William Mayne Newhaven.

A short address to the public : containing some thoughts how the national debt may be reduced and all home taxes, including land tax, abolished online

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H O Vf

The National Debt may be reduced,


All Home Taxes, including Land-
Tax, abolifhed.



Printed for J. DE BRETT, oppofite BURLINCTOK-


[ Price One Shilling. ]

StacR "*








The National Debt may be reduced,


All Home Taxes, including Land-
Tax, abolifhed.

TH E very opprefled flate of this
country frgm the enormity of its
debt, naturally excites the warmeft atten-
tion of every man who has any flake in
it, or who is actuated by principles of
humanity towards his fellow creatures,
B whoft


whofe happinefs depends on a reafon-
able competency, flowing from a well re-
gulated induftry. The many expenfive
wars, the fatal lofs of America, have all
contributed to load this country with
taxes, which the utmofl exertion of in-
duftry, or the clofeft ftruggle with penury,
cannot long fupport. The world is now
one great Chamber of Commerce, of which
each nation make a part, feverally ftriving
by every poffible means to fupplant each
other, and that nation which has the
feweft taxes, bids faireft for the victory.
In this perfuafion it is that I fubmit the
following ichemes to your confideration,
which, if adopted, and carried into execu-
tion with vigour and perfeverance, can-
not fail of reducing in a mort time our
national debt, and confequently our taxes,
which muft diffufe a relief through every
branch of our manufactures, and give


( 3 )

opulence and happinefs to a now burdened,
but patient and fufferlng people.

I am rtill more confirmed in my fan-
giiine expectations, from the following
fchemes, by the report of the Commif-
fioners of the Public Accounts, who in
their i ith Report, pages 34 and 36, have
thefe remarkable words :

" It is expedient that the true ftate of
" the national debt mould be difclofed
" to the public ; every fubject ought to
" know it, for every fubjecl is interefted
" in it. This debt is fwelled to a magni-
*' tude that requires the united efforts of
44 the ableft heads and pureft hearts to
*' fuggefl: the proper and effe6:ual means
<( of reduction. The nation calls for the
" aid of all its members to co-operate
" with government, and to combine in
B 2 " carrying



( 4 )

" carrying into execution fuch meafures
" as fhall be adopted for the attainment
" of fo indifpenfible an end. This aid
" the fubject is bound to give to the fcate
" by every other obligation, as well as
" by the duty he owes to his country,
" and with fuch general aid, the diffi-
culties, great as they appear, will, we
truft, be found not unfurmountable r
Let public benevolence take the lead
" of private interefl ; example may pro-
" duce much, and muft begin fome-
'* where. An extraordinary, an unpre?
*' cedented conjuncture in the finances of
a country, may require extraordinary
and unprecedented efforts. Every man
may dedicate a portion of his income,
*' or fome (hare of his affluence, accord-
" ing to his faculties, to this great na-
" tional object. Let the produce of fuch
44 a general exertion be wifely directed

<J and


( 5 )

and faithfully applied, and this debt,
enormous as it is, will begin to melt
away ; and every man who contributes
to fo great a work, will feel the confb-
lation reiulting from the difcharge of
*' the mod important of his duties, by
*' having affifted in relieving public
*' diftreis, reftoring public credit, and
" averting a national calamity. A plan
*' muft be formed for the reduction of this
* e debt, and that without delay, in the
*' favourable moments of peace. The
" evil does not admit of procraflination,
" palliatives, or expedients ; it preUe^
" on, and mutt be met with force and
" firmnefs."

One hundred millions (which is under
what others have calculated it at) we will
fuppofe to be the annual income of Great
Britain, in land, houfcs, andperfonai pro-

pert}', which, valued at the very moderate
rate, one with another, of 20 years pur-
chafe, will make a principal of 2000 mil-
lions, on which I will fuppofe one per cent.
to be charged annually till the national
debt is paid, will produce 20,000,000

To be deducted

The annual intcreft
on the funded debt,
as ftated by the
CommhTioners of
the public ac-
counts - - - 7,951,930 i

Ditto on the unfund-
ed debt on the ift
of October, 1783 612,742 o o

8,564,672 i o

Annu:;! chr.rps of
management at
the Bank and

South Sea Houfc 134,291 13 i

8,698,963 14 i

11,301,036 5 n

( 7 )

This furplus each year, would pay off
the national debt in a very mort time, all
internal taxes, including land tax, to be
abolimed, after the firft payment of one
per cent, made at the receipt of his Ma-
jefty's Exchequer. By this plan no indi-
vidual will pay near fo much on his rental
or expenditure, as he now does for taxes
of every kind, and be relieved from the
perpetual irritation and difquietude of tax-
gatherers of every denomination.


For inftance, a perfon with
an income of i ooo/. per annum,
ifluing out of lands, houfes,
funds, or profits in trade, that
he fpends, pays annually in
taxes, exclufive of land-tax,
not lefs than - 220 o o

Suppofe him to pay in land-
tax at the rate of 31. in the
pound - 150 o o


jooo/. fterling per annum,
valued at 20 years purchafe,
agreeable to the above plan, is
2o,ooo/. fterling, at one per
cent, is 200 o o

Saving ifjo o o

Would fave this fum yearly, and be clear
of all home taxes, except the one percent,
and that only to continue to be paid till


( 9 )

the national debt is reduced or paid off by
this annual fu'rplus of upwards of eleven


Suppofe there is to be found in Great
Britain the following number of perfons,
one with another, capable of paying the
following annual rates, in confideration
of which to abolifh a certain part
of the mod burthenfome taxes every
year, in proportion to the money paid
into the Exchequer, fuch as thofe on
foap, candles, leather, fait, window
lights, land-tax, and houfes, &c. viz.

Two millions of perlbns at I2/. IQS.
Xvouldraife 25 millions per annum.

One million of perfons, at ^$L would
taife 25 millions per annum.

C Five

Fiv* hundred thoufand perfons, at
would raife 25 millions per annum.

Two hundred and fifty thoufand per-
fons, at ioo/. would raife 25 millions
per annum.

One hundred and twenty-five thoufand
perfons, at 2OO/. would raife 25 millions
per annum.

So that any of the above numbers, at
thefe refpective rates, would pay off 200
millions of the national debt in eight
years; but to calculate with certainty
upon the operation of thefe plans, and
to proportion it to each, the property of
Great Britain muft be afcertained with
as much precifion and accuracy as pofTi-
ble, under the following heads :

The rental of lands.
The rental of houfes.


The amount of perfonal property to be
Calculated from the rent of the houfes each
perfon occupies ; and to come at as com-
petent a knowledge of this as can be ob-
tained, copies of the commiffioners of the
land-tax, and the receivers of the houfe-
tax books, by which the fame is col-
lected, may be laid before the Houfe
of Commons, from the King's Remem*
brancer's Office of the Exchequer, into
which, by the 30 Geo. II. the commif-
fioners of the land-tax are obliged every
year to deliver a fchedule or duplicate
in parchment, under their hands and
feals, containing the whole fum aflefled
upon each parim or place refpectively,
in England and Wales, and Berwick
upon Tweed.

It will no doubt be faid, but how is the

army, navy, and the other branches of

C 2

the civil government to be provided for,
if the home taxes are abolifhed. To this
I anfwer, that as 1 conclude foreign na-
tions will not take off the duty on our
Commodities imported into their refpec-
tive countries, I propofe flill to continue
the duty on goods imported, which I con-
ceive will be nearly adequate to defray
all expences, civil and military, in time,
of peace, as appears by the following
flatement :

( '3 )

Army and navy in
time of peace

fuppofe - 4,000,090 o o

Civil Lift rr 900,000 o o

4^,909,090 o >

The grofs receipt of
duties on goods
imported for the
year, ending at
1784, laid before
theHoufe ofCom-
mons, amounted
to -59 22 > l8 9 M "

From which dedud
drawbacks for fo-
reign goods im-
ported 971,152 50

Bounties 342,808 5 6

Certficates of da-
rnag over en-
triesj &c. 44.817 2 o

Charges of manage-
ment 205,907 17 o

._- : 1,567,685 9 6

= 4>354>54 2 5

545'495 J 7 7

( '4 )

Deficient only this fum, which a va-
riety of other favings would eafily pro-
vide for, without adding frem burthens
on the fubjecl:, or it might be charged on
the furplus of the-one per cent, or the
annual contribution.

To give fome idea of the value ofhoufes,
I mall juft ftate that the rental of houfes
in the fingle hundred of OfTulfton, in the
county of Middlefex, on which a three-
penny rate was laid, to make good the
damage done by the riots in 1780,
amounted to the enormous fum of
1,605,0547. fterling, and this not above
tw r o thirds of their value.

The mode of carrying thefe fchemes
into execution, after the papers I have
mentioned are produced to parliament,
may be by bill, and opening books at the


Treafury for all perfons to fubfcribe ac-
cording to their feveral rated abilities.
No taxes, however, to be taken off, till
a permanent and effective fund is actually
eilablifhed upon one or other of thefe
plans. But it will probably be objected,
tkat this mode is new, that it will be at-
tended with much trouble to come at the
knowledge of peoples property, and that
there is not a number of perfons to be
found, capable of paying at the rates I have
flated, and that the rental is not equal to
what I make it. The anfwer to this is
plain and obvious, that the fituation of
this country is alfo perfectly new, and can-
not be faved without infinite trouble, ex-
periment and exertion ; now deprived of
America, and finking under an unexampled
load of debt ; but if there is not numbers
and ability to effect either of thefe plans
in the extent I propofe, yet they may cer-


( '6 )

tainly be tried and carried as far as they
will go, though I am perfuaded from
the communication I have had with the
public on this fubjeclr, let the experiment
be fairly made, there will be found both
inclination and ability in the country to
accomplim this great national object;
efpecially if Government buys in the
different flocks at the price of the day^
fome of which, with the utrnofl: pomblc
rife they can have, will flill be confider-
ably under par.

The fubjet at this moment expects td
be called upon for fome extraordinary
exertion, however new, under the pa*
ternal care of our moil gracious So-
vereign, who is ever anxious for the
happinefs, profperity, and welrare of his


( '7 )

Whatever novelty may appear in thefc
fchemes, they are, in fome refpecb, not
without precedent ; witnefs Demaretz's
plan for conducting the finances of
France, during a mofl critical period.

Twelve commiflioners were appointed
for the infpection and the receipt of the
then exifting taxes, and fuch others as
might in future be charged upon the
fubje&i They demanded no falary, the
King was at the expence of maintaining
the public offices at Paris, and elfe

All the money that was raifed, was
immediately paid into the King's Trea 1 -
fury, the twelve directors accounting
directly with the commiflioners of the
treafury, without the interference of any
iifelefs defcription of men, too often
D found

( I* )

found in flourifhing flates, but who muft
be abolifhed in the hour of national

Ten per cent, was laid upon all the
eftates in the kingdom, real and perfonaL
A deduction took place of ten per cent,
upon all peniions and other monies, ifTu-
ing out of the Treafury. Confiderable
fums were advanced by private indivi-
duals ; and ten per cent, was laid on the
lands and revenues of the church, which
the convocation compounded for.

The advantages that will refult to
this country by fuch a reduction of the
national debt, are infinite, befides the
fuperiority it will give us over all other
nations, who we fhall be able to under-
fell at foreign markets, as every neceffary
of life and manufactures will then be


( '9 )

purchased at their real intrinfic price,
without the artificial value now charged
upon them, owing to accumulated taxes
of every kind.

The landed property of Great-Britain
will be increafcd in value beyond all be-
lief; a circumflance which well deferves
the moft ferious .confideration of the
country gentlemen. As the taking off
all home taxes muft occalion a conlider-
able reduction of revenue officers, it may
be afked what is to be come of them,
who have fpent their beft days in the
fervice of the public. To this I have
to reply, that fmaller boards of excife
and cuftoms muiO: ftill exifl for the
collection of duties on goods imported;
and fuch as do not make part of thefe
boards, their falaries to be continued for
life, or till vacancies happen at faid
D 2 boards.,

boards, to which they fhould fucceed by
feniority, and their falaries ceafe.

Another great advantage of thefa
fchemes taking effeft, would be the an-
nual faving of the interefr. of foreign moT
ney in our funds, the payment of which,
at prefent, fwallows up a very conlider-
able part of the balance of foreign trade
in our favour. Could we confine the
borrowing of money within ourfelves,
the evil would be lefs, as the intereft
would remain at home ; but the borrow-
ing of foreigners, carries the intereft out
of the country, and has ever been deemed
injurious to the public. But it will, per-
haps, be urged, that we have the ufe of
the money, it is true, if borrowed to
carry on trade, which left a confiderable
profit, it would be a public benefit, but
when borrowed by the State, for the


defraying expenfive wars abroad, and ex-
ceilive eftablifhments at home, it is a
real national evil.

Whereas, if, on the other hand, by
paying off the debt, we are able to lend
money abroad, the interefc returned will
be an addition to the balance of our
trade, arifing from the exports of our-
manufactures, by which alone Great-
Britain can be fupported.

It is often faid, with no fmall degree
of exultation and triumph, that the home
taxes produce annually fo many millions,
We muit fee through a very narrow me-
dium indeed, and be endowed with a
very fmall mare of knowledge and in-
formation, not to know, that however
the produce of thefe taxes may dazzle
the eyes of the Public, and make the


Exchequer overflow, the commerce of
the country is in proportion loaded, by
its commodities going fo much dearer to
foreign markets ; and if the old taxes are
continued, and new ones impofed, every
year, it will foon amount to a prohibition
of our exports, which, in many in-
flances, has now only our ftaple commo-
dity left, to infure us a market abroad.

Thus, from the heft of motives, I ven-
ture to lay thefe few imperfect thoughts
before a candid Public, in a manner, I
truft, fo plain and fimple, that without
the labour of much calculation, every
man may try them by his own circum-
ilances; which, if he does jufHy, and
without prejudice, he will plainly fee
how much individual and national hap-
pinefs muft refult from the adoption of
them, by this country being ^delivered


( 23 )

from Its prefent mod oppreffive debt and
taxes, under which, at this moment, our
commerce ftaggers, and public ruin ftares
the nation in the face.

N E W H A V E N.

. 20, 1

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Online LibraryWilliam Mayne NewhavenA short address to the public : containing some thoughts how the national debt may be reduced and all home taxes, including land tax, abolished → online text (page 1 of 1)