gaged, but was unsuccessful.
14. TO-MATH-LA-MICCO, OR THE LITTLE KING. (Painted June, 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Upper Creeks. Distinguished only as a warrior, he was elected to
the chieftainship through the instrumentality of Opoeth-le-yo-holo, who has great influence
over him. He is painted in the attitude of holding a red stick, which is invariably carried
44 THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
by him during the ceremonies of the busk or green-corn dance. It is emblematical of the
red-stick or late Creek war.
Possessing no merit as an orator or counsellor, his will is easily swayed by his speaker.
He is mild and amiable in his disposition, and much beloved by his people.
15. TUCK-A-BACK-A-MICCO, OK THE MEDICINE-MAN OR PHYSIC-MAKER. (Painted June, 1843.)
This is the great Medicine or Mystery Man of the Creeks ; his fields of corn are cultivated
by the people of the town in which he resides, and a salary of five hundred dollars per
annum is allowed him from the treasury of the nation, for his services.
They suppose him to be indued with supernatural powers, and capable of making it rain
copiously at will.
In his town is a building of rather a singular construction, used during their annual busk
or green-corn dances as a dancing-house. It is of a circular form, about sixty feet in
diameter and thirty feet high, built of logs ; and was planned by this man in the following
He cut sticks in miniature of every log required in the construction of the building, and
distributed them proportionately among the residents of the town, whose duty it was to cut
logs corresponding with their sticks, and deliver them upon the ground appropriated for
the building at a given time. At the raising of the house, not a log was cut or changed
from its original destination ; all came together in their appropriate places, as intended by
the designer. During the planning of this building, which occupied him six days, he did
not partake of the least particle of food.
16. TAH-COO-SAH-FIXICO, OR BILLY HARDJO. (Painted Aug., 1843.)
Chief of one of the Upper Creek towns. He is a merchant or trader among his people ;
also, has an extensive farm and several negro slaves, which enable him to live very com-
fortably. He is much beloved and respected by his people. The dress in which he is painted
is that of a ball-player, as they at first appear upon the ground. During the play they
divest themselves of all their ornaments, which are usually displayed on these occasions, for
the purpose of betting on the result of the play : such is their passion for betting, that the
opposing parties frequently bet from five hundred to a thousand dollars on a single game.
17. CHILLY McINTOSH. (Painted June, 1843.)
An Upper Creek Chief. This man is a brother of Gen. Mclntosh, who was killed some
years since by his people, for negotiating a treaty with the United States Government, con-
trary to the laws of his country. Chilly was pursued by the same party who massacred his
brother, but succeeded in making his escape by swimming a river, which arrested his pur-
18.-KEE-SEE-LAH AND AII-SEE-HEE. (Painted Aug., 1843.)
Daughters of Opoeth-le-yo-holo. The latter is commonly denominated the Young Queen.
The remaining figure on the right is a half-breed and the wife of a white trader.
19. COO-WIS-COO-EE, OR JOHN ROSS. (Painted Sept., 1844.)
Principal Chief of the Cherokees. Mr. Ross has been for a number of years at the head
of his people, which fact is sufficient evidence of the high estimation in which they hold
him as a man capable of discharging the responsible duties devolving upon the office. Mr.
R. is a man of education, and as a statesman would do honor to the legislative halls of any
country. His hospitality is unbounded; from his soft and bland manners, his guests are at
once made to feel at home, and forget that they are far from the busy scenes of civilization,
and surrounded by the red men of the forest. His house is the refuge of the poor, starved,
and naked Indian ; when hungry, he is sure to find at the abode of this exemplary man some-
thing wherewith to appease his hunger, and if naked, a garment to cover his nakedness,
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 45
Of his private and political history much might be said ; but we leave it to those who are
more competent to the task, and able to do him that justice due to so eminent a man.
20. KEETH-LA, OR DOG. (Painted 1844.)
Commonly called Major George Lowry, Second or Assistant Chief of the Cherokees; an
office which he has filled for a number of years with much credit to himself and the entire
satisfaction of his people. He is about seventy years of age, speaks English fluently, and is
an exemplary Christian.
He is painted in the attitude of explaining the wampum, a tradition of the manner in
which peace was first brought about among the various Indian tribes. (See No. 27.)
21. STAN WATIE. (Painted June, 1843.)
A highly gifted and talented Cherokee. This man is a brother of Boudinot, who was mur-
dered some years since for his participation in negotiating with the United States the New
Echota treaty, (which has caused so much internal dissention among the Cherokees,) con-
trary to the laws of his country. Stan Watie was also one of the signers of that instrument,
but has thus far escaped the horrible death that befell his brother. He is reputed to be
one of the bravest men of his people. During the session of the International Council, at
Tah-le-quah, in June, 1843. he sat for his portrait; he was surrounded by hundreds of his
enemies at the time, but did not manifest the least symptoms of fear during his sojourn. A
biography of this man's life would form a very interesting volume.
22. THOMAS WATIE. (Painted 1842.)
Brother of STAN WATIE, a fine-looking man, but abandoned and dissipated. He is a
printer by trade, and speaks English fluently, and writes a good hand.
23. YEAH-WEE-00-YAH-GEE OR THE SPOILED PERSON. (Painted 1844.)
This man was one of the signers of the first treaty made with the Cherokees by the United
States Government, during the administration of General "Washington.
24. OH-TAH-NEE-UX-TAH, OR CATCHER. (Painted 1844.)
A Cherokee Warrior.
25. CHARLES McINTOSH. (Painted 1842.)
A Cherokee half-breed, about twenty-three years of age, little known among his people
until December, 1842. He then distinguished himself by killing a man upon the Prairies,
by the name of Merrett, an escaped convict from the jail at Van Buren, Arkansas, who with
his brother was under sentence to the State Prison, had escaped, and fled to the Prairies,
where they carried on a sort of land piracy, robbing and murdering all travellers whom
chance threw into their power.
26. WE-CHA-LAH-NAE-HE, OR THE SPIRIT. (Painted 1844.)
Commonly called John Huss. A regular ordained minister of the Presbyterian denomi-
nation, and speaks no English. He is a very pious and good man.
27. INTERNATIONAL INDIAN COUNCIL. (Painted 1843.)
This council was conven3d by John Ross, at Tah-le-quah, in the Cherokee Nation, in the
month of June, 1843, and continued in session four weeks. Delegates from seventeen tribes
were present, and the whole assemblage numbered some ten thousand Indians
28. THREE CHEROKEE LADIES. (Painted 1842.)
29. TWO CHEROKEE GIRLS. (Painted 1842.)
30. CADDO COVE, CADDO CREEK, ARKANSAS. (Painted 1843.)
Gov. P. M. Butler and party on their return from the council with the wild Indians.
31. VIEW OF THE ARKANSAS VALLEY FROM MAGAZINE MOUNTAIN. (Painted 1844.)
46 THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
32. NATURAL DAM IN CRAWFORD COUNTY, ARKANSAS. (Painted 1844.)
33. VIEW OF DARDANELLE ROCK ON THE ARKANSAS. (Painted 1844.)
34. ISH-TON-NO-YES, OR JAMES GAMBLE. (Painted 1843.)
Chickasaw Interpreter. A young man of education, and speaks English fluently.
35. WA-BON-SEH, OR THE WHITE SKY. (Painted June, 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Prairie Band of Potowatomies, residing near Council Bluffs. This
chief is a bold and sagacious warrior, but possesses no merit as an orator ; his will is sub-
mitted to his people through his speaker, a man possessed of great powers of oratory.
Many of his war exploits are of a thrilling and exciting nature.
36. OP-TE-GEE-ZHEEK, OR HALF-DAY. (Painted June, 1843.)
Principal Speaker and Counsellor of the Potowatomies. This man is justly celebrated
for his powers of oratory. By his dignity of manner, and the soft and silvery tones of his
voice, he succeeds admirably in gaining the most profound attention of all within hearing.
At the council which he attended in the Cherokee nation he attracted universal attention,
both from his eloquence and the singularity of his dress, the style of which he probably ob-
tained from the Catholic missionaries residing upon the frontier.
37. NA-SWA-GA, OR THE FEATHERED ARROW. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of a band of Potowatomies, residing on the waters of Little Osage Elver ;
he is distinguished as a bold warrior.
38.-T-THOMAS HENDRICK. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Stockbridges. Of this tribe but few are living, and they have
united themselves with the Delawares, with whom they cultivate the soil in common. This
man speaks good English, and is very affable in his manners.
39. JIM GRAY. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Munsees, a small tribe residing among the Delawares.
40. SHAB-A-NEE. (Painted 1843.)
An Ottawa Chief. This man is well known throughout the northern part of Michigan and
Illinois, his people having formerly occupied and owned the soil in that region. During the
late war he was one of the most prominent actors, and one of Tecumseh's counsellors and
aides-de-camp. He says he was near Tecumseh when he fell, and represents him as having
been stabbed through the body with a bayonet by a soldier : he seized the gun with his left
hand, raised his tomahawk, and was about to dispatch him, when an officer, wearing a chapeau
and riding a white horse, approached him, drew a pistol from his holster, and shot him. He
and the remaining few of his people reside with the Potowatomies, near Council Bluffs, on
41. SAUSH-BUX-CUM, or BEAVER DRAGGING A LIMB. (Painted 1843.)
A Chippewa Chief. This man is chief of a small band of Chippewas, residing in Poto-
watomie country ; these are more advanced in civilization than those living on the Northern
Lakes ; they are not unlike the Potowatomies in their manners and customs.
42. CAPT. KETCHUM. (Painted 1843.)
A Delaware Chief.
43. SECOND EYE. (Painted 1843.)
A Delaware Chief.
44. RO-KA-NOO-WIIA, THE LONG TRAVELLER. (Painted 1843.)
Commonly called Jim Second Eye, Head War-Chief of the Delawares.
Some years since, a small band of Delawares, while on a hunting and trapping expedition
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 47
on the upper Missouri, were surprised by a large party of Sioux, who fell upon them and
murdered all but one of the party, who succeeded in making good his escape and return to
his people. Second Eye immediately started with a small force to avenge the death of his
warriors ; after traveling several weeks, they fell in with the identical party who committed
the depredation. The Sioux, anticipating an attack, retreated to a deep ravine in the moun-
tains in order to defend themselves more advantageously. Second Eye, perceiving the many
disadvantages under which he labored, but having an indomitable spirit, determined to sur-
mount all obstacles, and obtain that vengeance which the death of his warriors loudly called
for. He waited until all was quiet within the ravine, raised the war-whoop, rushed madly
upon them, and massacred the whole party ; he having with his own hands cut off the heads
of sixteen Sioux, which he threw to his warriors to scalp.
He speaks some English, and is frequently employed by the United States and Texas as
a " runner" to the wild Indians, with whom he carries on a very successful trade. He de-
rives his name of Long Traveler from the fact that he has crossed the mountains to Oregon,
and has visited Santa F6, California, and the Navahoe Village.
45. AH-LEN-I-WEES. (Painted 1843.)
A Delaware Warrior of distinction in his tribe.
46. CAPT. McCALLAH. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Texan Delawares. This man is very influential among his people ;
he also exerts a great influence over the wild Indians, and his presence is considered indis-
pensable at all councils convened either by the United States or Texas, for the purpose of
47. PA-CON-DA-LIN-QUA-ING, OE ROASTING EARS. (Painted 1843.)
Second or Assistant Chief of the Texan Delawares, and Principal Orator and Counselor.
48. WAH-PONG-GA, OE THE SWAN. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Weeahs. Once a powerful tribe, but now reduced to the small
number of two hundred warriors. They formerly resided in Indiana, and are at present
located with the Piankeshaws, about forty miles south of Fort Leavenworth, on the Missouri.
49. QUAH-GOM-MEE. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Shawnees.
50. SHAC-EE-SHU-MOO. (Painted 1843.)
An hereditary Shawnee Chief.
51. PAH-QUE-SAH-AH, OE LITTLE TECUMSEH. (Painted 1843.)
A son of Tecumseh. He has none of the extraordinary traits of character for which his
sire was celebrated, and is of very little note in his tribe ; he was in the battle in which his
52. KEOKUK. (Painted May, 1846.)
Head Chief of the Sacs and Foxes. Keokuk is in all respects a magnificent savage. Bold,
enterprising, and impulsive, he is also politic, and possesses an intimate knowledge of human
nature, and a tact which enables him to bring the resources of his mind into prompt ope-
ration. His talents as a military chief and civil ruler are evident from the discipline which
exists among his people.
This portrait was painted in the spring of 1846, on the Kansas River, where he, with his
people, were temporarily residing after their removal from the Desmoines River.
53. SAC CHIEF, AND FOX BRAVE. (Painted May, 1846.)
54. KEP-PEO-LECK, OE RED WOLF. (Painted May, 1846.)
55. SAC WAR CHIEF, IN WAR PAINT. (Painted May, 1846.)
56. WIFE AND DAUGHTER OF BLACK HAWK. (Painted May, 1842.)
48 THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
57. MEDICINE DANCE OF THE SACS. (Painted May, 1846.)
The Medicine Dance of the Sacs is performed once every year, for the purpose of initia-
ting the mystery or medicine-men into this sacred custom of their tribe.
58. THE CHIEFTAIN'S GRAVE. (Painted, Jan. 1851.)
A form of burial practised by many tribes inhabiting the borders of Missouri and Iowa.
59. FLIGHT OF A MOUNTAIN TRAPPER. (Painted 1851.)
The flight of a Mountain Trapper from a band of Black-Foot Indians, constitutes an in-
cident in the life of Capt. Joe Meek, the present marshal of Oregon Territory. He was a
native of Ohio, and early in life enlisted in the service of the American Fur Company as a
trapper; in which service he spent eighteen years in the Rocky Mountains.
This picture represents one of the many thrilling incidents in his life, characteristic of the
trapper and pioneer. Finding himself pursued by a large party, he hoped, by the aid of a
well-bred American horse, to escape a personal encounter; but the Indians taking advan-
tage of the broken country, soon overtook him, and were showering their arrows at him
while in full pursuit, using their horses as a shield. Joe, reserving his fire for a favorable
moment, selected the war-chief who was foremost, and, with well-directed aim, hit both
horse and rider, which caused them to abandon the pursuit.
Joe was one of the early pioneer residents of Oregon, and one of its first representatives
under the provisional government.
60. THE TRAPPER'S ESCAPE. (Painted 1851.)
Joe is seen in the middle ground of the picture, waving his gun in exultation at his lucky
61. BLACK FOOT INDIANS IN AMBUSH, AWAITING THE APPROACH OF AN EMIGRANT PARTY.
A composition characteristic of Indian warfare.
62. TECHONG-TA-SABA OR BLACK DOG. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Osages. A man six feet six inches in height, and well proportioned,
weighing some two hundred and fifty pounds, and rather inclined to corpulency. He is
blind of one eye. He is celebrated more for his feats in war than as a counselor ; his
opinions are, however, sought in all matters of importance appertaining to the welfare of
his people. The name Black Dog was given to him from a circumstance which happened
when on a war expedition against the Comanches. He, with his party, were about to sur-
prise their camp on a very dark night, when a black dog, by his continued barking, kept
them at bay. After several ineffectual attempts, being repelled by the dog, Techong-ta-saba
became exasperated, and fired an arrow at random, hitting him in the head and causing in-
stant death. By this name he is familiarly known to the officers of the army and white
traders in that section of country
63. SHU-ME-CUSS, OR WOLF. (Painted 1843.)
A nephew of Black Dog, and a warrior of distinction among his people.
64 CROW-SUN-TAH, OR BIG SOLDIER. (Painted 1843.)
An Osage Chief and Brave ; is about seventy years of age, vigorous and active. He
together with a number of his tribe, were taken to France some years since by a 11 American
citizen for the purpose of giving exhibitions of their various dances.
65. NE-QUA-BA-NAII. (Painted 1843.)
An Osage Warrior.
66. CHA-PAH-CAH-HA, OR EAGLE FEATHER. (Painted 1843.)
An Osage Warrior. His head-dress is composed of the skin from the head of a buffalo,
with the horns attached.
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 49
67. THE OSAGE MIMIC. (Painted 1843.)
This picture is painted from an incident that took place in my studio at Tah-le-quah, in
the Cherokee nation, during the session of the International Council, in 1843.
I was often absent for a short time, sketching, and listening to the various speeches made
in council. My door being of rather a rude construction, fastened only by a common wooden
latch, all Indians who chose had free ingress. Among those who paid me frequent visits,
was an Osage boy, about seventeen years of age, by the name of Wash-cot-sa, an hereditary
chief, possessed of an amiable disposition and inquiring mind. He seemed to observe every
thing going on in my studio, and would endeavor to imitate any thing done by me. On one
occasion I had been absent for a short time, and during the interim he and one of his com-
panions sauntered in ; and finding themselves alone, he concluded to try his hand at painting.
He assumed the palette and brushes, placed his subject in a favorable position, and had
made some few chalk -marks upon the canvass, when I entered ; he immediately discovered
me, and, dropping the palette and brushes and pointing to the canvass, said it was pe-shee
very bad. I endeavored to induce him to return to his work, but to no purpose.
68. AN OSAGE SCALP-DANCE. (Painted 1845.)
All tribes of wild Indians scalp their captives, save the women and children, who are
treated as slaves, until ransomed by the United States Government.
On returning from the scene of strife, they celebrate their victories by a scalp-dance.
The chiefs and warriors, after having painted themselves, each after his own fancy, to give
himself the most hideous appearance, encircle their captives, who are all placed together.
Thus stationed, at a tap on their drums they commence throwing themselves into attitudes
such as each one's imagination suggests as the most savage, accompanied by yells, for the
purpose of striking terror into the hearts of their captives.
This picture represents the scalp-dance of the Osages around a woman and her child ;
and a warrior in the act of striking her with his club, his chief springing forward and ar-
resting the blow with his spear.
69. KI-HIOCA-TE-DAH, OB PASSING CHIEF. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Quapaws. Once a very powerful and warlike tribe, but now reduced
to a small number ; they reside with the Senecas. This chief is represented by the agent
as being a very good man, and possesses the entire confidence of his whole people.
70. WOHUM-PA, AN IOWA CHIEF, AND THIS ARTIST. (Painted 1843.)
It was with much difficulty that I induced this chief to sit for his portrait. I was anxious
to paint one of his warriors upon the same canvass with him ; to this he objected, saying
that they were no good, and that chiefs only were worthy of such a distinguished honor ; he
insisted on being painted in the act of shaking hands with me, so that when the Great Father
(the President of the U. S.) saw it, he might know that he was a friend of the white man.
He is a great warrior, his arms bearing evidence of this fact, having been pierced with balls
and arrows in several places from the hands of the Sioux. He was very particular as to the
correct imitation of the painting on his blanket, which is to him the history of his war ex-
ploits. The hands represent the scalps taken from the heads of his enemies. I tried re-
peatedly to get some of his warriors to sit, but they could not be induced to do it without
the consent of their chief. Such was their fear of him, that they dared not enter my of sdio
while he was present without his invitation.
71. KA-SA-ROO-KA, OB ROARING THUNDER. (Painted 1842.)
Principal Chief of the Wichetaws. or Pawnee Picts.
72. NASH-TAW, oa THE PAINTER. (Painted 1842.)
Second Chief of tt- Wichetaws or Pawnee Picts, and a brother of Ka-sa-roo-ka,
50 THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
73.-RIT-SA-AH-RESCAT, OK THE WOMAN OF THE HUNT, AND BRACES OR BABY. (Painted 1842.)
Wife of Nashtaw, and Child.
74. BIN-TAH, THE WOUNDED MAN. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Caddoes. He derived his name from the fact of his having been
wounded in the breast by an Osage ; he wears a piece of silver suspended from his nose, as
75. AH-DE-BAH, OR THE TALL MAN. (Painted 1843.)
Second or Assistant Chief of the Caddoes. Painted in the act of striking the drum.
76. SE-HIA-AH-DI-YOU, THE SINGING BIRD. (Painted June, 1843.)
Wife of Ah-de-bah, seated in her tent. A view on Tiwoccany Creek, Texas.
77. HA-DOON-COTE-SAH. (Painted 1843.)
A Caddo Warrior.
78. JOSE MARIA. (Painted 1844.)
Principal Chief of the Anandarkoes. This Chief is known to the Mexicans by the name
of Jose* Maria, and to the Caddoes as lesh. He has fought many battles with the Texans,
and was severely wounded in the breast in a skirmish with them.
79. KA-KA-KATISH, OR THE SHOOTING STAR. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Wacoes. This man is justly celebrated for his powers of oratory,
being probably one of the greatest natural orators now living among the Indians. At the
council held upon the River Brazos, he was the principal speaker ; and by his dignity and
grace of manner succeeded in gaining the attention and respect of these wild and untutored
sons of the forest, whose implicit confidence he enjoys.
80. CHO-WE, OR THE BOW. (Painted 1843.)
Principal Chief of the Natchitoches. This man had a brother killed by the Texans, some
four or five years since, while on a hunting expedition, whose death he afterwards avenged
by taking the scalps of six Texans.
81. KEECHE-KA-ROOKI, OR THE MAN WHO WAS NAMED BY THE GREAT SPIRIT. (Painted 1844.)
Principal Chief of the Towocconies, and acknowledged Chief of the allied tribes of Texas.
82. KO-RAK-KOO-KISS. (Painted 1844.)
A Towoccono warrior.
S3. KO-RAN-TE-TE-DAH, OR THE WOMAN WHO CATCHES THE SPOTTED FAWN. (Painted 1844.)
A Keechie Woman, wife of Ko-rah-koo-kiss.
84. KOT-TAN-TEEK. (Painted 1844.)
Principal Chief of the Keechies.
85. A BUFFALO HUNT. (Painted 1845.)
On the South-western Prairies.
86. POO-CHON-E-QUAH-EEP, OR BUFFALO-HUMP. (Painted 1844.)
Second Chief of the Hoesh Band of Comanches, and head war-chief of all the Comanchcs.
This Chief wa.s painted at a council of the wild Indians on the head-waters of Red River.
87 PO-CHON-NAH-SHON-NOC-CO, OR THE EATER OF THE BLACK BUFFALO HEART. (Painted 1844.)
One of the principal warriors of the Hoesh Band, or Honey -Eaters.
88 WIFE OF PO-CHON-NAII-SHON-NOC-CO. (Painted 1844.)
89. 0-HAH-AII-WAH-KEE, THE YELLOW PAINT HUNTER. (Painted 1844.)
Head Chief of the Ta-nah-wee Band of Comanches.
90. NAII-MOO-SU-KAH. (Painted 1844.)
Comanche Mother and Child.
THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 51
91. A COMANCIIE DOMESTIC SCENE. (Painted 1844.)
A Sleeping Warrior. Landscape on the head-waters of Red River.
92. -A COMANCIIE GAME. (Painted 1844.)
This game is played exclusively by the women. They hold in their hand twelve sticks
about six inches in length, which they drop upon a rock ; the sticks that fall across each
other are counted for game : one hundred such counts the game. They become very much