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I Prefatory Notes . . . xvii

II Bibliography .... xxvii

III Chapter First . ■ ■ - 3

Chronologically arranged Account of Engraved
Views of the City from the first picture pub-
lished in 1 65 1 until the Year 1800.

IV Chapter Second . . . 31

Engravings executed from the Year 165 1 to the
Year 1700.

V Chapter Third .... 57

Engravings executed from the Year 1 700 to the
Year 1793.

VI Chapter Fourth . . . 75

Engravings executed from the Year 1793 '■° ^^^
Year 1800.

VII Appendix 97

Extracts from G. M. Asher's Bibliographical and
Historical Essay on Dutch Books and Pamphlets
relating to New Netherland and the Dutch
West India Company. Amsterdam, 1855;
H ugh Gaine' s Universal Register. New York,
1776 and William Smith's History of New
York, 1757. The References and Inscrip-
tion upon the plan of John Montresor. Lon-
don, 1775. Alleged portrait of Henry Hudson
in possession of the City of New York.

VIII Addenda 133



The Duke's Plan (in color) . . Frontispiece

Arms of New Amsterdam and New York

(in color) . . . Vignette on title page



Francis I 4

Church of St. Ethelburga 9

Old Houses in the City of Albany ... 14

Mohawk Indian Warrior 16

William Usselinx 18

West India Company's Warehouse, Amster-
dam, 1 64 1 20

First View of New Amsterdam . . . 31

Title page of Joost Hartger's " Beschrijvinghe " 32
View of New Amsterdam on Van der Donck's

Map of Nova Belgica 37

Title page of Van der Donck's " Beschry-

vinge " 38



View of New Amsterdam in the " Beschryving"

of Montanus 4^

William Kieft's Punishment for Beggars . . 4^

The Fort in New York 45

View of New Amsterdam on Seutter's Map . 4^

Admiral Cornelis Evertsen 5°

View of New Amsterdam by P. Mortier . . 54
New Amsterdam, " A Small City on Manhat-

, tan Island " 58

Plan of the City of New York by Bernard

Ratzer ^°

Prospect of ye City of New York by William

Burgis ^O

View of the " New Dutch Church " by Will-
iam Burgis ^3

View of New York City on the Popple Map . 64
Southwest View of the City of New York,

Drawn by Capt. Thomas Howdell . 66
Southeast View of the City of New York,

Drawn by Capt. Thomas Howdell . . 67

Title page of Kalm's " Re.ze " .... 68
Southwest View of the City of New York,

J. Carwitham, sculp 7°

New York about 1790 . • • • 7^

Bowling Green °^




O far as I have been able to trace,
there are but eight* views of the
Fort and Town of New Am-
sterdam and the City of New
York, engraved prior to the
Revolutionary War, which differ sufficiently
from one another to support the hypothesis
that they may have been engraved from sepa-
rate original drawings. These, for the sake
of brevity, I designate as follows :

1 Hartgers

2 N. J. Visscher

3 Montanus

4 Romeyn de Hooghe 8 Howdell — S. E. View

* This number should, perhaps, be reduced by one, as the engravings
on the Visscher and Van der Donck maps and in the History of Montanus
all may have been taken from the sketch made by Augustine Herremans.

5 Wm. Burgis

6 B. Ratzer

7 Howdell— S. W. View


Of engraving No. i I find one early copy,
or reprint ; of No. 2, five ; of No. 3, one ; of
No. 4, eleven. Of the remaining prints I am
unable to state with exactness how often they
may have been copied in whole or in part prior
to the year 1800. Of these eight views, with
the exception of Nos. 5 and 6, there have
been numerous modern reproductions.

The public and private collections that I
have been able to consult, which contain copies
of the maps and views described in the follow-
ing pages, are indicated in the foot notes.

Early Maps and Plans of the City of
New York

1 The Duke's Plan, . . 1661

2 Plan de Manathes,ou Nou-

velle Yore, by J. B. L.
Franquelin, . . . 1693

3 The Miller Plan,* . .1695

* Plan of the city by the Rev. John Miller as it existed in the year
1695. This plan (one of Albany and of the forts at New York, Albany,
Schenectady and the Indian fort at the Flats) accompanies a description
of the Province and City of New York in 1675, by the Rev. John Miller.
" Now first printed from the original manuscript by Thomas Rodd, Lon-
don, 1843, into whose possession it fell on the dispersion of the library of
George Chalmers, Esq."


4 The Bradford Map, a . 1731

5 David Grim's Map, ^ . 1742

6 The Duyckinck Map,'-' (T . 1755

7 Plan of the City, by Ber-

nard Ratzer, d . . 1767

8 The Montresor Plan, d" . 1775

9 Map in Hugh Gaine's

Universal Register,/ . 1776

10 The City of New York,

surveyed by J. Hills, . 1782

11 Plan of the City, by I.

M. Comb Jun', ^ . 1789

12 Map of the City, by Wm,

Bridges, engraved by P.
Maverick, . . . 1807

Early Drawings of New York
The Journal of the Labadists, Jaspar Dankers

abed. The New York Historical Society.

a e f g. The Andrews Collection.

*" A Plan of the City of New York from an actual Survey, Anno
Domini MDCCIV." By Frank Maerschalk, city surveyor. Printed,
Ingraved for and sold by G. Duyckinck. The map is dedicated to Lieu-
tenant-Governor James de Lancey. The key contains forty-four names
of buildings and localities. The copy of this map in the New York
Historical Society was presented to that institution in 1807 by John


and Peter Sluyter, 1679-80, contains three views
of New York, as follows :

I New York from Brooklyn Heights.
1 View of New York from the East.
3 View of New York from the North.

Facsimile reproductions of the above will be
found in the Memoirs of the Long Island
Historical Society, Volume I, Brooklyn, 1867.
The miniature views in the headbands of Chap-
ters II, III and IV are taken from illustrations
in this publication.

Chronological Arrangement of the First

Five Engraved Views of New York

and the Early Copies or

Reprints Thereof

first view

Original In Joost Hartger's Befchrijvinghe
van Virginia, etc. h Amsterdam,

Copy A In AdriaenVan der Donck's Nieuvv-
Nederlant. First Edition. / Am-
sterdam, 1655.

h The Lenox Library. The New York Historical Society. The
Andrews Collection.

/ The Lenox Library.


Original On Map of Nicolas J. Visscher,

Copy A On Map of Adriaen Van der Donck,

in his Nieuvv-Nederlant. Second

Edition, y 1656.

" B On first Map of Hugo Allard.

" C On Map of N. Visscher (said to be
N. J. Visscher's old map re-
touched by N. Visscher about

" D On Map of Justo Danckers.

" E On Map of Johan Baptista Homan.*


Original In Arnoldus Montanus's " Besch-

ryving van Amerika." 1671.
Copy A In Ogilby's "America." 1671.


Original On second Map of Hugo Allard.

j The Lenox Library. The Andrews Collection.

* Published in his " Neuer Atlas," Norimbergae, 1707. The view
bears the name of N. Visscher. Whether it is a copy of, or an impres-
sion from the original N. Visscher plate it is difficult to determine.

•)• This engraving is supposed by Asher to have been executed by the
celebrated Romeyn de Hooghe, and is called the "Capture of New Am-


Copies A B On first and second Maps of Caro-

lus Allard. k""
Copy C On Map of Joachim Ottens.*
" D On Map of Reinier & Josua Ot-

tens. / "'
" E On Map of Matthew Seutter. m

" F On Map of Tobias Conrad Lotter.

Copies GH Two Views in Carolus Allard's
Collection of Views of Cities of
the World, n
Copy I The View with the title " Een
stedeken in Noord Amerikaes "
and the inscription Amstel. C. P.
No. 92, Pet. Schenck,

sterdam by the Dutch, August, 1673." [Again surrendered to the English
on the loth of November (new style), 1674.] This view is reproduced
by Joseph W. Moulton in his " New York 170 Years Ago," with the
following explanatory note: "This view was copied from a manuscript
copy of one which was originally published in Holland, and which copy
was made in 1769 by Du Simitiere, a French gentleman of antiquarian
research, taste and learning, who resided and died in Philadelphia. His
manuscripts were preserved in the Loganian branch of the library of that
city. *' Satisfied of its authority as a correct delineation immediately prior
to the conquest in July, 1673, upon various grounds in the recapitulation
of which it is not necessary to occupy the reader's attention, the writer
caused this interesting relic to be engraved."

k The Harvard College Library (plain and colored impression).

/ The Emmet Collection, in the Lenox Library.

wj The New York Historical Society. The Andrews Collection.

;: The Andrews Collection.

The Huntington Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

* According to Asher these are all from the same plate.


Copy J The Engraving signed P. Mortier. o
" K The small engraving on Map of

P. Schenck. 1705. p

The titles upon these maps vary in volu-
minousness under the caption of " Novi Belgii
in America Septentrionali " or its equivalent,
while the views which ornament them bear in
some cases the simple title " Neu Jorck sive
Neu Amsterdam " ; in others the following :
" Nieuw Amsterdam onlango Nieuw Yorck ge-
nant. Ende hernommen by de Nederlanders,
op den 24th Augt. 1673," or " Nieuw Amster-
dam onlangs Nieuw jorck op den 24 Aug.
1673 eindelyk aan de Engelse weder afgestan."


Original The Engraving by William Burgis.

N. Y. 1717. q
Copy A On the Popple Map. (?) 1733. r
" B In the London Magazine. (?) 1761.

W. L. A.

p The Andrews Collection. (/ The New York Historical Society.

;• The Lenox Library. The Holden Collection.

^^ '^^5^^_^-^^r'_-'^C~~*'^



LPHABETICAL list of books
which have been consulted in
the preparation of this account
of views illustrating New York

Allard (Carolo). Orbis Habitabilis Oppida et
Vestitus, etc. (One hundred colored
views of cities.)

Folio. Amsterdam, n. d.

Befchrijvinghe Van Virginia, 0tu\D ^mt\mnu
Nieuw Engelandt, €n D'C^lauUeu Ber-
mudes, Berbados, en S. Chriftoffel. . . .
Met kopere Figuren verciert.

Pot quarto. t'Amsterdam. By Joost Hart-
gers, 1 65 1.

Beschryvinge Van Nieuw- Nederlant, etc.,


door Adriaen vander Donck (first edition).
Pot quarto. t'Aemsteldam. By Evert
Nieuwenhof, Anno, 1655.

The same (second edition). 1656.

Davies (C. W.). History of Holland.
Octavo. London, 1842.

Drake (Samuel G.). Biography and History
of the Indians of North America.
Octavo. Boston, 1851.

Gaine (Hugh). Universal Register or Ameri-
can and British Kalendar.

Duodecimo. New York, 1776.

Goodrich's (A. T.) The Picture of New York
and Stranger's Guide to the Commercial
Metropolis of the United States.

Douodecimo. New York, 1825-1828.

Hudsonus (Henricus). Descriptio ac delinea-
to Geographica, etc.

Medium quarto. Amsterodami, 161 2.

Lamb (Mrs. Martha J.). History of the City
of New York.

Quarto. New York, 1877.

Lambrechtsen (N. C). A Short Description
of the Discovery and Subsequent History
of the New Netherlands.

Octavo. Middleburg, Holland, 18 18.


Miller (Rev. John). A Description of the
Province and City of New York in 1675.
Now first printed from the original MS.
by Thomas Rodd.

Octavo. London, 1843.

Moulton (J. W.). New York 170 Years Ago.
Octavo. New York, 1843.

O'Callaghan (E. B.). History of New Neth-
erland, or New York, under the Dutch.
Two Volumes, octavo. New York, 1855

Purchas (Samuel). His Pilgrimes.

Five Volumes, folio. London, 1625.

Read (John M.). Henry Hudson.
Octavo. Albany, 1846.

Smith (Wm. A. M.). The History of the
Province of New York from the First
Discovery to the Year MDCCXXXIL
Quarto. London, 1757.

Valentine (D. T.). History of the City of
New York.

Octavo. New York, 1853.

Watson (John F.). Annals of New York.
Octavo. Philadelphia, 1846.


Through the courtesy of the custodians of
the New York Historical Society and the
Lenox Library I have been able to examine such
of the following maps as are not embraced in
my own collection :

Allard (C.) McComb

Bradford Montresor

Duyckinck Ottens (J. & R.)

Dancker Ratzer

Gaine Schenck

Lotter Seutter
Visscher (N.)

Also an atlas ot 185 maps " collected in Hol-
land about the Year 1760 by Dirk Van der
Weyde, A.M. (presented to the Historical So-
ciety in the City of New Amsterdam by his
grandson, Peter Henry Van der Weyde,
M. D.)"; The "Zee Atlas " of Peter Goos ;
The " Atlas Minor " of Abraham Allard, and
the various extensive cartographical collections
published by the Blaeu family.

The New York Historical Society Collec-
tions, New Series, Volume I, furnish transla-
tions of Van der Donck's " Beschryvinge,"Lam-
brechtsen's " New Netherlands," De Vries's


" Voyages," Acrelius's " New Sweden," Ver-
razzano's "Voyage," A. D. 1524, Extracts
from Juet's " Journal of Hudson's Voyage,"
and several other important publications relat-
ing to the History of New Netherland.

David T. Valentine, for many years Clerk
of the Common Council of the City of New
York, made his Manual of the Corporation a
treasure-house of local history lore, and copied
in its pages, by means of lithography, probably
every rare map and view of New York that
exists. In this antiquarian labor he was greatly
assisted by the late Dr. George H, Moore,
formerly librarian of the New York Historical
Society and superintendent of the Lenox Li-
brary. To these enthusiastic students and
chroniclers of our city's past every lover of
reminiscences of old New York owes a con-
stant and lively debt of gratitude.

W. L. A.


In such an hour he turns, and on his ^ienv

Ocean, and earth, and heaven, burst before him ;

Clouds slumbering at his feet, and the clear blue
Of summer s sky in beauty bending o^ er him —

The city bright belo'vo ; and far aavay.

Sparkling in golden light, his o^wn romantic bay.

Tall spire, and glittering roof and battlement,

A7id banners floating in the sunny air ;
And ivhite sails o^er the calm blue nvaters bent.

Green isle, and circling shore, are blended there
In ivild reality. JVhen life is old.

And many a scene forgot, the heart ivill hold

Its memory of this ; nor lives there one

Whose infant breath ivas dranxin, or boyhood'' s days
Of happiness voere passed beneath that sun.

That in his manhood 'j prime can calmly gaze
Upon that bay, or on that mountain stand.

Nor feel the prouder of his native land.

Fitz : Greene Halleck




EFORE proceeding with our enu-
meration of the existing engrav-
ings which illustrate " t' Fort
nieuw Amsterdam op de Man-
hatans," the Town of New Am-
sterdam, and the City of New York from prim-
itive times down to the close of the eighteenth
century, we pause a moment to glance at the
personality of the great discoverer of that



portion of the New World in which, as denizens
of this flourishing MetropoHs, we are most
deeply interested, and also to refresh our mem-
ory in regard to the character, composition
and aims of the great commercial and maritime
company which planted the Colony of New


IT is asserted, and the claim is admitted by
certain distinguished historians — the Hon.
George Bancroft among the number — that Gio-
vanni Verrazzano, a Florentine corsair, privat-
eersman, or buccaneer (whichever it may please
you to designate him), in the service of His
Most Serene Majesty, the King of France, did,
in the spring of 1524, enter lower New York
Bay, and was therefore the first European who
sighted Sandy Hook and the virgin-forest-
crowned Highlands of the Neve-Sincks. Un-
fortunately for him and his royal master, Ver-
razzano's exploration of the inland water he had
happened upon was, according to his own elab-
orate report, nipped in the bud by a violent
storm, which drove him and his caravel 6ut to

This entire story is claimed by the Hon.



Henry C. Murphy to be manufactured out of
whole cloth. It is utterly scouted by him and
other learned writers, and Verrazzano's letter
of July 8, 1524, to Francis I, giving a cir-
cumstantial account of his discoveries, is pro-
nounced a wholesale forgery. As the proofs
adduced and the arguments presented on both
sides of this vexed question are absolutely con-
clusive, we feel at liberty to adopt whichever
view of the matter will contribute most to the
easy flow of our narrative. As to the truth of
the closing incident in the life of this Italian
navigator, who has set the historians so might-
ily by the ears, there appears to be less conflict-
ing evidence. Three years after he penned his
letter and " Cosmographical Exposition of his
Voyage " on board the ship " Dolphin," as she
lay for repairs in the port of Dieppe, and de-
spatched it to Francis I, he fell, it is said, into
the meshes of Spanish law, and expiated his sins
of omission in the matter of the discovery of
new lands, and his crimes of commission in the
way of piratical adventures, by a sudden and un-
natural ending of his bold career. But such an
ignominious taking oflF should not necessarily
dim the fame of Verrazzano,for did not this same
chivalric and enlightened nation imprison



Columbus and load him with chains ? It was a
convenient mode of discharging obligations to
their faithful servants when the indebtedness
became too burdensome, that kings and
princes aforetime occasionally adopted.

For nearly a century after this partial discov-
ery by Verrazzano, the country, which escaped
his prying eyes, through the inopportune and
officious intermeddling of Old Neptune — as the
Florentine rover claims — remained a sealed book
to all Europe ; for it was not until the closing
days of the summer of 1 609 that Captain Henry
Hudson, in the " Yaght Halve Maan," passed
cautiously up the Bay of New York, sounded
his way through the Narrows, and for the first
time in the history of civilization the Bergen
heights echoed back across the salt marshes of
Communipaw "^^ the sound of the casting of an
anchor in the placid land-locked waters of the
Kil van Kol.

We can fancy Hudson's sensations as he
gazed upon the tranquil scene which, after his
wearisome five months' voyage, unfolded itself
before his vision. To the north — whither his
course was bent — lay a wide expanse of rippling
water, its boundary hidden beneath an au-

* Indian name Gomocuipa.


tumnal haze which must have teemed with fairy
visions and resounded with syren voices luring
him onward in his vain search for " far Cathay."
The hour that would witness the fruition of the
hopes that had led the intrepid mariner across
a trackless deep to a strange and beaconless
shore appeared about to strike, and the heart
of the commander of the Half-Moon must
have throbbed with bright anticipations of as-
sured success, as in the twilight of that Septem-
ber day he paced the quarter-deck of his little
craft, and gave vent to his emotions by consum-
ing pipe after pipe of the fragrant Indian weed,
into the use and delights of which, according
to tradition, he had been inducted by no less a
personage than the great Sir Walter Raleigh

Of the life of this renowned discoverer little
is known save for a period of three or four
years, and probably no authentic engraving of
him exists.* He came upon the stage too late
for Holbein's incisive pencil, too early for the
magic brush of Rembrandt; but Simon de Passe,
a dabster of no small pretensions in the art of
portraiture, might have limned the bronzed,
weather-beaten features. Could he have fore-

* See Appendix.


seen Hudson's future fame and importance in
American history, surely he would not have
had the heart to leave us without a portrait of
the great mariner, as a companion piece to the
one he engraved of Hudson's friend, the illus-
trious Captain John Smith. Conceive of a
portrait of Henry Hudson by Simon de Passe,
with one of his emblematic borders and its
customary laudatory verse (without which no
seventeenth century portrait was deemed com-
plete), after the quaint fashion of that olden
time the spirit of which is not dead but only
sleepeth — as witness the following lines indited
for this occasion by Mr. Beverly Chew :

"• The lively Features greet you here
Of Hudson that bold Marinier^
Who spread his Canvass to the Breexe
And bravely saiVd on unkyiown Seas.
His Fame^ like that of Palinure^
To endless Ages shall endure.^''

Ye Gods and little fishes ! — the picture would
command a King's ransom.

The first view of the discoverer of the island
of Manhattan'^' that the page of history affords

* Variously indicated on the maps as Mannathan, Manhates and Man-
hatans, Dr. Jonathan Edwards in his Observations on the Language of the
Stockbridge Indians states that almost every man who writes Indian names

Cm iMii OF St. 1\ rm:i.iti jMiA.


is one strikingly suggestive of the spirit and
manners of the age, and highly creditable to
the character of the man. It exhibits him in
the performance of an act of devotion in the
Mariner's Church of St. Ethelburga, in Bishops-
gate Street, one of the London churches which
we are told by the antiquary, Timbs, escaped
the great fire of 1666 and retains some of its
Early English masonry. Augustus Hare in his
" Walks in London " also notices the " solemn
little church of St. Ethelburga " dedicated to the
daughter of King Ethelbert. He found it al-
most " concealed by its parasitic houses " and
states that its existence is mentioned as early

spells them in a peculiar manner. Small wonder, when the language
bristles with such unpronounceable orthographic mostrosities as tawautot-
tenaugaloughtoungga and coantehsalohaunzaickaw, which are encountered
in the Pater Noster, in the language of the Six Nations.

" Modern writers on Indian Terminology have been at much trouble
to explain the reason why the island of New York was first called Man-
hattans. Some aver that it was because it signifies ' the place of original
intoxication,' others that the name was derived from a species of wood
growing there, of which the Indians made their bows and arrows. These
are surmises founded only on fancy. The early Dutch inhabitants give an
explanation more consonant to common sense. It was so called ' from or
after the tribe of savages among whom the Dutch made their first settle-
ment ' the fierce Manhattae or Manhattans, 'a cruel nation.' It was the
Dutch, therefore, and not the Indians who first called the island of New
York 'Manhattans.' "

O'Callaghan's " History of New Netherland."


as 1366, and that it still contains some good
fragments of old stained glass.

The church of St. Ethelburga was noted for
its " short services for city men," and accord-
ing to tradition was frequented by sailors return-
ing from voyages and immediately previous to
their going down to the sea in ships. To this
old Gothic fane, God-fearing Captain Henry
Hudson and his brave and hardy crew repaired
to partake of the sacrament before sailing under
the direction of the " Muscovy," or Russian
Company (a private association formed in Lon-
don), to attempt a northwest passage, or, in the
short, sharp and decisive language of one of
the early writers, " a passage to Asia across the
North Pole."

Hudson made two voyages to the north in
the years 1607 and 1608, both of which proved
as fruitless as those of preceding navigators.
The London Company thereupon appears to
have lost heart and suspended operations, and

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