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William Mark McKinney.

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UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



SCHOOL OF LAW
LffiRARY









.OKALIFO%



:



THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA



OF



PLEADING AND PRACTICE



UNDER THE CODES AND PRACTICE ACTS,

AT COMMON LAW, IN EQUITY

AND IN CRIMINAL CASES.



COMPILED UNDER THE EDITORIAL SUPERVISION OF



WILLIAM M. McKINNEY



VOL. II.



NORTHPORT, LONG ISLAND, N. Y.

EDWARD THOMPSON COMPANY, LAW PUBLISHERS.

1895.






Copyright. 1895,

BV

EDWARD THOMPSON Co.



MADE AT NORTHPORT, L. I., N. Y.

, ROBERT IXUTMMOND, j M DUNN



//r '" / ' r -




Only



TABLE OF TITLES.



PAGE

APPEALS Wm. P. Aiken i

APPEARANCES W. L. Crawford 588

ARGUMENTS OF COUNSEL Charles C. Moore 698

ARRAIGNMENT AND PLEA S. R. Perry 760

ARREST OF JUDGMENT Robert Grattan 793

ARSON Robert Grattan 823

ASSAULT AND BATTERY A. S. H. Bristow 835

ASSIGNMENT FOR BENEFIT) ( W. A. Martin and

OF CREDITORS ) ( Robert Grattan 865

ASSIGNMENT OF ERRORS W. Calvin Chesnut 920

ASSISTANCE, WRIT OF Charles C. Moore 975

ASSUMPSIT George C. Morrison 987

iii



-f



THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA



OF



PLEADING AND PRACTICE.



APPEALS.*

By WILLIAM P. AIKEN.

L GENERAL PBINCIPLES OF APPELLATE JURISDICTION, n.

1. Definition, \ i.

2. Creation of Courts of Last Resort, \ I .

a. Generally, n.

b. Number of Judges, 12.

c . Inherent Powers, 1 2.

3. Right of Appeal, 1 3.

a. Constitutional, 13.

b. Statutory, 15.

c. Strict Compliance Required, 1 6.

d. Under Codes of Civil Procedure, 17.

e. Effect of Statutory Appeal, \ 8.

f. Legislative Control of Statutory Right, 19.

4. Construction of Statutory Right of Appeal, 20.

5. Special Jurisdiction, 22.

6. Where no Jurisdiction Below, 23.

7. Extent of Jurisdiction, 24.

8. Jurisdiction by Consent, 24.

9. Judicial Action Only Appealable, 25.

10. Appropriate Method of Review, 26.

a. Wr// <?/" Error, 26.

. Loss of Right Incompetent Person, 31.

t. Chancery Appeal, 31.

</. Certiorari, 33.

<?. Complaint to Review, 35.

11. Continuation of Original Suit, 35.

12. Intermediate Appellate Courts, 36.

a. Appeals to United States Supreme Court, 38.
. Jurisdictional Questions, 40.

(1) Constitutional Questions, 40.

(2) S/rtte rtj a Party, 42.

(3) Where Revenue Involved, 43.

(4) Franchises, 43.

(5) Questions Affecting Title, 44.

(6) Actions Involving Liens Indiana Appellate

Court, 49.

(7) Certificate from Intermediate Court, 51.

(8) Dismissal by Intermediate Court, 51.

* Scope of the Article. The scope of this article includes the general prin-
ciples of appellate procedure as applicable to statutory appeals. Where a dis-
tinction exists between the principles noted in the text and those obtaining
under the old methods of technical chancery appeal and writs of error, it is
remarked in the notes; reference may also be had to the article ERROR, WRIT
OF. The investigator should also consult the various articles in this work
relating to the subject involved in the appeal and the cross-references at the
foot of this analysis.

2 Encyc. PI. & Pr. I. I



APPEALS.
APPEALABLE JUDGMENTS AND OBDEBS, 52.

1. Final Judgments, 52.

a. The Rule Stated, 52.

b. What is a Final Judgment, 53.

c . Universality of the Rule Probate Matters, 56.

d. In Insolvency Proceedings, 57.

e. Statutory Provisions, 60.
/. Dismissal of Appeal, 61 .
g. Entry of Judgments, 61.
h. Order for Judgment, 63.
/'. Irregular Judgments, 64.
j. Form of Decision, 64.

2. Appeal in Equitable Causes, 64.

a. In General, 64.

b. Decision on Relief Demanded, 66.

c . Decrees Ordering Reference, 68.

d. Decrees Ordering Accounting, 70.

e. Collateral Decrees, 70.
/. Double Appeals, 71.

. Decrees Effecting Transfer of Property, 7 1 .

3. Final Orders, 72.

a. IVhat Constitute Generally, 72.

b. Orders Affecting Substantial Rights, 75.

c . Special Orders After Judgment, 76.

d. In Special Proceedings, 78.

e. Under Code of New York, 79.

4. Interlocutory Decisions, 80.

a. In General, 80.

. Matters of Practice, 85.

<:. / Equity Cases, 88.

*/. Construction of Statutes, 89.

. Review on Appeal from Final Decisions, 90.

f. Decisions Resting in Discretion, 92.

(1) In General, 92.

(2) Abuse of Discretion, 94.

(3) Gw Appeal, 95.

. Appeal from Intermediate Orders After Final Judg-
ment, 95.

5. Motions to Vacate Appealable Orders, 95.

6. Orders in Unappealable Causes, 96.

7. Appeal from Ex Parte Orders, 96.

8. Appeal from Portion of Decision, 96.

9. Correction of Jttdgments, 97.

>, a. Unauthorized Entry, 97.
. Chamber Orders, 97.

10. Judgments Reversing and Remanding Causes, 98.

11. Judgments by Consent, 99.

a. Generally, 99.

& Entry pro Forma, 100.

r. O Caj^ Stated, 101.

rf. Remedy, 102.

* Judgments by Default, 102.

12. Void Judgments, 102.

13. Judgments and Orders of Dismissal, 103.

a. Generally, 103.

. Discontinuance, 104.

f. / Equity, 104.

</. Affecting Substantial Rights, 105.

. Refusal to Dismiss, 106.



APPEALS.

14. Judgments of Nonsuit, 106.

15. Decisions Vacating Judgments and Decrees, 107.

a. Generally, 107.

b. When Appealable, 109.

c. In New Suits to Vacate, 109.

d. Setting Aside Judicial Sales, HO.

1 6. Decisions Affecting Pleadings, no.

a. Amendment of Pleadings, no.

b. Striking out Pleadings, 112.
f. Supplemental Pleadings, 113.
*/. ^/7/j of Particulars, 113.

^. Judgments on Pleadings, 113.
_/. Orders Affecting Demurrers, 114.

17. Provisional Remedies, 118.

a. Judgments in Attachment Proceedings, 1 1 8.

(1) Generally, 118.

(2) Affecting a Substantial Right, 1 19.
. Orders of Arrest, 120.

r. Orders Affecting Receiverships, 121.

(1) Generally, 1 21.

(2) 7/? Appealable, 122.

</. Decisions Affecting Injunctions, 1 23.

(1) Generally, 123.

(2) H^tt ///,? -#/// .& (? C>/^^r ^/^ 124.

(3) On Final Decree, 125.

(4) Statutory Construction, 125.

(5) Injunction Bond, 126.

(6) Order for Accounting, 127.

1 8. Decisions Affecting Habeas Corpus, 127.

19. Decisions in Cases of Contempt, 129.

20. Decisions Affecting Certiorari, 131.

2 1 . Decisions Affecting Prohibition, 1 32.

22. Decisions Affecting Quo Warranto, 132.

23. Decisions Affecting Mandamus, 132.

24. Decisions Affecting Costs, 133.

fl. Generally, 133.

^. Final Orders, 135.

r. Extra Allowances, 135.

</. Temporary Alimony, 136.

25. Decisions in Condemnation Proceedings, 136.

26. Decisions on Motions for New Trial, 137.

a. Generally, 137.

. Orders Granting New Trial, 137.

27. Decisions Affecting Reference, 1 39.

a. Generally, 139.

. Confirmation, 141.

*:. Recommittal, 141.

</. Decisions Affecting Award, 142.

28. Decisions Affecting Subrogation, 142.

29. Decisions Affecting Executions, 142.

30. Decisions in Supplementary Proceedings, 144.

31. Decisions in Actions of Partition, 144.

32. Approval of Official Bonds, 145.

33. Appeals in Criminal Cases, 146.

a. ^4/ Common Law, 146.
. Under Modern Practice, 146.
r. Finality of Decisions, 149.
^/. Interlocutory Decisions, 149.

PARTIES TO APPELLATE PROCEEDINGS, 151.

i . W,#0 wrtj Appeal, 151.
3



APPEALS.

a. In General, 151.

b. Who are in Privity, \ 52.

c. Intervenors, 154.

d. All Parties may Appeal, 1 56.

e. By Nonresident Defendants, \ 57.
/. By Successful Party, 1 57.

g. Parties Failing to Appeal, 1 57.

h. Appeals by Representative Parties, 158.

(1) Generally, 158.

(2) Next Friend, 1 59.

(3) Amicus Curia, 159.

i. Appellant must be Party to Judgment, 1 59.
j Actual Controversy must Exist, 160.
k. Appealable Interest, 1 60.

(1) Generally, 160.

(2) Claimants of Fund, 162.

(3) Quasi Parties, 164.

(4) Distributers of Fund, 164.

(5) Purchasers at Judicial Sale, 166.
/. Subsequent Conveyance of Interest, 167.

m. Appeals by " Party or Person Aggrieved" 167.

(1) Generally, 167.

(2) Construction of Statutes, 168.

(3) Appeals from Probate, 170.
. Appeals by Quasi-judicial Boards, 171.

2. Waiver of Right of Appeal, 173.

a. / General, 173.

0. ^x Stipulation, 173.

. Acceptance of Benefits, 174.

(1) Payment of or on the Judgment, 174.

(2) Payment of Costs, 177.

(3) Tendering Back the Money Paid, 177.

(4) Judgment for Less than Demand, 178.

(5) .#y Execution of Judgment, 178.

(a) Generally, 178.

() Partial Satisfaction, 179.
*/. Inconsistent Position, 179.
. Entry of Judgment, \ 80.
/. Orrtkr*, 181.

^. Payment of Judgment by Appellant, 181.
^. Z?x Escaped Prisoner, 182.

3. Joint Parties, \ 82.

a. T 1 ^ General Rule, 182.
. Involuntary Joinder, 185.

f. Summons and Severance, 185.

*/. When One Joint Party may Appeal Alone, 1 86.

. Parties not United in Interest, 1 89.

y. When Separate Interests may Appeal Jointly, 189.

-. Statutory Notification, 1 89.

^. Jf#0 #;v Statutory Coparties, 190.

/. 7"^ Test of Interest, 190.

/. Who must be Joined as Appellees, 192.

. Joinder of Necessary Parties Jurisdicticmal, 192.

/. Dismissal on Failure to Join, 194.

#*. Voluntary Appearance, 195.

. Parties not Joining not Appellants, 195.

0. Husband and Wife, 195.

/. Action to Review Judgment, 195.
jr. Appeal from Justice's Court, 196.

r. Appeal from Probate Court Decrees, 196.



APPEALS.

s. Assignee of Coparty after Judgment, 196.

4. Substituted Parties, \ 96.

a. Appeal in Behalf of Deceased Party, 196.

(1) In General, 196.

(2) By Whom Properly Taken, 197.

(3) Death of Plaintiff in Error, 198.

(4) After Assignment of Error, 199.

b. Death of Joint Appellant, 199.

c. Death of Sole Appellee, 200.

d. Death of Joint Appellee, 201.

e. Bankrupts and Insolvents, 201.

f. Abatement of Personal Actions, 202.

5. Entitling Case, 203.

6. What the Record must Show, 203.

IV. FOBMAL REQUISITES TO TBANSFEB OF CAUSE, 203.

1. Prayer for Appeal, 203.

a. Generally Orders Granting Appeal, 203.

b. In Open Court, 205.

c. Record, 205.

d. After the Term, 205.

e. Petition for Appeal, 205.

f. When Leave to Appeal Discretionary, 206.

g. Compliance with Order, 206.
h. When Appeal Taken, 207.

2. Certificate of Importance, 207.

a. When to be Made, 207.

b. Jurisdictional, 208.

c. Discretionary, 208.

</. Nature of Question Involved, 208.
e. What Certificate must Show, 208.

3. Appellate Process, 209.

a. In General. 209.

. Appeal Taken in Open Court, 209.

c. Service Jurisdictional, 210.

d. Citation, 211.

(1) Definition and Formal Requisites, 2 1 1.

(2) Return, 212.

(3) 6>w Appeal Taken in Open Court, 213.
*. Statutory Notice of Appeal, 213.

(1) Strict Compliance with Statute, 213.

(2) General Requisites, 213.

(3) Signature, 214.

(4) Construction of Notice, 216.

(5) Description of Judgment, 217.

(6) What may be Embraced in Notice, 219.

(7) Interlocutory Judgments or Orders, 220.

(8) .Z?y Whom Service may be Made, 220.

(9) //bo/ Service may be Made, 221.

(a) Personal Service, 221.

() 0# Adverse Party, 222.

(<:) 0# Attorney of Record, 222.

(d?) <9# Corporations, 224.

(<?) 0# C'/<?ry, 224.

(/) Service by Publication, 22$.

(10) Proof of Service, 227.

(11) Filing, 229.

(12) What Record must Show, 230.

(13) Amendment of Notice, 230.



APPEALS.

(14) Waiver of Defects in Notice, 231.

4. Affidavit on Appeal, 234.

5. Time for Taking an Appeal, 237.

a. When an Appeal is Taken, 237.

b. Order of Allowance, 237.

c. Perfection of Appeal, 238.

d. Statutes of Limitation Jurisdictional, 239.

(1) Generally, 239.

(2) Extension of Time, 244.

(3) Neglect of Officials, 246.

(4) Statutory Power to Extend Time, 247.

e. When the Statute Begins to Run, 248.

(1) From Entry of Judgment, 248.

(2) From Rendition of Judgment, 249.

(3) When Entered, 250.

(4) Entry Nunc pro Tune, 250.

(5) Notice of Entry under Code Procedure, 250.

(6) Final Judgment, 252.

() / General, 252.

() Taxation of Costs, 252.

(*r) Motion for New Trial, 252.

(</) 0/>&*r Motions, 253.

(<?) Reconsideration, 253.

(/) J^/fo/ Constitutes Final Decree, 253.

(^-) Nonappealable Decrees, 254.

(//) Amendment or Modification, 254.

(/') Appeal from Order, 255.

(7) Cross-appeals, 255.

(8) Second Appeal, 255.

(9) Party under Disability, 255.
/. Computation of Time, 256.

. What Record must Show, 257.

6. 7^^ Transcript on Appeal, 258.

#. / General, 258.
<5. fF^a/ //;? Transcript is, 258.
c. What the Transcript Includes, 259.
df. 7^<? Record Proper, 260.

(1) Generally, 260.

(2) Pleadings, 263.

(3) Jurisdictional Facts, 265.

(4) (? Appeals from Orders, 267.

(5) Copies of Verdict and Judgment, 267.

(6) Satisfaction of Judgment, 267.

(7) Stipulations of Parties, 267.

*. Matters Properly Included in Bill of Exceptions, 268.

(1) Generally, 268.

(2) Instructions and Evidence, 268.

(3) Orders of Court, 269.

(4) Record of Other Cases, 270.

(5) Affidavits, 270.

(6) Opinion, 272.

(7) Motions and Rulings, 273.

(8) Minutes of Trial Court, 276.

(9) Rules of Trial Court, 276.
/". Time for Filing Transcript, 276.

(1) / General, 276.

(2) Extension of Time, 279.

(3) Waiver of Objection, 282.
. Transcripts on Several Appeals, 282.
^. Authentication, 283.

6



APPEALS.

(1) Sealing, 283.

(2) Certificate of Clerk, 284.
t. Arrangement of Transcript, 290.

(1) In General, 290.

(2) Service and Transmission, 291.

(3) Papers on File, Interlineations, 291.
j. Duty of Appellant in Making Transcript, 292.

(1) In General, 292.

(2) Unnecessary Papers, 293.

(3) Record must Show Error, 294.

(4) Effect of Omissions, 294.
k. Impeachment of Record, 296.

/. Contradiction of Record, 299.
m. Amendments of Record, 301.

(1) Of Original Record, 301.

(2) Of Transcript, 304.

(3) By Stipulation, 304.
. Certiorari, 305.

(1) / General, 305.

(2) When Transcript is Void, 307.

(3) Discretionary, 307.

(4) Prompt Application Required, 308.

(5) 70 Whom Granted, 310.

(6) Application and Issuance, 310.

(7) Continuance, 311.

(8) Returnof Certiorari, 311.

(9) Supplemental Transcript, 312.
0. Abstract of Record, 313.

(1) /# General, 313.

(2) rF//#/ ///<? Abstract is, 314.

(3) Omissions, 314.

(4) Jitrisdictional Facts, 315.

(5) Presumptions, 315.

(6) Appellee's Additional Abstract, 316.

(7) Evidence Dehors Abstract, 316.

(8) Presumption as to Additional Abstract, 317.

(9) Agreed Abstracts, 317.
(10) Amended Abstract, 317.

(u) Consequence of Defects Uncorrected, 318.

7. Preliminary Payment of Fees, 318.
a. / General, 318.

. Construction of Statutory Requirements, 319.
r. / Criminal Cases, 320.
</. Dismissal, 320.

<r. Payment Shown by the Record, 321.
y. Construction of Appeal Bonds, 321.

8. Docketing and Entry of Appeal, 321.

V. EFFECT OF APPEAL, 323.



of Error, 323.

2. .Z?y Technical Appeal, 323.

3. Under Code Procedure, 323.

4. Construction of Statutory "Appeal" 324.

a. Generally, 324.

. Appeals from Orders Affecting Injunctions, 326.

*r. Appeals from Orders Affecting Receivers, 326.

5. Trz'rt/ Zte Ata/0, 327.

6. Transference of Jurisdiction by Appeal, 327.

a. / General, 327.

7



APPEALS.

I. In Collateral Proceedings, 330.

c. The Property in Controversy, 331.

d. Release of Lien, 331.

e. Amendment of Record, 331.

7. Interlocutory Appeals, 332.

8. Irregular Appeals, 333.

9. Stay of Proceedings, 333.

10. Appeal by a Portion of Codefendants, 334.

VI. DISMISSAL OF APPEAL, 335.

1. Grounds of the Motion, 335.

2. On the Court's Own Motion, 336.

3. For Lack of Prosecittion, 340.

4. For Lack of Actual Controversy, 341.

5. For Want of Jurisdiction, 345.

6. Official Neglect, 345.

7. Where Error not Shown, 346.

8. Examination of Merits on the Motion, 346.

9. 5^<?/<? 0/ M<? Inquiry, 347.

10. Notice of Motion, 348.

1 1 . Requisites of Motion, 348.

12. When the Motion must be Made, 348.

13. By Whom Made, 350.

14. Motion to Strike from the Docket, 352.

15. Presumption on Appeal from Order of Dismissal, 352.

16. Effect of Dismissal, 353.

17. Ciw/J Dismissal, 354.

VII. SUCCESSIVE APPEALS, 355.

1. Second Appeal in General, 355.

2. Dismissal on Technical Grotinds, 357.

3. Withdrawal of First Appeal, 358.

VIII. REINSTATEMENT, 358.
IX. EXAMINATION OF THE CASE ON APPEAL, 361.

1. Calendar, 361.

2. Scope of Review, 363.

a. Record, 363.

b. What is Brought up by Appeal, 364.

c. From Portions of Judgment, 365.

d. Appeal from Subsequent Orders, 366.

e. Collateral Matters, 368.
/. Interlocutory Decrees, 369.

g. Question of Legal Existence of Trial Court, 370.
h. Judgment on Pleadings, 371.

3. Unnecessary Questions, 371.

4. Review of Reasons Advanced Below, 372.

5. On Second Appeal, 373.

a. Law of the Case, 373.

b. Subsequent Proceedings in the Trial Court, 378.

c . Error in Prior Decision, 379.

d. Interlocutory Appeals, 381.

6. Stare Decisis, 381.

7. Motion for Rehearing, 382.

<z. / General, 382.

. /foa/ a rf y Whom Made, 382.

f. Requisites of Petition, 382.

///<? Application must be Made, 383.
8



APPEALS.

e. Grounds of the Motion, 384.

f. New Questions, 386.

g. The Record, 387.
h. Discretionary, 388.

i. Argument on Rehearing, 390.
8. Examination of Questions of Fact, 390.

a. Action at Law, 390.

b. Verdict and Findings of Court, 391.

c. In Criminal Cases, 400.

d. Referee's Report, 401.

e. Appeal in Equity, 402.

f. When the Facts may be Examined at Law, 404.

g. On Questions of Law, 405.
h. Under Code Procedure, 408.

i. Presumptions on Appeal from Intermediate Appellate
Court, 409.

X. REVIEW OF EXERCISE OF DISCRETIONARY POWER, 409.
XI. PRESUMPTIONS ON APPEAL, 420.

1. In General, 420.

a. Omissions in Record, 425.

b. Limitations of the Rule, 426.

c. To Sustain the Decision Appealed from, 428.

2. Presumptions as to Record and Proceedings on Appeal. 434.

a. Record, 434.

I. Recitals in Judgment or Decree, 436.

c. Time to Prepare Transcript, 437.

d. Proceedings Essential on Appeal, 438.

e. Undertaking Bill of Exceptions Abstract, 438.
f. Case on Appeal Certificate, 440.

3. Omission of Evidence Generally, 441.

4. Rulings, t\t\t\.

5. Motions, 446.

6. Orders, 447.

7. Presumptions as to Jurisdiction, 448.

a. Courts of General Jitrisdiction, 448.

b. Courts of Inferior Jurisdiction, 450.

c. Courts Exercising Special Statittory Authority, 452.

d. Notice of Proceedings before Quasi-judicial Board, 453.

8. Jurisdiction of Person, 453.

a. Presumption as to Service, 453.

b. Substituted Service, 455.

c. Judgment by Default, 456.

d. In Criminal Cases, 458.

9. Organization of Courts, 458.

10. Juries, 459.

11. As to Parties, 461.

12. Presumptions as to Pleadings, 462.

a. In General, 462.

b. Issues, 463.

c . Filing and Striking ottt Pleadings, 464.

d. Joinder of Good and Sad Counts, 465.

e. Misjoinder of Counts, 465.

f. Rulings on Demurrer, 466.

g. Amendments, 468.
h. Complaints, 469.

/. Pleas and Answers, 469.
j. Indictments, 471.



APPEALS.

13. Presumptions as to Evidence, 471.

a. In General, 471.

b. As to Admissibility of Evidence, 471.

c. Questions, 475.

d. Depositions, 475.

e. As to Rejection of Evidence, 475.

14. As to Instructions, 477.

a. In General, 477.

b. Where Record does not Contain all Instructions, 482.

c. Burden on Appellant, 483.

d. Presumption that Instructions are Based on Evidence,

484-

e. Refused Request, 485.

1 5. Findings, 486.

a. In General, 486.

b. Special Findings, 488.

c. Where no Findings are Made, 489.

d. General Finding, 491.

e. Waiver, 491.

f. Conclusions of Law, 492.

1 6. Verdicts, 492.

a. In General, 492.

b. Special Findings, 495.

17. In Referred Causes, 497.

1 8. In Criminal Cases, 497.

XII. REVEESIBLE EBROR, 499.

1. In General, 499.

a. Must be Prejudicial. 499.

b. Must be Shown by the Record, 508.

c. Who may Allege Error, 514.

(1) Generally, 514.

(2) Errors Affecting only Coparty, 515.

2. Errors not Available on Appeal, 516.

a. Estoppel to Complain, 516.

b. Invited Error, 519.

(1) Generally, 519.

(2) ^4.r /0 Evidence, 522.

(3) Instructions, 523.

<:. Error Favorable to the Appellant, 527.

3. Presumption where Error is Shown, 532.

4. Errors in Judgment, 534.

rt. Generally, 534.
. Nonsuits, 536.
r. Variance, 536.
*/. 7V0/ Responsive to Issues, 537.

5. Errors Occurring on the Trial, 537.

a. / General, 537.
. Jury, 540.

6. Error in Pleadings, 542.

a. / General, 542.

. Complaint, 543.

. Amendments, 545.

<f. Rulings on Demurrers, 546.

7. Affecting Evidence, 549.

. /# General, 549.
. Admission of Evidence, 550.
f . Exclusion of Evidence, 562.
^/. /Jj /0 Questions, 565.

10



General Principles of APPEALS. Appellate Jurisdiction.

e. On Trial without a Jury, 567.

8. Errors in Giving or Refusing Instructions, 567.

9. Error in Findings, 584.
10. Verdicts, 586.

a. Informality or Trifling Error, 586.

b. Special Interrogatories, 586.

c. Direction of Verdict, 587.

d. Errors Cured by Verdict, 587.

As to Amount in Controversy Affecting Appellate Jurisdiction, see
AMOUNT IN CONTROVERSY, Vol. 1., p. 702.

Appeal Bonds, see that title, Vol. I., p. 963.

Assignment of Errors, see that title.

Bills of Exceptions, see that title.
. Briefs, see that article.

Case Made on Appeal, see that title.

Cases Certified or Reported to a Higher Court, see CERTIFIED
CASES.

Certiorari, see that title.

Costs on Appeal, see COSTS.

Exceptions and Objections (raising questions for Appeal}, see article
EXCEP TIONS AND OBJECTIONS.

Stay of Proceedings and Supersedeas, see that title.

Writ of Error, see ERROR, WRIT OF.

1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF APPELLATE JURISDICTION 1. Definition.
Jurisdiction is the power vested in a judicial tribunal to hear
and determine a legal controversy. Appellate jurisdiction is the
power vested in a superior tribunal to review and revise the judi-
cial action of an inferior tribunal. 1

2. Creation of Courts of Last Resort a. GENERALLY. Under mod-
ern constitutional government the supreme judicial power of the
states is vested in courts whose numbers, powers, and jurisdiction
are defined therein. They are therefore independent judicial
bodies. 2 They cannot be annulled by the legislature; nor can
their supremacy be infringed by the creation, without express con-
stitutional provision, of a judicial body of equal authority to
declare the controlling law of the land. 3

1. " A court may be said to have ju- Smythe v. Boswell, 117 Ind. 365; La-
risdiction of the subject-matter of a fayette, etc., R. Co. v. Geiger, 34 Ind.
suit when it has the right to proceed to 185. See article COURTS.
determine the controversy or ques- 3. State v. Noble, 118 Ind. 350; In
tion in issue between the parties, or re Court of Appeals, 9 Colo. 623; In
grant the relief prayed." Hope v. re Court of Appeals, 15 Colo. 578;
Blair, 105 Mo. 85, 24 Am. St. Rep. 366. Chicago, etc., R. Co. v. Abilene Town-
To the same effect see State v. Neville, Site Co., 42 Kan. 104; Kleiber v. Mc-
110 Mo. 345; Yates v. Lansing, 5 Manus, 66 Tex. 48.

Johns. (N. Y.) 282; Chicago, etc., R. The legislature cannot, therefore,

Co. -v. Sutton, 130 Ind. 405; Jackson establish a court of appeals having a

v. Smith, 120 Ind. 520; State v. Wole- co-ordinate final jurisdiction with the

ver, 127 Ind. 306. previously existing supreme court un-

2. Kilbourn v. Thompson, 103 U. S. less the constitution expressly so au-
168; Greenough v. Greenough, 119 Pa. thorizes. Such a court is constitu-
St. 489, 51 Am. Dec. 567; Missouri tional. In re Court of Appeals, 9
River Tel. Co. v. Sioux City First Colo. 623; In re Court of Appeals, 15
Nat. Bank, 74 111. 217; Perkins v. Colo. 578.

Corbin, 45 Ala. 103, 6 Am. Rep. 698; The duty of exercising judgment in

II



General Principles of



APPEALS.



Appellate Jurisdiction.



b. NUMBER OF JUDGES. A legal quorum only of the constitu-
tional judges can exercise the judicial power reposed in the ap-
pellate tribunal. 1 See article QUORUM.

c. INHERENT POWERS. All appellate tribunals possess certain
inherent powers essential to their independence as courts of
justice, the orderliness of the proceedings, preservation of their
dignity, and efficiency of action. 2 See article RULES OF COURT.



the determination of cases on appeal
is a personal trust attaching to the
judges named in the constitution.
State*/. Nobile, 118 Ind. 350; Bullock
v. McGerr (Colo., 1890), 23 Pac. Rep.
980.

Creation of Commissions. The legis-
lature has therefore no power to cre-
ate commissions of appeal having
coordinate judicial power with the su-
preme tribunal named in the constitu-
tion. The supreme appellate juris-
diction is exhausted by the created
constitutional courts. State v. Noble,
n3 Ind. 350; In re Court of Appeals,



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