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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



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University of California Berkeley



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THE



EDINBURGH

DISPENS



CONTAINING



J. THE ELEMENTS OF PHARMA-
CEUTICAL CHEMISTRY.

II. THE MATERIA MEDICA; OR,
THE NATURAL, PHARMACEU-
TICAL AND MEDICAL HISTORY



OF THE DIFFERENT SUBSTAN-
CES EMPLOYED IN MEDICINE.

III. THE PHARMACEUTICAL PRE-
PARATIONS AND COMPOSI-
TIONS.



INCLUDING

Complete and Accurate Translations of the Octavo Edition of the Lon-
don Pharmacopoeia, published in 1791 ; Dublin Pharmacopeia, pub-
lished in 1794; and of the New Edition of the Edinburgh Pharma-
copoeia, published in 1803.

Illustrated and explained in the Language, and according to the Principles,
of Modern Chemistry.

WITH MANY NEW AND USEFUL TABLES,

And feveral COPPERPLATES, explaining the new Syftcm of Chemical Characters,
and reprefenting the moft ufeful Pharmaceutical Apparatus.

By ANDREW DUNCAN, Jim. M.D.

FELLOW OP THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS AND ROYAL SOCIETY OF

EDINBURGH, AND ASSOCIATE or THE LINNEAN SOCIETY OF LONDON.

Second edition,
enlarged and much improved.




EDINBURGH:

PRINTED FOR BELL & BRADFUTE.

SOLD BY GUTHRIE & TAIT, AND W. BLACK.WOOD, EDINBURGH ;

(S. & J. ROBINSON, AND J. MURRAY, LONDON;

AND GILBERT & HODGES, DUBLIN.

1804*



in Stationers



Edinburgh: Printed by Mundell and Son.



TO



ATSTDREW DUNCAN, M. D.

PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITUTIONS OF MEDICINE
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH,

THIS WORK



IS JMOST DUTIFULLY AND AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBES

BY



HIS SON.



PREFACE.

. LEWIS publiflied the firft edition of his New Difpenfa-
tory in 1753. The principal part of the work was a
Commentary upon the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias,
of both of which it contained a complete and accurate tranflation.
A concife fyftem of the Theory and Practice of Pharmacy was
prefixed, as an introduction ; and directions for extemporaneous
prefcription, with many elegant examples, and a collection of
efficacious but cheap remedies, for the ufe of the poor, were
added as an Appendix.

The manner in which the whole was executed, placed Dr.LEWiS
at the head of the reformers of Chemical Pharmacy ; for he con-
tributed more than any of his predecefTors to improve that fcience,
both by the judicious criticifm with which he combated the erro-
neous opinions prevalent in his time, and by the actual and im-
portant additions he made to that branch of our knowledge. He
was juftly rewarded by tne decided approbation of the public.
During the Author's lifetime many editions were publifhed, each
fucceeding one receiving the improvements which the advancement
of the iciences connected with Pharmacy fuggefted.

After the death of Dr. LEWIS ; Dr. WEBSTER, Dr. DUNCAN,
and Dr. ROTHERAM, fucceflively contributed to maintain the
reputation of the work, by taking advantage of the difcoveries
made in Natural Hiftory and Chemiftry, and by making thofe
alterations which new editions of the Pharmacopoeias, on which it
was founded, rendered neceflary. From the place of their publica-
tion, and to diftinguifh them from the original work of Dr. LEWIS,
which was Mill reprinted without alteration in London, thefe im-
proved editions were entitled, The EDINBURGH New Difpenfatory.

When the Edinburgh College fome time ago determined to
publifh a new edition of their Pharmacopoeia, the bookfellers
who purchafed the copy-right of that work being defirous that
it fhould be accompanied by a correfponding edition of the
Edinburgh New Difpenfatory, applied to the prefent Editor to
iriake the neceflary alterations. This he readily undertook, and



vi PREFACE.

the number of the alterations made will (hew, that if he has not
fulfilled what was expected from him, it has been owing to want
of ability, and not to want of exertion.

The genera] plan of the work remains the fame. It is divided
into three parts. The firft contains Elements of Pharmacy ; the
fecond, the Materia Medica j and the laft, the Preparations and
Compofitions.

The^r/? of thefe is entirely new, nothing being retained but
the title. It is divided into two fections. The firft contains a
very concife account of fome of the general doctrines of Chemiftry,
and of the properties of all fimple bodies, and the generic charac-
ters of compound bodies. In the fecond part, the Operations of
Pharmacy, and the neeeffary apparatus, are defcribed ; and an
Appendix is added, containing many very ufeful Tables, and the
Explanation of the Plates*

We now poflefs fo many excellent elementary works on Che-
miftry, both tranflations, and original works, fuch as thofe of
Dr. THOMSON, Mr. MURRAY, and Mr. NICHOLSON, that it is
perhaps necelfary to explain why an Epitome of Chemiftry has
been introduced into this work. Not only is its introduction
authorifed by the example of former editions, but in attempting
to explain in a fcientific manner the operations of Pharmacy, we
found ourfelves fo frequently obliged to mention the general
principles and facts of Ghemiftry, that, to avoid tedious repeti-
tions, it became neceflary either to refer to fome elementary book
already publifhed, or to prefix to this work a fhort abftract of
Chemical Science. The latter alternative was preferred, as it
would form a bond of connection between the detached fubjects
treated of in the other parts of the work, and as it appeared, that,
by means of a due attention to arrangement, and by rejecting hy-
pothetical reafoning, a very few pages would be fufficient to con-
tain a valuable collection of the facts afcertained with regard to
the fimple bodies, and the generic characters of compound, which
would enable us to explain the properties of the fpecies employed
in medicine" with more facility to ourfelves, and with greater ad-
vantage to our readers. Long after this part was ready for the
prefs, Mr. DAVY'S Syllabus was publimed, and we were agreeably
flattered to find, that befides the fame general arrangement, we
had often taken the fame view of the fame fubjects. This fimi-



PREFACE. vii

larity enabled us on feveral occafiuns to profit by Mr. DAVY'S
Syllabus during the printing of the (heets.

The principal addition to the fecond and third parts of this
work, is the introduction of a complete tranflation of the 'x:el-
lent Pharmacopoeia of the Dublin College, which has never, we
believe, appeared before in the Englifli language. We therefore
truft, that it will be found an important and valuable addition.
In Ireland, in particular, it mult give the Edinburgh New Difpen-
fatory an intereft which it did not formerly poflefs.

The fecond part contains the Materiel Medica, arranged in al-
phabetical ord':r. The alterations in this part cry con-
fiderabie. We have adopted the Nomenclature of the Edinburgh
College, or rather of Natural Hiitory, in preference to the oihci-
nal names hitherto employed. To the fyilematic name of each
article, are fubjoined its fynonymes in the different Pharmaco-
poeias, and the defignations of the parts ufed in medicine; then
the clafs and order of natural bodies to which it belongs, and if
a vegetable, the exact number of its genus and fpecies, according
to the excellent edition of LINN Pius's Species Plantarum, now
publinYmg at Berlin by Profeifor WILLDENOW.

The ancient practice of naming medicines from their inven-
tors, or fuppofed virtues, has been for fome time exploded from
our Pharmacopoeias ; but it has been long cuftomary to defcribe
both fimple fubftances and their preparations or compofitions by
what are generally termed Officinal Names, in contrudiftinction
to the prefent fyftematic names of the fame fubftances. But their
officinal names are in fact the old fyftematic names, which were
unaccountably retained for the denomination of medicinal fub-
ftances, after the improvements in Natural Hiftory and Chemiftry
rendered the introduction of a new nomenclature into thefe
fciences necefTary.

Attempts have been n-ade, both, in this country and in Ger-
many, to introduce the language of Chemiftry into Pharmacy *,
but thefe attempts, however ufeful, were but feeble and incom-
plete. The honour of being the firft to compofe a Pharmacopoeia
in the pure and unmixed language of Science, belongs indifput-
ably to the Royal College of Phyficians of Edinburgh, in the be-
ginning of the nineteenth century. It is extremely probable that
to this innovation many obje&ions may be made ; but it is pro-



viii PREFACE.

bable that they will rather apply to the neceflary imperfe&ions
of a firft attempt, than to the principle itfelf, the propriety of
which can fcarcely be doubted, when we confider, that Materia
Medica and Pharmacy are but an application of Natural Hiftory
and Chemiftry to a particular purpofe. If the general principle
be admitted, it naturally follows, that the names of all Subflances
employed in Medicine, mould be the fame with the names of the
fame fubftances, according to the mod approved fyftems of Na-
tural Hiftory and Chemiftry, and that the titles of Compound
Bodies mould exprefs as accurately as poffible the nature of their
compofition.

Confiderable difficulties, however, occur, in attempting to form
a nomenclature in ftricl; conformity with thefe principles. The
moft apparent of thefe is, that the titles of the more compounded
medicines would become too verbofe and inconvenient, if they
were to exprefs every ingredient, although of little importance.
The College, fully aware of this difficulty, have therefore con-
tented themfelves with indicating in the titles the principal ingre-
dients only, on which their powers and ufes feem to depend. For
the fame reafon, they have prefcribed fome well-known fimples
in very frequent ufe, by their common names, fuch as Opium t
Mofchus, Cajhreum, Crocus Anglidusy thinking it fufficient to have
pointed out in the catalogue of the Materia Medica the animals
and vegetables from which they are obtained.

In moft cafes it is proper to mention both the Generic and
Specific names of fimples j but where it is neceflary to point out
even the Variety employed, it will be in general more convenient
to o jut the fpecific name, and to retain thofe of the genus and
variety, as Aloes Socotorjna for Aides perfoliata Socotorina, Crocus
Angl'uus for Crocus fativis Anglicus. Alfo when any fubftance is
obtained indiscriminately from feveral fpecies of the fame genus,
the fpecific name may be omitted with propriety. Thus, it is
fufficient to fay, Refina pini, Oleum volatile pini, &c.

Another difficulty arifcs from the Reformers of Chemical No-
menclature not having pointed out the manner of expreffing cer-
tain, and thefe very common, forms of combination, without em-
ploying a periphrafis totally incompatible with the brevity of a
name. Pharmaceutifts have therefore been obliged to fupply this
deficiency from their own (lore.



PREFACE. i*

The Edinburgh College have accordingly retained fome titles,
fuch as TinElure and Spirit t which, although not ftridly chemical,
have been long received in Pharmacy, and are fo well underdood
and defined that they can lead to no error or ambiguity.

The principles, therefore, upon which the Edinburgh College
have eftablifhed the new nomenclature which they have introduced
into Materia Medica and Pharmacy, appear to be To rational and
fcientific, that it can fcarcely fail to be generally adopted. As
fcience advances, its imperfections will be remedied, and its de-
ficiencies fupplied ; for, befides other advantages, it facilitates re-
remarkably the application of difcoveries and improvements in
Natural Hiftory and Chemiflry, to the purpofes of medicine.

In other particulars, confiderablc additions have been made to
the Natural Hiftory of the different articles, to the means of dif-
tinguiftiing them from other fubftances with which they are apt
to be confounded, and of' detecting frauds and adulterations*
Almoft every thing which regards their Chemiftry is entirely new.
As from the principal lift every article has been excluded which
is not contained in the Materia Medica of at lead one of the Brk-
ifli Colleges, we have given in an Appendix a very concife ac-
count of fuch other articles as poffefs a place in fome refpe&able
foreign Pharmacopoeias. We have alfo added lifts of the Medicinal
Simples, arranged according to the beft fyftems of Natural Hiftory.

The third part contains the Preparations and Compactions.

In our general arrangement of thefe, we have not followed any
of the Colleges exactly, although we have not deviated much from
that of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia. It is not of very great im-
portance in what order the claffes or chapters be arranged ; but
thefe claffes mould be natural, and, if poflible, eftablifhed on one
general principle. Unfortunately, however, in mod Pharmaco-
poeias, fome of the claffes are founded on Chemical Analogy, and
others on the fimilarity of form, or mode of preparation ; and
what is ftill worfe, fome are entirely anomalous and unnatural.
The laft error we have carefully endeavoured to avoid, but we
have not attempted, and, indeed, it feems fcarcely poflible, to form
an ufeful arrangement, on a fingle principle. The analogous pre-
parations in the different Pharmacopoeias, are always placed im-
mediately next each other, which renders it eafy to compare
them, and to difcover at once the circumftances in which they
refemble or differ from each other.



x PREFACE.

The Commentaries upon this part, are more or lefs full, as the
fubject feemed to be more or lefs important. There was little op-
portunity for improvements in the obfervations upon their medi-
cal powers, becaufe thefe were generally the refult of much prac-
tical experience, becaufe our plan confined us to the fimple ilate-
ment of facts, and becaufe this Difpenfatory is to be confidered
rather as a pharmaceutical than a practical expofition of the Britifh
Pharmacopoeias. It muft not, however, be fuppofed that thefe
have been neglected. Every part of them has been carefully ex-
amined ; what had become obfolete, or uninterefting, has been
rejected ; whatever later experience has proved to be erroneous,
has been corrected ; and the difcoveries made fince the edition of
1789 have been added. At one time it was alfo intended to
have inferted examples of extemporaneous prefcription, with
obfervations ; but it would have extended the work too much
beyond its ufual limits ; and fortunately the deficiency is well
fupplied by the Thefaurus Medicaminum.

During the progrefs of this publication, all the beft journals
and fyftems of Chemiftry particularly FOURCROY'S Syjleme des
ConnaJffances ChJmiques y have been occafionally confulted, for che-
mical information. But we lie under more immediate obligations
to fome of the German writers on Pharmacy, fuch as HAGEN,
HERMBSTAEDT, GOTTLING, GREN, and WESTRUMB.



A FEW months only elapfed after the publication of the former
edition of this Work, until a very large impreflion was exhaufted,
ar 1 it became again neceflary to put it to the prefs. The fhort
interval has not allowed the Editor to make all thofe alterations
and improvements which he had projected ; but every part of the
work has been revifed with care, and, although he is perfectly
fenfible that many errors have yet efcaped him, which ought to
have been avoided, yet he trulls that they are very few when
compared to the mafs of facts crowded into one volume. The
principal alterations and additions which have been made, confift
in the characters which falts derive from their bafes in the Epi-
tome of Chemiftry; the account of the general properties of
common and mineral waters, charcoal, and a fe<,v other articles,



PREFACE. xi

in the Materia Medica, with a (hort notice of every article con-
tained in the Pharmacopceia-Boruffica, Fonriulario Pharmaceutico
of the hofpital of Genoa ; Marrabelli's Apparatus medicaminum,
Van Mons's Pharmacopoeia, and that of La Grange, which had
not been previoufly mentioned j a lift of the Genera of Medical
Plants, according to the natural fyftem of Juflieu, as improved
by Ventenat, while the natural orders of Murray are retained, in
the Materia Medica , and a Pofological and Profodial Table, which
cannot fail to be acceptable j befides the introduction of every
Pharmaceutical improvement which has come to the Author's
knowledge during the interval which has elapfed between the
publication of the two editions.

Edinburgh, ijt Oft. 1804,



CONTENTS,



PART I.

ELEMENTS OF PHARMACY,

Page

Objecl and divifion of Pharmacy , * - I

SECTION I.

EPITOME OF CHEMISTRY,

Attraction and RepuJfion, 2

Aggregation, 3

Affinity . Jb.

Clafltfication offimplefubftances, . 4

Light, . . ^

Caloric, . , 5

Eleftricity, . p

G-ahanifm, - - . IO

Magnetifm^ j^

Sali/iable bafes, - - - 1 1



Alkalies y



Nitrogen, , _ ,g

Hydrogen, , I



Phofphorus, , . -23

Metals and metallic oxides, . - 24

^:/Wj, luithfimple bafes, , . 3O

Compound oxides, . , _ 2 -
(Vegetable fubflances),



xir CONTENTS.

Page

Quaternary oxides {Animal fubflances), 42

Compound acids, 46

Ternary acids, ib.

Quaternary acids, - 49

Characters of f alts derived from their bafes, 50

SECTION II.

PHARMACEUTICAL OPERATIONS.

ClkcJion and prefervation ofjimples t - 53

Mechanical operations of pharmacy, 5

Weighing and meafuring, ib.
Mechanical divi/ion, by pulverisation, trituration, levigation,

and granulation, 5 8
Mechanical feparation, by f if ting, elutriation, decantation, filtra-
tion, exprejfion, and defpumation, 60
Mechanical mixture by agitation, trituration, and kneading, 62
Apparatus, ib.
Vefils, 63
Lutes, - ,64
Heat and fuel, 67
Furnaces, - . 68
Chemical operations, - 70
A. changing the form of aggregation, ib.

a. Fufion, _ ib.

b. Liquefaction, ib.

c. Vitrification, ib.

d. Vaporization, - - 72

1. Vftulation, - 73

2. Charring, ib

3. Evaporation, ib.

4. Concentration, 74

5. Infpiffation, ib.

6. Exjiccation, - ib.
C Condensation, ib.

1. Diflillation, 7^

2. Circulation, - 77

3. ReBificationi . 80



CONTENTS. xv

Page

Chemical operations.

4. Sublimation^ - 80

f. Congelation , ib.

g. Coagulation, 8 1

B. effecting combination, . - ib.

a. Solution, 82

b. Extraction, . 83

c. Abforption, 84

d. Confolidation, 85

C. effecting decompaction, ib.

a. Dijfilution, ib.

b. Precipitation, ib.

c. Crystallization, 86

d. Oxygenizement, 88

e. Difoxygeniztment, $i

f. Fermentation, 92

APPENDIX.

Tables offimple affinity, - 95

Cafes of mutual decompofaion. - - loo

<^T/^J- of difpofing affinity, ib.
Formula for comparing thefcales of different thermometers 'with

each other, loi
T#/ /" ftf thermometric degrees, at which feme remarkable

chemical phenomena occur, I o 2

Table of freezing mixtures, - - 1 06

T^/k of galvanic circles, - - 107

Weights and meafures, ic8

Tables offpecifc gravities, ' - Iio

of the folubility of different fubftances in watet, 114

of the folubility of different fubftances in alcohol, 1 16

Table of the iveight of gafes abforbed by ivater, lij

Explanation of the plates, - 118



CONTENT S.



PART II.

MATERIA MEDICA.

Page

General olfirvations, - 129

Natural, Medical, and Pharmaceutical Hiftory of the different
Articles contained in the Pharmacopoeias of London, Dublin,
and Edinburgh, arranged according to the nomenclature of the
Edinburgh College) - 130

APPENDIX.

No. I. Conctfe account of feme fub/lances contained in fame of
the be^ft foreign Pharmacopoeias, but not received into the lifts
of any of the Britt/h Colleges, - 359

No. II. Lift of animals 'which furnijh articles of the Materia
Medica, arranged according to Cuvier* s fyftcm, 37$

No. III. Lift of the genera of medicinal plants, arranged accord-
ing to Linnaus, - - - 376

No. IV. Lift of officinal genera, arranged according to the
tiatural fyftemof JuJJieu, improved by Ventenat, 38 1

No. V. Lift of 'officinal 'fubftances belonging to the mineral kingdom ,385



PART III.

PREPARATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS,

CHAP. I. Sulphur, 387

II. Acids, 388

III- Alkalies and alkaline fait s y 403

IV. Earths and earthy fait s, 439

V. Antimony y 451

VI. Silver, 467

VII. Copper, 470
VIII. Iron, 474

IX. ^ickfjfoery 483

X. Lead) - 504



CONTENTS. xvii

Page

CHAP. XI. Tin, - 507

XII. Zinc, - - 508

XIII. Alcohol^ ether, and ethereal fpirits, 5 1 3

XIV. Drying of flowers and herbs, - 522
XV. Exprejfid juices, 524

XVI. Infpijated juices, - : .^ ., 527

XVII. Fixed oils, 531

XVIII. Oily preparation;, 533

XIX. Diftilled waters, 536

XX. Volatile oils, w 54 2

XXI. Empyreitmatic volatile oils, - 548

XXII. Dtflilledjpirits, . 551

XXIlt. Infufions, - . 555

XXIV. Decoftiofis, . 560

XXV. Mucilage S) , 567
XXVI. S>r^/, . . 56^

XXVII. Medicated honeys, - 580

XXVIII. Emulftons and mixtures, 583

XXIX. Medicated vinegars, - 587

XXX. Tirtflures, * 590

XXXI. 'Tinctures made tvith ethereal fpiriis, 6ll

XXXII. Ammoniated or volatile tinclures, . 613

XXXIII. Medicated wines, , 618

XXXIV. Extrafts and refins, 621
XXXV. P&ivders, ^ (Jo 2

XXXVI. Conferees, . , , 640

XXXVII. Elecluaries and confeclicns, - 643

XXXVIII. Troches, . . 649

XXXIX. Pills, . 653

XL. Cataplafms, 660

XLI. Liniments ; ointments, cerates, and pfajtfrs, 662

TABLES, Jfje'wing the proportion of antimony, opium, and mer-
cury, contained in different compofitions, 686
Pofological and profodial table, - - 690
Index of names that have been changed in the laft editions of

the London and Edinburgh Pharmacopeias, 703

EngliJJ} index, 7I y

Latin index, * I ^^



ERRATA.



Page line

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24 dele 65
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J 97 3 \f or Choraearc</ chorea
2,30 39 corticje cortice

233 7 Aeurgo Aerugo
345 J 5 ferro ferri

297 8 Common Corn

35 8 4 lime zinc

359 19 B^taviae Brixi*



Page line
433 3i
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474 4
480 a
541 38
573 34



Ammonia n Ammonia



Pulv.

Limitura

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Mulberry



Pil

Limatura

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fuill

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583 ^3 before Emulfio inf. Emulfip Gum-
mi MimofasNi-
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DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE



Plate I. page 118.



II.
III.
IV.

y.

VI.



119.
120.
121.
122.
127,



I

THE EDINBURGH

NEW DISPENSATORY.



PART I.
ELEMENTS OF PHARMACY.



i. HP*HE object of Pharmacy is to provide thofe fubftances
which may be employed for the prevention or cure of
difeafes.

2. To obtain this object completely, an acquaintance with the
phyfical and chemical properties of bodies is neceflary. This may
be<termed the Science of Pharmacy.

3. As few fubftances are found in nature in a {late fit for their
exhibition in medicine, they previouily undergo various prepara-
tions. Thefe conftitute the Art of Pharmacy.

4. Pharmacy is fo intimately connected with chemiftry, that the
former can neither be under flood as a fciencc, nor practifed with
advantage as an art, without a conftant reference to the principles
of the latter. For this reafon, it will be proper to premife fuch
a view of the general doctrines of chemiftry, and of the moil re-
markable properties of chemical agents, as is neceflary for the
purpofes of pharmacy.



SECT. I.
EPITOME OF CHEMISTRY.

5. Matter is extended and divisible.

6. The mod minute particles into which bodies can ultimately
be divided are called their Elementary particles.

7. The moll minute particles into which any fubftance can be
divided, fimilar to each other, and to the fubftance of which they
are parts, are termed its Integrant parfft/er.

A



2 Elements of Pharmacy . Part I.

8. When the integrant particles admit of no further divi&wi,
the body is *Rtnple fubftance.

9. But the integrant particles of mod bodies can be fubdivided
into other particles, differing in their nature from each other, and
from the body of which they are parts. Thefe bodies are called
Compound bodies,

10. If the particles, of which the integrant particles of any
compound body are compofed,

a* admit of no further divifion, the body is a primary com-
pound ;

b* but if they be alfo compound, and admit of ftill further fub-
divifion, they are called Intermediate particles t and the body
is a fecondary compound.

11. Therefore the integrant particles

a. of fimple fubftances are alfo their elementary particles ;

b of primary compounds are compofed of elementary par-
ticles ,

c. of fecondary compounds are compofed of intermediate



Online LibraryWilliam LewisThe Edinburgh new dispensatory : including complete and accurate translations of the ... London pharmacopoeia ... : Dublin pharmacopoeia .. → online text (page 1 of 68)