CULTURE HAVING AN INDIRECT INFLU-
ENCE UPON EDUCATION 19

Roman Education

I. INTRODUCTORY POINTS 21

II. PRIMITIVE EDUCATION AT ROME 23



vi CONTENTS

PAGE

III. EARLY ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATION UNDER GREEK INFLU-

ENCE 23

IV. PERIOD OF THE COMPLETE DOMINANCE OF GREEK INFLU-

ENCE 24

V. THE DECADENT PERIOD 25

VI. EDUCATIONAL THEORISTS 26

1. Cicero 26

2. Seneca . 26

3. Quintilian . 27

PART THREE. MEDIEVAL EDUCATION

I. CULTURE AND THE EARLY CHURCH 31

II. THE MONASTIC TYPE OF EDUCATION 32

III. NATIONALIZATION OF ECCLESIASTICAL EDUCATION . . 33

IV. DEVELOPMENT OF TYPES OF SECULAR EDUCATION DURING

THE LATER MIDDLE AGES 34

1. Influence of the Crusades 34

2. Chivalry 35

3. Scholasticism 36

4. The University Movement 37

5. Mohammedan Culture in Contact with Mediaeval Education 38

6. Corporate Elementary Schools : Guild and Burgher Schools 38

PART FOUR. MODERN EDUCATION
First. The Transition Period

I. HISTORICAL CHANGES WHICH INFLUENCED THE BEGINNINGS

OF MODERN EDUCATION 43

II. THE HUMANISTIC MOVEMENT 45

1. Causes 46

2. Humanism in Italy 46

3. Humanism in Germany and the Netherlands ... 47

4. Humanism in England 47

III. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND THE CATHOLIC COUNTER

REFORMATION 47

I. The Educational Aspects of the Protestant Reformation . 47



II.



III.



IV.



V.



VI.



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

2. The Catholic Reaction against the Protestant Reforma-



tion


.


. 49


a. The Jesuits ....


.


5


b. The Oratorians


.


5


c. The Jansenists


.


5i


d. The Brethren of the Christian Schools . . . .51


Second. The Period of Educational Reform


THE REALISTIC MOVEMENT .


....


52


i. Realism Defined


.


52


2. Rabelais


.


52


3. Ascham


.


53


4. Montaigne


.


53


5. Milton


.


54


6. Mulcaster .....


.


54


7. Ratke


.


55


THE "FORMAL DISCIPLINE" MOVEMENT


56


i. Formal Discipline Defined


.


56


2. Locke


.


. 56


THE NATURALISTIC MOVEMENT




-_


i. Naturalism Defined


....


57


2. Bacon


.


58


3. Comenius .....


.


58


4. Rousseau


.


. 60


5. Basedow


.


. 61


THE RATIONALISTIC MOVEMENT .


....


. 62


i. Rationalism Defined .


....


. 62


2. Kant




62


3. Fichte


.


63


THE PSYCHOLOGICAL MOVEMENT .


.


63


i. The Psychological Movement Defined


63


2. Pestalozzi


.


63


3. Herbart


.


65


4. Froebel


.


. 69


THE UTILITARIAN MOVEMENT




71


i. The Utilitarian Movement Defined


....


71


2. Spencer


.


7'



viii CONTENTS

Third. Contemporary Educational Theory

PACK

I. THE SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPTION 73

II. THE EVOLUTIONARY CONCEPTION 75

Fourth. School Organization

I. HUMANISTIC SCHOOLS 77

II. REALISTIC SCHOOLS 78

III. NATURALISTIC SCHOOLS .80

Fifth. National School Systems

I. GERMANY 81

II. FRANCE 83

III. ENGLAND 84

IV. THE UNITED STATES . . . . ' . . . .86

Sixth. Education in the United States

I. THE COLONIAL PERIOD 89

1. Virginia and the Southern Colonies 89

2. The New England Colonies 89

3. New York and the Middle Colonies 91

II. THE NATIONAL PERIOD 93

1. Educational Development during the First Fifty Years of

National History ........ 94

2. The Educational Revival under the Leadership of Horace

Mann 96

3. Organization of State Systems of Education ... 97

4. The United States Bureau of Education .... 97

5. Training of Teachers 98

6. Education of Women 98

7. Introduction of European Influences 99

APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Summary of the Principal Influences in Education

beginning with the Renaissance 103

APPENDIX B: Summary of the Leading Facts in the Educational

Development of New York State 129



CONTENTS ix

PAGE

APPENDIX C: Outlines of Modern Educational Classics . . .134
Montaigne's Of the Education of Children .... 134

Milton's A Tractate on Education 135

Locke's Some Thoughts concerning Education . . . .136
Rousseau's Entile, or Concerning Education . . . 1 36

Pestalozzi's Leonard and Gertrude 137

Spencer's Education : Intellectual, Moral, and Physical . .138

INDEX 139



PART ONE
ORIENTAL EDUCATION



SYLLABUS OF THE HISTORY OF
EDUCATION



ORIENTAL EDUCATION

The Oriental nations were alike in the following
respects : first, they were isolated ; second, they were
exclusive ; third, they adhered to hard and fast social
distinctions ; fourth, they held that wisdom comes either
from the past or from a higher power that reveals itself
through inspired persons ; fifth, they were ruled by a
special class whose authority was sanctioned by tradition
or a power higher than man ; sixth, religion and govern-
ment were closely related.

I. Egypt (4400-332 B.C.). Kemp, 39-44; Painter,
33-38 (old edition, 32-36); Williams,
57-72 ; Seeley, 46-51 ; Davidson, 37-41 ;
Laurie, 11-48.

1. Geographical position : the Nile valley. Laurie,

11-12.

2. Religion and belief in a future life. Laurie, 14-

17, 19-20, 26-27, 29.

3. Social classes : priests ; soldiers ; other free

men. Laurie, 33-37.

4. Education. Laurie, 41-47.

A. The priests.

B. Other professions: scribe; architect;

physician; soldier.

5. Literature: stories; poems; Book of the Dead.

Laurie, 17-18, 20-26, 29-32.

3



4 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

II. China (2200 B.C. to modern times). Kemp, 17-25;
Painter, 11-18 (old edition, 9-15); Wil-
liams, 33-45 ; Seeley, 20-28 ; Davidson,
41-45; Laurie, 103-151; Monroe, 17-49
(Brief Course, 11-19, 2 3~ 2 5)-

1. Geographical isolation. Laurie, 104-105.

2. Religion: prominence of ancestor-worship.

Laurie, 112-115.

3. Mental peculiarities. Laurie, 115-120.

4. Education. Laurie, 120-145.

A. School organization. Laurie, 134-145.

B. State examination system. Laurie, 122-

134-

5. The great moralists : Confucius (5 5 1-478 B.C.);

Mencius (372-289 B.C.).

6. Literature : Four Books; Five Classics. Laurie.

108-110.

III. India (HINDUS) (2000 B.C. to modern times).
Kemp, 26-33 > Painter, 18-23 (old edi-
tion, 15-21); Williams, 50-56; Seeley,
2 9~35; Davidson, 56-66; Laurie, 156-
177; Monroe, Brief Course, 19-21; Com-
payr6, 2-6.

1. Religion. Laurie, 161-166.

2. Castes: priests (Brahmans); warriors; mer-

chants; laborers (Sudras). Laurie, 159-
160.

3. Education. Laurie, 166-177.

A. Elementary schools : teachers ; curriculum ;

method.

B. Advanced schools (parishads).



ORIENTAL EDUCATION 5

4. Literature : Vedas (Rig-veda ; Mahabharata ;
Ramayand)

IV. Judea (Hebrews or Jews) (1500 B.C. to modern
times). Kemp, 45-52 ; Painter, 27-33
(old edition, 26-32); Williams, 86-94;
Seeley, 40-45 ; Davidson, 77-86 ; Laurie,
65-10x3; Monroe, Brief Course, 21-23;
Compayr, 6-11.

1. Geographical location and historical sketch.

Laurie, 65-70.

2. Religion : monotheistic ; Jehovah as law-giver

and judge. Laurie, 70-76.

3. Government: theocratic (executing the re-

vealed will of Jehovah).

4. Education. Laurie, 76-100.

A. First period (1493-1043 B.C.): family;

priesthood. Laurie, 78-80.

B. Second period (1043-538 B.C.) : schools of

the prophets. Laurie, 80-83.

C. Third period (538 B.C. to birth of Christ):

scribes ; synogogue. Laurie, 83-92.

D. Fourth period (after birth of Christ) : rab-

binical schools ; Talmudic education.
Laurie, 92-100.

5. Literature: Old Testament; Talmud.

V. Persia (1000-331 B.C.). Kemp, 34-38; Painter,
23-27 (old edition, 21-26); Williams,
73-80 ; Seeley, 36-39 ; Davidson, 66-74 ;
Laurie, 178-195.
I. Geographical position. Laurie, 178-179.



6 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

2. Religion : Zoroastrianism, a dualistic religion

(Ormazd, the source of good ; Ahriman,
the source of evil). Laurie, 185-190.

3. Social organization. Laurie, 182.

4. Education. Laurie, 190-193.

5. Literature : Zend-Avesta.

References. Kemp, History of Education ; Painter,
History of Education (revised edition ; old edition also
referred to) ; Williams, History of Ancient Education ;
Seeley, History of Education; Davidson, History of
Education; Laurie, Historical Survey of Pre-Christian
Education ; Monroe, Text-book in the History of Educa-
tion ; Monroe, A Brief Course in the History of Educa-
tion; Compayr, History of Pedagogy.



PART TWO
GR^CO-ROMAN EDUCATION



GREEK EDUCATION

The Greeks, the earliest European representatives of
the Aryan race,' exhibit the following characteristics :
first, their view of life was optimistic ; second, they as-
sumed a fundamental harmony between man and nature ;
third, they developed moral and religious notions on the
basis of reason ; fourth, individual development in har-
mony with social obligations was emphasized ; fifth,
they manifested an unusual sense of beauty; sixth,
they encouraged progress.

I. Introductory Points.

1 . Geography : mountains ; long, broken coast

line.

2. Branches of the race : ^Eolians (represented

by the Thebans); Dorians (repre-
sented by the Spartans) ; lonians (rep-
resented by the Athenians).

3. Government : the " city-state " (cities with

small adjacent territory).

4. Civic virtues of the Greeks : wisdom (sophid) ;

moderation (sophrosyne) ; grace (eukos-
mia).

5. Religion. Laurie, 202-208.

II. Primitive Education.

i. The Homeric age (1000-800 B.C.). Laurie,
197-199.

9



10 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

A. Practical experience informally transmitted.

B. Content of education. Monroe, 62-67

(Brief Course, 31-33).

a. Eloquence. Iliad, IX, 438 (Leaf, Lang,
and Myers' tr., 174).

b. Valor in battle.

c. Skill in games. Iliad, XXIII, 260 ff.
(Leaf, Lang, and Myers' tr., 458 f.).

III. Old Greek Education (776-480 B.C.).

i. The Spartan system. Kemp, 57-62 ; Painter,
41-46 (old edition, 40-45) ; Williams,
95-106; Seeley, 68-73; Davidson, *4i-
51; Laurie, 228-248; Monroe, 70-79
(Brief Course, 34-40).

A. The Spartan ideal as determined by social

conditions.

a. Situation of Sparta. Laurie, 228.

b. The three classes : Spartans ; Perioeci ;
Helots.

c. Laws of Lycurgus. Seeley, 72-73.

B. The Spartan educational system.

a. Infancy : 1-7. Laurie, 229.

b. Childhood: 7-18. Laurie, 230-239.

a. State training supervised by public
officials.

/3. Content: gymnastic; "music" (men-
tal training).

c. Youth : 18-30. Laurie, 239-243.

a. " Budding youths " (melleirenes} :
18-20.
ft. Youths (eirenes) : 20-30.



GREEK EDUCATION II

7. Content : cadet (ephebic) training in
arms and citizenship.

d. Manhood : period of full citizenship :
after 30.

a. The family and the state.

ft. Communistic basis of Spartan society.

e. Education of girls. Laurie, 244-247.
C. Results of the Spartan system. Laurie,

247-248.

2. Old Athenian system. Kemp, 62-69 5 Painter,
SS-^S (ld edition, 49-56); Williams,
107-129; Seeley, 56-60; Davidson, *6o-
92; Laurie, 248-278; Monroe, 79-100
(Brief Course, 40-52).

A. The Athenian ideal.

a. Individualism.

b. Self-expression.

a. Intellectual: philosophy and science.
ft. Emotional: religion; literature; art.
7. Volitional : civic and military ac-
tivity.

c. Conception of virtue.

a. Perfectmanhood through self-control.
ft. Perfectability through education.

B. Organization.

a. Branches of education.
a. Gymnastic.

ft. " Music " (in the wider Greek sense)
for the soul, including music (in the
modern sense) to purify the emotions
and "letters" to develop the intellect.

b. Periods of education.



12 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

a. Infancy : the nurse ; games ; play ;
nursery rhymes; legends. Laurie, 249-
252.

/3. Elementary education : after 7 ; boys
only.

1) The pedagogue. Laurie, 253.

2) Mental education at the music
school by the grammatist. Laurie, 253-
259.

3) Music (beginning at 13) by the
citharist or music-master.

4) Physical training at the wres-
tling-school {palastrd) by the gymnastic-
master (pcedotribe). Laurie, 264-267.

7. Advanced education. Laurie, 267,
270-274.

1) Physical training continued in
public gymnasia.

2) Cadets (ephebt)\ 18-20: military
training ; ephebic oath.

3) Training in civic duties by free
intercourse with older men.

c. Female education. Laurie, 275-276.

C. Method.

a. Moral education and discipline. Laurie,
267-270, 274-275.

b. Absence of pedagogical principles.
Laurie, 276-277.

D. The schools and the teacher. Laurie,

277-278.

E. Results and comparison with the Spartan

system. Laurie, 278-281.



GREEK EDUCATION 13

IV. New Greek Education (at Athens) (480-338 B.C.).

1. Causes of the demand for a broader education.

Laurie, 283-284; Monroe, 103-109.

A. Expansion following defeat of Persia.

a. Naval victory at Salamis (480 B.C.).

b. Land victory at Plataea (479 B.C.).

B. Ascendency of Athens among the Greek

states (Age of Pericles: 461-431 B.C.).
a. Government became democratic, in-
creasing the demand for statesmen and
orators.

C. Contact with other races through war,

travel, and colonization broadened the
intellectual horizon.

D. Inadequacy of religious and philosophical

explanations.
a. The consequent skepticism.

2. Changes from the Old Education. Laurie,

283-295.

A. Demand for higher education, especially

in literary and philosophical directions.
Monroe, 109-110.

B. The great sophists : Protagoras ; Gorgias ;

Prodicus ; Hippias. Laurie, 284-287 ;
Monroe, 110-114 (Brief Course, 55-57).

a. Individualism : doctrine that individual
opinion is the standard of truth.

b. What they professed to teach.

a. The art of persuasion ( To make the
worse the better reason).

/3. Their use of rhetorical style and
tricky argument.



14 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

d. Their influence. Davidson, *ioi-iO7;
8i~96; Monroe, 110-117 (Brief Course,

55-59)-

a. Less attention to physical and mili-
tary training.

/3. Political life regarded as an oppor-
tunity for personal ambition rather than
as a patriotic duty.

C. Subjects added to the curriculum : gram-
mar; rhetoric; disputation (dialectic);
geometry; drawing.

V. Greek Educational Theorists.

1. Pythagoras (580-500 B.C.). Kemp, 70-72 ;

Painter, 46-50 (old edition, 45-49) ; Wil-
liams, 141-152; Seeley, 73; Davidson,
52-59,
A. The philosophical brotherhood at Crotona.

a. Aim : to render the soul harmonious.

b. Principles : number ; order ; harmony.

c. Method : to memorize maxims.

2. Socrates (469-399 B.C.). Kemp, 73-76 ; Painter,

63-67 (old edition, 56-60); Williams,
153-164; Seeley, 61-63; Davidson,
*iO7-ii3; IO3-I27; Monroe, 122-130
(Brief Course, 60-63); Compayr6, 22-27.

A. His character.

B. Relation to the sophists.

a. Agreed with them in their skepticism
regarding the external world.

b. Opposed their skepticism respecting the
internal world of moral notions.



GREEK EDUCATION 15

C. Educational aim.

a. To emphasize the problems of con-
duct.

b. To develop moral concepts as a ground
of moral action.

c. The conception that to know the right
is to do the right.

D. The Socratic method.

a. Self-examination in order to take stock
of one's knowledge (note the likeness
of this procedure to the formal step of
preparation).

b. Examination of others by the conversa-
tional method (dialectic).

a. Suggestive questioning (maieutic)
to elicit the latent ideas of the modest
and backward.

ft. Ironical questioning (the Socratic
irony) to overcome the stubborn opinions
of the ignorant.

c. The inductive development of the moral
concept.

d. The bond between teacher and learner :
enthusiasm for moral truth (eros or in-
tellectual emotion).

E. Socrates' influence.

a. On his contemporaries.

b. On the development of Greek philos-
ophy.

c. On educational theory.

Xenophon (434-357 or later B.C.). Painter,
50-54 (old edition, 23-24) ; Davidson,



16 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

* 1 14-1 32; Monroe, Source Book, 35-
50, 120-128; Compayr6, 34-36; Painter,
*6i-82.

A. Educational theory as presented in the

Cyrop&dia.

a. Ostensibly the training of the Persian
nobleman.

b. Really an advocacy of the Spartan mili-
tary training.

B. Training of the housewife as given in the

Economics.
a. Domestic education by apprenticeship

similar to that in vogue at Athens.
4. Plato (427-3476.0.). Kemp, 77-78; Painter,
67-73 (old edition, 60-62); *7~32 ; Wil-
liams, 165-175; Seeley, 63-65; David-
son, * 1 33-1 50; i 28-1 5 1 ; Monroe, 130-
146 (Brief Course, 63-68); * 129-264;
Compayre, 27-34.

A. Biography.

B. Plato's philosophy : the Theory of Ideas.

C. Plato's educational theory.

a. As presented in the Republic.
a. Conception of the ideal state.

1 ) Aim : to organize so as to permit
perfect justice.

2) Form: intellectual aristocracy,
ruled by philosophers.

3) Economic organization : a com-
munism.

4) Social orders : rulers ; warriors ;
producers.



GREEK EDUCATION 17

/3. Education as a function of the state.

1) The child belongs to the state.

2) Periods : childhood ; youth ;
young manhood (20-30), a period for
correlating knowledge; 30-35, a period
for the study of philosophy.

3) Curriculum : gymnastic ; culture
studies ("music"), including literature,
music, and the arts as preparatory sub-
jects, and arithmetic, geometry, astron-
omy, and harmony as special preparation
for abstract thinking ; philosophy.

4) Education of women practically
that of men.

b. Modifications made in the Laws.

a. The philosophical ruler replaced by
hereditary monarchy.

/8. Education less like the Spartan and
more like the Athenian system.

1) Education to be supervised by a
state official.

2) Curriculum : birth to 3, training
by nurse ; 3-6, age of play ; 6, sexes
segregated; 6-10, gymnastic; 10-13,
reading and writing ; 13-16, music ; later,
higher gymnastic, dancing, mathematical
sciences, and religion.

D. Plato's influence.

a. Upon philosophy.

b. Upon educational history.

5. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.). Kemp, 79-80;
Painter, 73-77 (old edition, 62-65);



18 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

* 3 3-60; Williams, 176-186; Seeley, 65-
67; Davidson, * 153-202; "152-176; Lau-
rie, 295-300; Monroe, 146-160 (Brief
Course, 68-73); *265-2Q4; Compayre,
36-40.

A. Biography.

B. Theory of the state.

a. It exists for the promotion of well-being.
a. Hence it must provide conditions
necessary to well-being, one of which is
education.

C. Theory of education presented in the Poli-

tics.

a. Education is the foundation of various
forms of state.

b. Aim of education : temperate enjoyment
of cultured and virtuous leisure.

c. Periods : birth to 5, age of play ; 5-7,
period of observation of pursuits to be
followed later ; 7 to puberty ; puberty to
21.

d. Curriculum.

a. Practical subjects : reading; writing ;
drawing.

/3. Liberal subjects : music, as an amuse-
ment, as modifying character, and as an
occupation for leisure.

D. Aristotle's influence.

a. Upon philosophy.

b. Upon science.

c. Upon method.

d. Upon educational history.



, GREEK EDUCATION 1 9

VI. Cosmopolitan Greek Education (338-146 B.C).
Davidson, *2O5-2I3 ; 177-202 ; Monroe,
160-172 (Brief 'Course, 73-78); *295~326.

1. The spread of Greek culture beyond the fron-

tiers of Greece.

A. Conquest of Greece by Philip of Macedon

(Battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C.).

B. Expansion of the Macedonian Empire

under Alexander the Great.
a. Hellenization of the East and Egypt.

2. Graeco-Egyptian culture under the Ptolemies

(323-30 B.C.).

A. The University (Library and Museum) of

Alexandria.

B. Character of the Alexandrian learning.
a. Advance in scientific directions.

a. Euclid (323-283 B.C.).
/8. Archimedes (287-212 B.C.).
7. Ptolemy the Astronomer (?-i68
A.D.).

/IT. Aspects of Greek Culture having an indirect Influ-
ence upon Education.

1. The national games: Olympian; Pythian;

Nemean; Isthmian.

2. Literature and the drama.

A. The Greeks either originated or developed
the chief permanent forms of prose
and poetry.
3- Art.

4. Philosophy.

5. Science.



20 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

References. Davidson, *Aristotle and the Ancient
Educational Ideals ; Davidson, The Education of the
Greek People ; Painter, * Great Pedagogical Essays ;
Monroe, * Source Book of the History of Education:
Greek and Roman Period. For other references consult
the list following Oriental Education.



ROMAN EDUCATION

The Romans were the second Aryan race to develop
a high type of civilization upon European soil. In a
considerable measure they took up the work of develop-
ing European culture where the Greeks left it. Their
most important characteristics were as follows : first,
they were practical rather than idealistic ; second, they
were remarkable social organizers ; third, they respected
law and social order; fourth, they exhibited unusual
talent in assimilating other races to their own institu-
tions, and in availing themselves of the best features in the
institutions of conquered peoples ; fifth, though imitative
rather than original in art, literature, and philosophy,
they nevertheless contributed to the development of
these fields by the selective assimilation of the efforts of
other nations.

I. Introductory Points.

1. Geography of Rome and Italy as influencing

the social life.

2. Social organization. Laurie, 309-315.

A. Importance of the family.

B. The classes.

a. The plebeians or commons at first
without civil rights (until 300 B.C.).

b. The patricians or nobles.



22 HISTORY OF EDUCATION

3. Religion. Laurie, 303-309.

A. A nature-worship similar to that of the

Greeks, only more abstract, developed
along with the ancestor-worship.

B. Later, the influence of Greek literature


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