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William Mill Butler.

The whist reference book wherein information is presented concerning the noble game, in all its aspects, after the manner of a cyclopedia, dictionary, and digest all combined in one online

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Online LibraryWilliam Mill ButlerThe whist reference book wherein information is presented concerning the noble game, in all its aspects, after the manner of a cyclopedia, dictionary, and digest all combined in one → online text (page 1 of 87)
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THE



..... Wherein Information is presented
Concerning the NOBLE GAME, in all its
Aspects, after the Manner of



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MPHOOUC40 FftOM*TMi-o*i<UNAi. PICTURE ar



M*TMi-

IGNED E

CYCLOPEDIA, DICTIONARY, AND

r \j ~' tj " C* *Y

Yt King and Q*au with plesaunce looke

Uppon ye grelt Wbistt Refrence 'Books.
"Now, vyfft," quoit bi "let all je fylavera
Wt meet in bataile say their prayeres !"
Whereat ye solemn Knaves botue low ;
And quoth ye Quene, " Aye, truly so ! "

WILLIAM MILL BUTEBfT **')



ILLUSTRATED



'HiLADELPHIA: . . PRINTED AND PUB-
JSHED BY THE JOHN C. YORSTON
PUBLISHING COMPANY. MDCCCX




THE



WHIST REFERENCE BOOK



Wherein Information is presented

Concerning the NOBLE GAME, in all its
Aspects, after the Manner of



. . A . .

CYCLOPEDIA, DICTIONARY, AND
DIGEST

ALL COMBINED IN ONE



WILLIAM MILL BUTLER



ILLUSTRATED



PHILADELPHIA : . . PRINTED AND PUB-
LISHED BY THE JOHN C YORSTON
PUBLISHING COMPANY. MDCCCXCIX.



Entered at Stationer's Hall. London. England
Copyrighted. Washington. U.S.A..

BY
WILLIAM MILL BUTLER.

1898.
All rights reserved.



GV

1 27T



*

o

*




* * *




*



*


DEDICATION


* * *



To the American Whist League, the Woman's
Whist League, and all other Organizations which
inculcate the play of Whist for its own sake, this
book is respectfully dedicated by

THE AUTHOR.



ACCEPTANCE



In December, 1897, a communication was addressed to the presidents
of the American Whist League and Woman's Whist League, in substance
as follows :

"In tracing the history, rise, and progress of whist in America, I
have been strongly impressed with the great work already accomplished
by the American Whist League. The recently organized Woman's
Whist League seems to me another powerful force whose good influence
must soon be felt wherever whist is played. The future of the game
rests with these two noble organizations. If they remain loyal to the
principles enunciated at the first congress of American whist-players in
1891, whist, in this country at least, will ever remain an elevating and
intellectual recreation, as well as a powerful aid in mental training. The

(iii)



iv DEDICATION

women especially have it in their power to maintain its purity and
attractiveness. To them we look to keep it, as it now is, a game for the
home circle, an educating influence, as well as an amusement.

" In view of these facts, it would give me much pleasure to dedicate
my forthcoming work, ' The Whist Reference Book,' to the two Leagues.
Permit me to ask you, as the presidents of your respective organizations,
whether such dedication would be pleasing and acceptable?"

The answers received are herewith reproduced by permission :

Philadelphia, Pa., December 7.
MR. WILLIAM MILL BUTLER,

Dear Sir :

Allow me, in behalf of the Woman's Whist League, to thank you for the
proffered dedication of your magnificent work. It is a very great compliment,
and appreciated and accepted in the spirit in which it is offered. Every woman con-
nected with our organization will heartily agree with the sentiments expressed con-
cerning the game. Again thanking you cordially for the courtesy, and wishing you
every possible success, I am,

Very truly yours,

EMMA D. ANDREWS,
1119 Spruce Street. President Woman's Whist League.



American Whist League,
Office of the President,
Detroit, Mich., December 22.
MR. WILLIAM MILL BUTLER,
Dear Sir :

It becomes my duty and very great pleasure to acknowledge, on behalf of
the American Whist League, the great compliment paid the League in having
dedicated to it your splendid work. I take your kindly act as recognition of the success
of the League in purifying and popularizing, as a means of education and as an intel-
lectual pastime, the noblest of indoor games. Having developed, since the organiza-
tion of the League, from a mere game into a science, it is to be hoped that whist, as it
is a great discipliner of minds as well as a true test of mental skill, may soon be
universally recognized as the most popular American game. As an instrument to
this end I am sure your work will be welcomed by every lover of whist.

Yours sincerely,

HENRY A. MANDELL,

President American Whist League.



PRITACE



J *bist is indeed a science and an art, as well as an elevating
i - fcrslon and amusement, it is but proper that, in addition to
its many excellent text-books and treatises.it should have a gen-
eral work or" reference such as the present volume aims to be.

No oth-rt yaruc which the ingenuity of man has ever devised
hi. icen aft Mvrr.iJiate in attracting the attention of those amply
qv, .. iied to sei forth its merits. Many of the brightest intel-

Lord Folkestone, best efforts to
el** iation, beginning with the time, more than a century and

1 frorrt the family portrait in possess^ *
the Countess of Radnor ; now published for
the first time. He was the '



courage the systematic study of whist.
-" > whose disix)veries are recognized as adding to the

sow. -f human knowledge;; astronomers whose studies of the
starry universe have interested millions of readers; mathe-
matK'ia.n.s whose master minds have found pleasure in solving
the iri.K',. difficult problems all these, and many others of
orth y >*>ility, are found upon the long and luminous roll

:'hat wh T is a game of infinite variety is demonstrated by
U r :umerori- theories and modes of play advocated by those
wi;<> have wn'ten upon its technical side. So univ<_:sal is the
h?ten-<t felt in it that these theories and modes of play have
greatly increased rather than diminished or late years, and

(v)



PREEACE



If whist is indeed a science and an art, as well as an elevating
recreation and amusement, it is but proper that, in addition to
its many excellent text-books and treatises.it should have a gen-
eral work of reference such as the present volume aims to be.

No other game which the ingenuity of man has ever devised
has been as fortunate in attracting the attention of those amply
qualified to set forth its merits. Many of the brightest intel-
lects of the present age have devoted their best efforts to its
elucidation, beginning with the time, more than a century and
a half ago, when Folkestone and Hoyle first brought it forth
from obscurity. Philosophers, statesmen, and warriors have
vied with one another in improving it. Scholars whose attain-
ments have also won for them enduring fame in other pursuits;
scientists whose discoveries are recognized as adding to the
sum of human knowledge; astronomers whose studies of the
starry universe have interested millions of readers; mathe-
maticians whose master minds have found pleasure in solving
the most difficult problems all these, and many others of
worth and ability, are found upon the long and luminous roll
of whist authors.

That whist is a game of infinite variety is demonstrated by
the numerous theories and modes of play advocated by those
who have written upon its technical side. So universal is the
interest felt in it that these theories and modes of play have
greatly increased rather than diminished of late years, and

(v)



vi PREFACE

to-day the whist-player who wishes to be thoroughly grounded
in its history and practice finds himself confronted by a bewilder-
ing array of authorities and isms, such as might well dishearten
all but the most courageous.

The necessity for some method whereby order may be
brought out of chaos is obvious; and we believe this can best
be accomplished by means of a well-arranged and thoroughly
impartial description and review of everything relating to the
game. It is not our purpose, therefore, to add to it any new
theory or hobby, but rather to so indicate those things which
are already in existence that the earnest student may inform
himself concerning them, and, by using his individual judg-
ment, as well as the judgment of others, accept that which is
good, and reject that which is of no permanent value.

In order to make the gathered information easily accessible,
the articles are arranged in alphabetical order, and supple-
mented by an exhaustive index of cross-references. Every
authority, from Hoyle down to the present day, is quoted,
and the quotations will all be found of great value and benefit,
especially in matters upon which there exists a difference of
opinion. In order to enable the reader to estimate at its full
value every statement made, the school to which each author-
ity quoted belongs is plainly indicated by means of a system of
abbreviations, enclosed in brackets, printed after each name.

The task of digesting and arranging in orderly form the
accumulated knowledge of centuries, as well as the information
concerning multitudinous changes and improvements of recent
years, has been a fascinating, if somewhat prolonged and
arduous, one. We have endeavored to treat everything upon



PREFACE vil

its merits, and to be absolutely fair to every school and every
individual. We have deemed it our duty to mirror whist in
all its vigor and sometimes overflowing exuberance. It is
whist with all its glories as well as imperfections whist as it
exists, and not as we or any other individual might wish to
see it in narrower confines. The book necessarily contains
some things which we may not personally favor; some views
with which we may not personally agree; some methods of
play which we may not personally endorse; but in each and
every instance where there are grounds for a difference of
opinion, where usage is not general, or where a thing is
roundly condemned by one side or the other, we have tried to
present the weight of authority, both for and against, in order
that the reader may be in a position to examine and decide for
himself. The only liberty we have taken is to speak freely on
all matters affecting the morals and good repute of the game.
There can be no doubt that the evolution of whist has
brought with it a higher type of play in America than the
world has ever known before. Its chief distinguishing feature
is the abolition of stakes no money consideration of any kind
being found necessary to lend interest to the game. The
credit for this great advance is very largely due to the Ameri-
can Whist League, which, at its organization in 1891, adopted
the seven-point game, eliminated the count of honors and the
preponderance of luck from the play, and above all adopted
the splendid motto of, "Whist for Its Own Sake." The efforts
of the League to promote higher ideals, and maintain the purity
and integrity of the game, are nobly seconded by the Woman's
Whist League, a more recent organization, which is the out-



via PREFACE

come of the immense activity of the fair sex in whist matters
in this country. That activity, inspired by the modern scien-
tific game, and by the instructions of a host of faithful and
devoted whist teachers, is constantly growing, and cannot but
have a great and beneficial effect, so that with woman and the
home, as well as man and the club, behind it, whist may soon,
as Dr. Pole puts it, " assume the position of a great social
element which Herbert Spencer must reckon with in his prin-
ciples of sociology. ' '

Much has been said about the conflict which has been for
some years going on between the advocates of the long and
short-suit games, and between the advocates and opponents of
American leads and other conventional signals. We believe that
all fears that these differences of opinion may prove injurious
to whist may be dismissed as groundless. The splendid
vitality of the game has withstood all the rivalries and antago-
nisms of the past, and will, we are confident, survive those of
the future. The sturdy oak laughs at the storms which bend
its boughs, and finds them beneficial in the development of still
greater strength. Whatever is best in whist will survive, and
whatever is worthless will succumb to the force of honest criti-
cism. The final result must be, and will be, still better whist.

In presenting the "Whist Reference Book" for the approval
of the whist world, we beg to extend our warmest acknowl-
edgments to the host of correspondents, both in this and
foreign countries, who so liberally seconded our efforts to
obtain correct and authentic information for its pages. Among
those whose personal co-operation and unfailing courtesy was
especially helpful, we cannot forbear mentioning Henry Jones



PREFACE ix

("Cavendish"), N. B. Trist, General A. W. Drayson, Dr.
William Pole, R. F. Foster, C. D. P. Hamilton, Cassius M.
Paine, Milton C. Work, John T. Mitchell, Eugene S. Elliott,
Matthias Boyce (" Mogul "), Charles Mossop, P. J. Tormey,
E. C. Howell, Judge George L. Bunn, C. R. Keiley, W. H.
Whitfeld, W. S. Fenollosa, Charles M. Clay, and Charles S.
Boutcher. Also, among the ladies, Miss Kate Wheelock, Mrs.
T. H. Andrews, Mrs. Henry E. Wallace, Mrs. M. S. Jenks,
and Mrs. Elizabeth Wager-Smith.

Among the many portraits of whist notabilities with which
the volume is embellished we have the pleasure of giving that
of Lord Folkestone, who was the first to recognize the merits
of whist and actively promote its study and improvement. For
the likeness, now published for the first time, our acknowl-
edgments are due to the Countess of Radnor, who kindly
placed it at our disposal. All efforts to obtain portraits of
Hoyle, Payne, Mathews, or Deschapelles proved unavailing.

Should there be found, despite the care which has been
exercised in its preparation, any serious errors or omissions in
this book, we shall at all times be pleased to hear from those
in possession of the facts, in order that the proper correction
may be made in subsequent editions. In this way, with the
active co-operation and support of the lovers of whist, wherever
found, it is hoped that there may be maintained, as long as the
king of card games endures, a standard work in which any and
every reasonable question concerning whist, its history, science,
practice, laws, and usages may be found intelligently answered.

PHILADELPHIA WHIST CLOB,

October, 1898



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



"YE ROYALL RECEPCIOUN" (Printed in Colors] Frontispiece

Ye King and Quene with plesaunce looke
Uppon ye grete Whiste Ref "rence Booke.
"Now, wyffe," quoth he, " let all ye playeres
We meet in bataile say their prayeres ! "
Whereat ye solemn Knaves bowe low ;
And quoth ye Quene, " Aye, truly so ! "

(Chaucer Redivivus.)

Reproduced from the original picture by Maxfield Parrish,
designed expressly for this work.

PORTRAIT OF LORD FOLKESTONE Facing Preface

He was the first to encourage the systematic study of whist,
in 1728. From the family portrait in possession of the Countess
of Radnor ; now published for the first time.

MODERN MASTERS OF WHIST Facing page 44

Portraits of "Cavendish," James Clay, William Pole, A. W.
Drayson, and Richard A. Proctor.

LEADERS OF THE " CAVENDISH " SCHOOL IN AMERICA, Facing page 88

Portraits of Nicholas Browse Trist, Fisher Ames, C. D. P.
Hamilton, Charles E. Coffin, and Cassius M. Paine.

OPPONENTS OF THE "CAVENDISH" SCHOOL Facing page 132

Portraits of R. F. Foster, " Mogul," Charles Mossop, " Pern-
bridge," and E. C. Howell.

PRESIDENTS OF THE AMERICAN WHIST LEAGUE . . Facing page 176

Portraits of Eugene S. Elliott, John M. Walton, Theodore
Schwarz, Walter H. Barney, and H. A. Mandell.

TEACHERS OF WHIST Facing page 220

Portraits of Miss Kate Wheelock, Mrs. M. S. Jenks, Miss
Bessie E. Allen, Mrs. S. C. H. Buell, and Miss Gertrude ~B,.
Clapp.

Cxi)



xii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

WHIST ANALYSTS Facing page 264

Portraits of W. H. Whitfeld, John H. Briggs, George I,. Bunn,
Charles M. Clay, and Bond Stow.

TEACHERS OF WHIST Facing page 308

Portraits of Mrs. T. H. Andrews, Mrs. Lillian C. Noel, Mrs.
William Henry Newbold, Mrs. George de Benneville Keim,
and Miss Frances S. Dallam.

ADVOCATES OF AMERICAN LEADS WITH MODIFICA-
TIONS Facing page 352

Portraits of Milton C. Work, George W. Pettes, John T.
Mitchell, Charles S. Street, arid P. J. Tormey.

WOMEN WHO WRITE ABOUT WHIST Facing page 396

Portraits of Mrs. Henry E. Wallace, Mrs. Mary d'Invilliers
Levick, Mrs. Elizabeth Wager-Smith, Mrs. F. H. Atwater, and
Miss Annie Blanche Shelby.

TEACHERS OF WHIST Facing page 440

Portraits of William S. Fenollosa, Elwood T. Baker, Charles
R. Keiley, F. E. Otis, and George E- Duggan.

THE FAMOUS HAMILTON TEAM Facing page 484

Milton C. Work, Gustavus Remak, Jr., E. A. Ballard, and
Frank P. Mogridge, winners of the first A. W. L. Challenge
Trophy, for which they scored twenty victories, being thus
entitled to its permanent possession.

THE CHAMPIONS OF 1897 Facing page 528

Joseph S. Neff, E. Stanley Hart, Leoni Melick, W. T. G.
Bristol, and T. A. Whelan, who acted as substitute during the
illness of one of the players. This team, from the Philadelphia
Whist Club, won the Hamilton Trophy at Put-in-Bay, in
thirteen matches, without suffering a single defeat.



KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS

USED AFTER THE NAMES OF QUOTED AUTHORITIES

Indicating at a glance the school of whist or style of game followed
and advocated by each.



J/. A. Advocates of the long-suit game and American leads.

It. A-\ Long-suit advocates and players who are friendly to American

leads, or who employ them to some extent.

I/+A. Adherents of the long-suit game, in the main, who are liberally
inclined toward short-suit play, and who employ American leads.

I/-\-A-\ Advocates of the fundamental long-suit game who have liberal

views concerning the use of short-suit play in emergencies, and
who are friendly to American leads.

I/. A. H. Long-suit advocates and players who employ American leads
with Hamilton modifications.

I,. A. P. Long-suit advocates employing American leads with Pettes'
modifications.

J^. O. Long-suit advocates and players who employ old leads.

1^. OH Long-suit players and advocates who employ old leads, but are

liberally inclined toward the modern scientific game.

J^-)-O. Advocates of the long-suit game who make a liberal use also of
short-suit tactics, and who employ old leads.

O. Players and advocates of the old leads as practiced by Hoyle and his
immediate successors.

S. -H". Advocates of the short-suit game who follow,[the Howell system.

S. O. Advocates of the short-suit, or "common-sense," game who
employ old leads.

. Short-suit advocates who are liberally inclined toward the long-
suit game, but employ old leads.

(xiii)



The Whist Reference Book.



Abandoned Hand. A hand at
whist, or so much of it as remains
unplayed, thrown face upward upon
the table by a player or players,
for any reason.

If all four players throw their cards on
the table, face upwards, no further play
of that hand is permitted. The result of
the hand as then claimed or admitted, is
established, provided that, if a revoke is
discovered, the revoke penalty attaches.
Laws of Whist (American Code), Sec. 27.

If all four players throw their cards
on the table, face upwards, the hands are
abandoned; and no one can again take up
their cards. Should this general exhibi-
tion show that the game might have been
saved or won, neither claim can be enter-
tained unless a revoke be established.
The revoking players are then liable to the
following penalties : they cannot, under
any circumstances, win the game by the
result of that hand, and the adversaries
may add three to their score, or deduct
three from that of the revoking players.
Laws of Whist (English Code), Sec. 59.

A-B, Y-Z. The commonly ac-
cepted manner of indicating the
players or hands at the whist table
is by means of the letters A-B,
Y-Z, the former two being partners
against the latter two. The letters
A-B, C-D, have also been used to
some extent in the past, among
others by James Clay and G. W.
Pettes. They are now used to des-
ignate the challengers at duplicate
whist, when two teams of four
each play against each other, the
home club, or holders, being desig-
nated as W-X, Y-Z.

Among several other writers on
straight whist, "Aquarius" used
the letters A-C, B-D to represent the
four players at a table. In other in-
stances the figures 1-2, 3-4 have
been employed. In the Westmin-
ster Papers the editor used A-B,
X-Z, although his correspondents



employed other formulas as well.
In his recent work on " Short-Suit
Whist," E.G. Howell adopts North-
South, East-West, the terms gen-
erally used to indicate the positions
of the players at duplicate whist.
The great preponderance of usage,
however, is in favor of A-B, Y-Z,
which is nearly always used in pe-
riodicals and in the daily press
when recording whist- play, and also
in most of the late text-books. It
is used in the works of ' ' Caven-
dish," Pole, Drayson, Proctor, Fos-
ter, " Pembridge," and many oth-
ers, although in some instances the
same author makes use of more than
one kind of notation. The main
objection to the N-S, E-W nota-
tion is, that explanatory notes are
required to give the positions of the
dealer and the lead, and without
these the hand is unintelligible.

A is the first hand, or leader, and
B is his partner, or third hand;Y
is the second hand and partner of
Z, who is the fourth hand and
dealer in the opening play. There
is a growing custom among writers
on whist to speak of the first hand
as A, the second hand as Y, the
third hand as B, and the fourth
hand as Z, without any qualifica-
tion or explanation, the terms being
regarded as synonymous.

Ace. A card containing one pip
or spot. In whist the ace is the
highest card in rank or value, ex-
cept in the matter of cutting, when
it is lowest. It is one of the four hon-
ors counted in the English game.

The ace is led more frequently
than any other high card except the
king. Under the old leads system



(I)



ACE



ACE



it is led from ace and four or more
others without the king ; and from
ace, queen, and jack, with or with-
out others.

Under the system of American
leads, ace is led from any suit of
five or more which does not contain
both king and queen; and from
any combination which contains
both queen and jack, but does not
include the king. Here are the
leads in detail in which the ace
figures :

From ace, king, jack, and two or
more others, lead ace followed by
king.

From ace, king, and three or
more others, lead ace followed by
king. (In trumps, lead fourth best,
unless holding seven. )

From ace, queen, jack, and two
or more others, lead ace followed
by jack.

From ace, queen, jack, ten, lead
ace followed by ten.

From ace, queen, jack, and one
other, lead ace followed by queen.

From ace and four or more
others, the orthodox practice is to
lead ace followed by fourth best,
although many first-class players
believe that in the American game,
and especially at duplicate, it is
better to lead fourth best. In
trumps, the orthodox practice is to
lead fourth best, unless holding
seven when the ace is led.

In forced leads, from ace, queen,
jack, lead ace followed by queen.

Adherents of the old leads object
to the American lead of ace from
ace, king, and others, because, they
claim, it does not at once give your
partner information concerning the
whereabouts of the king. (Below
will be found "Cavendish's " argu-
ment in favor of the American
lead.)

The ace lead does not figure in
the so-called short-suit game. In
fact, when led by short-suit players,



it means either that they have con-
cluded for that particular hand to
play according to long-suit tactics,
or they are playing the Howell
variety of the short-suit game. In
Mr. Howell 's system, the lead of the
ace figures in two of the five forms
of strategy adopted to meet the
various conditions of the hand. If
followed by king, it means the
high-card game, in which you don't
expect to make anything except a
trick or two in your strong suit. If
followed by a small card, it means
the ruffing game.

ACE AND FOUR. There is no plain
suit from which a hand is more frequently
opened than ace and four or more others,
and there is, therefore, no combination
from which it is of more importance that
the best trick-taking lead should be de-
termined. In spite of this there is no
whist question to-day upon which there
is a wider divergence 01 opinion among
good players. * * * After considering
the whole ground, the writer is inclined
to side witli those who believe the low
lead in five-card suits to be a winning
one in the long run. and advises its adop-



Online LibraryWilliam Mill ButlerThe whist reference book wherein information is presented concerning the noble game, in all its aspects, after the manner of a cyclopedia, dictionary, and digest all combined in one → online text (page 1 of 87)