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The Church in the Roman Empire, before A.D. 170.

With Maps and Illustrations. 8vo, 12s.

St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen. 8vo,
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Pauline and other Studies. 8vo, 12.^.

A Historical Commentary on St. Paul's Epistle to
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Letters to the Seven Churches and their Place in the
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Was Christ Born at Bethlehem? A Study in the
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Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Pro-
vinces of the Roman Empire. -Wpkten -for the
Quatercentenary of the University of Aberdeen, by
Seven of its Graduates. Edited by Sir W. M.
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Everyday Life in Turkey. Crown Svo, 55.
The Romance of Elisavet. Crown Svo, 5s,


7 VJ[,K

PlJr;^:. _i3RARY





Old Turkish Art : the Door of the Sirtchali Mosque in Konia.

See p. 185.



W. M. RAMSAY, Kt.. Hon. D.C.L., etc.




THE i.

,/ (

•. i\







The papers republished in this volume have appeared
in various Magazines, Contemporary Review, Exposi-
tor, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Geographical
Journal, to the editors of which my thanks are ten-
dered. Most of them have been profoundly modified
and much enlarged ; but only in the last, which is
made up of six older articles, is there any essential
change in the original opinions. Elsewhere, the
alterations which haVfe been introduced are intended
to render more precise and emphatic the views
formerly stated. Even the first article, which has
been little changed in expression, has been greatly
enlarged. Only in the sixth article (first published in
1882) have the additions been indicated.

The last article stands in much need of help and
criticism from more experienced scholars. In writing-
it I felt the depths of my ignorance ; but the first
steps had to be taken in the subject. The most
striking result was reached at the last stage, and is
stated only in a footnote and the Table of Contents
and Index. The pagan temple-grave became the
Christian church-grave or memorion ; and the pagan

vi Preface

Ovpa appears as the church doorway on gravestones
in Isauria. The great Anatolian writers of the fourth
century are full of information, which yet remains to
be collected and valued. Professor Roll's Amphi-
lockius von Iconium is the one great modern study in
its department. The humble essays which conclude
this volume and my former series of Pauline and
other Studies tread in his footsteps ; but I am mindful
of the poet's advice, longe sequere et vestigia se7nper

I am indebted for the very interesting series of
photographs, not merely to my wife, but also to Miss
Gertrude Lowthian Bell, Mr. J. G. C. Anderson*
Senior Censor of Christ Church, Oxford, and Pro-
fessor T. Callander, Queen's University, Canada ; and
I am grateful to them for permitting me to adorn my
preface with the names of such experienced and suc-
cessful explorers, and my book with views so skil-
fully taken in spite of the ink-black shadows cast by
that pitiless sun.

The Index is largely the work of my wife.


Aberdeen, 3isf October, igoS,



Luke the Physician i


The Oldest Written Gospel ...... 69


Asia Minor : the Country and its Religion . . 103

The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire . 141


The Peasant God : the Creation, Destruction and

Restoration of Agriculture in Asia Minor . 169


The Religion of the Hittite Sculptures at Boghaz-

Keui 199


The Morning Star and the Chronology of the Life

OF Christ . . . . . . . .217

viii Contents



A Criticism of Recent Research regarding the New

Testament 247

The .Historical Geography of the Holy Land . .267

St. Paul's Use of Metaphors drawn from Greek and

Roman Life 283


The Date and Authorship of the Epistle to the

Hebrews 299


The Church of Lycaonia in the Fourth Century 329-410

Introduction : The District and its Ecclesiastical

Organisation. . . . . . • 331

I. Chronological Arrangement of the Documents . 334

II. A Bishop of the Church Reorganisation after

Diocletian ...... 339

III. The Presbyters : their Relation to Bishops and

Deacons . . . . . -351

IV. Crosses and Christian Monograms as the Origin

of Ornament (also No. 42) . . . 368

V. The Church Manager or Oikonomos . . 369

Contents ix


VI, The Church in the Decoration of Tombs: the
Christian Grave in Isauria was a Miniature
Church . . . . . . -370

VII, Distinction of Clergy and Laity: its Early Stage 387

VIII. Deaconesses .

IX. Martyrs ......

X. Curses on Christian Graves
XI. Virgins or Parthenoi in the Lycaonian Church
XII. Heretic Sects .....

XIII. High-Priest of God ....

XIV. Christian Physicians ....
XV. Quotations from the New Testament 366 and 406

XVI. Slaves of God 407

Indzx . . .411







I. On the Byzantine Military Road : the Pass leading

to Dorylaion . . . . . . . io6

II. On the Central Trade Route: the Source of the
Maeander ......

III. On the Central Trade Route : the Falls at Hiera

polis .......

IV. The City, Rock and Castle of Kara-Hissar ,
V. The City, Rock and Castle of Sivri-Hissar

VI. Roman Milestone on the Syrian Route .




VII. Archaic Sepulchral Monument in Phrygia : Novem-
ber weather . . . . . . . I2&

VIII. The Tomb of King Midas: a Phrygian Holy Place 124

IX. The Grave of an Ancient Phrygian Chief . > . 128'

X. The Broken Grave of an Ancient Phrygian Chief . 132

XI. Phrygian Rock- tomb of the Roman Time . . 136

XII. The Site of Pisidian Antioch and the Sultan- Dagh 140

xii Illustrations


XIII. The Monasteries and Churches at Deghile, on the

Mountain above Barata . . . . .140

XIV. Church and Memorial Chapel on the Summit of the

Kara-Dagh : from the west . . . .158

XV. Church on the Summit of the Kara-Dagh : from

the south-east . . . . . .158

XVI. The Throne of the Anatolian God, near Barata . 160

XVII. Ruins of Double-arched West Door of Church at

at Bin-Bir-Kilisse (Barata) . . . .160

XVIII. Monastery at Deghile on the Mountain above
Barata, showing brickwork used as ornament
in a stone building . . . . .124

XIX. Church at Deghile on the Mountain above Barata :

North Arcades of the Nave . . . .164

XX. Church at Barata : South Arcades of the Nave and

Apse . . . . . . . .164

XXI. The God and the King at Ibriz . . . .174

XXII. Early Turkish Art : Door of the Sirtchali Mosque

in Konia ..... Frontispiece

XXIII. Early Turkish Art : Zazadin-Khan near Konia . 192

XXIV. The Gate of the Virgin-Goddess : looking over the

Limnai ........ 192

Illustrations xiii



1. Plan of the Entrance to the Hittite Palace at Euyuk . 207

2. Relief at Euyuk. Procession of Worshippers, headed

by the Chief Priest and Priestess, approaching the
Goddess 208

3. The Warrior Goddess of the Hittites with her Favourite

and Priest 210

4. The Chief Priest of the Goddess of Ephesus . .213

5. Apollo the Pastoral God of Lystra on a Third-century

Votive Relief . . . . , . .216

6. The Christian Star as a Decorative Dove and Leaf on

the Grave of a Third-century Christian Virgin at
Nova Isaura ....... 328

7. The Symbol of the Cross as a Decorative Element on a

Lycaonian Grave . . . . . . -330

8. Christian Architectural Decoration on the Grave of a

Physician at Nova Isaura ..... 330

9. The Monogram of Christ as a Decorative Element on

a Lycaonian Grave . . . . . .368

10. Architectural Decoration (the entrance of the church)

on the Grave of a Third-century Bishop at Nova
Isaura . . . . . . . • 371

11. Christian Architectural Decoration and Church Screen

on the Grave of a Bishop at Nova Isaura, a.d. 300 379

xiv Illustrations


12. Christian Architectural Decoration on the Grave of a

Fourth -century Deacon at Nova Isaura . . . 383

13. Christian Architectural Decoration on the Grave of a

Fourth-century Bishop at Nova Isaura . . . 384

14. Anthropomorphic Lycaonian Christian Grave-stone,

showing Cross and Rosette ( Monogram) as corres-
ponding Decorative Elements . . . .410


P. 109, 1. 6,/oy " the Frontispiece" read " Plate III ".
P. 203, note, for " Hermann " read " Humann ".
P. 273, note I, read " Quarterly Statement for 1S95 ".
P. 281, note '2, for 200 read 250-5.

P. 328, fig. b,for " sj'mbol of the Cross " read " Christian Star ".
Pp. 340, 1. 17, 341, 1. I. This reading and interpretation will be defended in
Expositor, December, igo8.




It has for some time been evident to all New Testament
scholars who were not hidebound in old prejudice that there
must be a new departure in Lukan criticism. The method
of dissection had failed. When a real piece of living litera-
ture has to be examined, it is false method to treat it as a
corpse, and cut it in pieces : only a mess can result. The
work is alive, and must be handled accordingly. Criticism
for a time examined the work attributed to Luke like a
corpse, and the laborious autopsy was fruitless. Nothing
in the whole history of literary criticism has been so waste
and dreary as great part of the modern critical study of
Luke. As Professor Harnack says on p. 87 of his new
book,^ " All faults that have been made in New Testament
criticism are gathered as it were to a focus in the criticism
of the Acts of the Apostles ".

The question " Shall we hear evidence or not ? " presents
itself at the threshold of every investigation into the New
Testament.^ Modern criticism for a time entered on its task
with a decided negative. Its mind was made up, and it

^Lukas der Artst der Verfasser des dritten Evaitgeliums und dsr AposteU
geschichte, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1906. In order to avoid frequent reiteration of
the personal name, we shall speak, as a general rule, of " the Author " simply.

^The bearing of this question is discussed in the opening paper of the
writer's Pauline Studies, igo6.


4 I. Luke

would not listen to evidence on a matter that was already
decided. But the results of recent exploration made this
attitude untenable. So long as the vivid accuracy of Acts
xxviL, which no critic except the most incompetent failed
to perceive and admit, was supposed to be confined to that
one chapter, it was possible to explain this passage as an
isolated and solitary fragment in the patchwork book. But
when it was demonstrated that the same lifelike accuracy
characterised the whole of the travels, the theory became
impossible. Evidence must be admitted. All minds that
are sensitive to new impressions, all minds that are able to
learn, have become aware of this. The result is visible in
the book which we have now before us. Professor Harnack
is willing to hear evidence. The class of evidence that
chiefly appeals to him is not geographical, not external, not
even historical in the widest sense, but literary and linguistic ;
and this he finds clear enough to make him alter his former
views, and come to the decided conclusion that the Third
Gospel and the Acts are a historical work in two books,^
written, as the tradition says, by Luke, a physician, Paul's
companion in travel and associate in evangelistic work. This
conclusion he regards as a demonstrated fact {sicker nach-
gewiesene Tatsache, p. 87). It does not, however, lead him
to consider that Luke's history is true. He argues very
ingeniously against attaching any high degree of trust-
worthiness to the work, and hardly even concedes that the
early date which he assigns to it entails the admission that it
is much more trustworthy than the champions of its later
date would or could allow. That is the only impression
which I can gather (see below, p. 32) from the Author's

' He hints at the poseibility that a third book may have been intended by
Luke, but never written. See below, p. 27.

the Physician 5

language in this book. On the other hand, in a notice of
his own book {Selbstanzeige)} he speaks far more favourably
about the trustworthiness and credibility of Luke, as being
generally in a position to acquire and transmit reliable infor-
mation, and as having proved himself able to take advantage
of his position. I cannot but feel that there is a certain want
of harmony here, due to the fact that the Author was
gradually working his way to a new plane of thought. His
later opinion is more favourable.

Some years ago I reviewed Professor McGiffert's argu-
ments on the Acts.^ The American professor also had felt
compelled by the geographical and historical evidence to
abandon in part the older criticism. He also admitted that
the Acts is more trustworthy than previous critics allowed ;
he also was of opinion that it was not thoroughly trustworthy,
but was a mixture of truth and error ; he also saw that it is
a living piece ot literature written by one author. But from
the fact that Acts was not thoroughly trustworthy, he
inferred that it could not be the work of a companion and
friend of the Apostle Paul ; and he has no pity for the
erroneous idea that the Acts could fail to be trustworthy if it
had been written by the friend of Paul. I concluded with the
words : " Dr. McGiffert has destroyed that error, if an error
can be destroyed ". But what is to Professor McGiffert
inadmissible is the view that Professor Harnack champions.

The careful and methodical studies of the language of
Luke by Mr. Hobart" and Mr. Hawkins* have been thor-
oughly used by the Author. He mentions that Mr. Haw-

^In the Theologische Literaturzeitung (edited by himself and Professor
Schurer), 7th July, 1906, p. 404.

^The review is republished in Pauline Studies, 1906, p. 321,
'^Medical Language of St. Lukt, Dublin, 1882.
*Hora€ Synopticae, 1899.

6 I. Luke

kins seems to be almost unknown in Germany (p. 19), and
expresses the opinion (p. 10) that Mr. Hobart's book would
have produced more effect, if he had confined himself to
the essential and had not overloaded his book with collec-
tions and comparisons that often prove nothing. I doubt
if that is the reason that Mr. Hobart's admirable and con-
clusive demonstration has produced so little effect in Ger-
many. The real reason is that the German scholars, with a
few exceptions, have not read it. That many of his ex-
aminations of words prove nothing, Mr. Hobart was quite
aware ; but he intentionally, and, as I venture to think,
rightly, gave a full statement of his comparison of Luke's
language with that of the medical Greek writers. It is the
completeness with which he has performed his task that
produces such effect on those who read his book. He has
pursued to the end almost every line of investigation, and
shown what words do not afford any evidence as well as
what words may be relied upon for evidence. The Author
says that those who merely glance through the pages of Mr.
Hobart's book are almost driven over to the opposite
opinion (as they find so many investigations that prove
nothing). This description of the common German " critical " .
way of glancing at or entirely neglecting works which are the
most progressive and conclusive investigations of modem
times suggests much. These so-called " critics " do not read
a book whose results they disapprove. The method of
studying facts is not to their taste, when they see that it
leads to a conclusion which they have definitely rejected

The importance of this book lies in its convincing demon-
stration of the perfect unity of authorship throughout the
whole of the Third Gospel and the Acts. These are a history

the Physician 7

in two books. All difference between parts like Luke i. 5-
ii. 52 on the one hand, and the " We "-sections of Acts
on the other hand — to take the most divergent parts — is a
mere trifle in comparison with the complete identity in
language, vocabulary, intentions, interests and method of
narration. The writer is the same throughout. He was, of
course, dependent on information gained from others : the
Author is disposed to allow considerable scope to oral
information in addition to the various certain or probable
written sources ; but Luke treated his written authorities with
cotisiderable freedom as regards style and even choice of
details, and impressed his own personality distinctly even on
those parts in which he most closely follows a written source.

This alone carries Lukan criticism a long step forwards,
and sets it on a new and higher plane. Never has the unity
and character of the book been demonstrated so convincingly
and conclusively. The step is made and the plane is reached
by the method which is practised in other departments of
literary criticism, viz., by dispassionate investigation of the
work, and by discarding fashionable a priori theories.

Especially weighty, in the Author's judgment, is the evi-
dence afforded by the medical interest and knowledge, which
mark almost every part of the work alike. The writer of
this history was a physician, and that fact is apparent through-
out. The investigations of Mr. Hobart supply all the evi-
dence — I think the word "all," without "almost," may be
used in this case — on which the Author relies. Never was a
case in which one book so completely exhausts the subject
and presents itself as final, to be used and not to be supple-
mented even by Professor Harnack. It is doubtless only by
a slip, but certainly a regrettable slip, that the Author, in his
notice of his own book published in the Theologische Litera-

8 I. Ltike

turzeitung, makes no reference to Mr. Hobart, though he
mentions other scholars from whose work he has profited.

The Author has up to a certain point employed the plain,
simple method of straightforward unprejudiced investigation
into the historical work which forms the subject of his study,
a method which has not been favoured much by the so-
called critical scholars of recent time. So far as he follows
this simple method, which we who study principally other
departments of literature are in the habit of employing, his
study is most instructive and complete. But he does not
follow it all through ; multa tainen suberunt priscae vestigia
fraudis. If we read his book, we shall find several examples
of the fashionable critical method of a priori rules and pre-
possessions as to what must be or must not be permitted.
These examples are almost all of the one kind. Wherever
anything occurs that savours of the marvellous in the estima-
tion of the polished and courteous scholar, sitting in his well-
ordered library and contemplating the world through its
windows, it must be forthwith set aside as unworthy of
attention and as mere delusion. That method of studying
the first century was the method of the later nineteenth
century. I venture to think that it will not be the method
of the twentieth century. If you have ever lived in Asia you
know that a great religion does not establish itself without
some unusual accompaniments. The marvellous result is not
achieved without some marvellous preliminaries.

Professor Harnack stands on the border between the nine-
teenth and the twentieth century. His book shows that he
is to a certain degree sensitive of and obedient to the new
spirit ; but he is only partially so. The nineteenth century
critical method was false, and is already antiquated. A fine
old crusty, musty, dusty specimen of it is appended to the

the Physician 9

Author's Selbstanzeige by Professor Schurer, who fills more
than three columns of the Theologisclu Literature eitung^ 7th
July, 1906, with a protest against the results of new methods
and a declaration of his firm resolution to see nothing, and
allow no other to see anything, that he has not been ac-
customed to see : " These be thy gods, O Israel ".

The first century could find nothing real and true that was
not accompanied by the marvellous and the "supernatural".
The nineteenth century could find nothing real and true that
was. Which view was right, and which wrong ? Was either
complete? Of these two questions, the second alone is pro-
fitable at the present. Both views were right — in a certain
way of contemplating ; both views were wrong — in a certain
way. Neither was complete. At present, as we are strug-
gling to throw off the fetters which impeded thought in the
nineteenth century, it is most important to free ourselves
from its prejudices and narrowness. The age and the people,
of whatever nationality they be, whose most perfect expression
and greatest hero was Bismarck, are a dangerous guide for
the twentieth century. In no age has brute force and mere
power to kill been so exclusively regarded as the one great
aim of a nation, and the one justification to a place in the
Parliament of Man, as in Europe during the latter part of the
nineteenth century ; and in no age and country has the out-
look upon the world been so narrow and so rigid among the
students of history and ancient letters. Those who study
religion owe it to the progress of science that they can begin
now to understand how hard and lifeless their old outlook was.
But we who were brought up in the nineteenth century can
licirdly shake off our prejudices or go out into the light. We
can only get a distant view of the new hope. The Author
is one of the first to force his way out into the light of day ;

lo I. Luke

but his eyes are still dazzled, and his vision not quite perfect.
He sees that Luke always found the marvellous quite as
much in his own immediate surroundings, where he was a
witness and an actor, as in the earliest period of his history ;
but he only infers, to put it in coarse language, " how blind
Luke was ".

What was the truth? How far was Luke right? I
cannot say. Consult the men of the twentieth century. I
was trained in the nineteenth, and cannot see clearly. But
of one thing I am certain : in so far as Professor Harnack
condemns Luke's point of view and rules it out in this
unheeding way, he is wrong. In so far as he is willing
to hear evidence, he comes near being right.

Practically all the argument, in the sense of facts affording
evidence, stated by the Author has long been familiar to
us in England and Scotland. What is new and interesting
and valuable is the ratiocination, the theorising, and the
personal point of view in the book under review. We study
it to understand Professor Harnack quite as much as to
understand Luke : and the study is well worth the time and
work. Personally, I feel specially interested in the question
of Luke's nationality. On this the Author has some admirable
and suggestive pages.

That Luke was a Hellene is quite clear to the Author.
He repeats this often ; and if once or twice his expression isi
a little uncertain, as if he were leaving another possibility^
open, that is only from the scientific desire to keep welf
within the limits of what the evidence permits. He has na>
real doubt. The reasons on which he lays stress are utterly
different from those which have been mentioned by mysel!^/
in support of the same conclusion, but certainly quite as:
strong if not stronger ; it is a mere difference of idiosyncrasy'

the Physician 1 1

which makes him lay stress on those that spring from the
thought and the inner temperament of Luke, while I have
spoken most of those which indicate Luke's outlook on the
world and his attitude towards external nature. But just
as I was quite conscious of the other class and merely
emphasised those which seemed to have been omitted from
previous discussions of the subject,^ so the Author's silence
about the class which I have mentioned need not be taken
as proof that he is insensible to such reasons. But those
reasons appeal most to the mind of one who has lived long
in the country and has felt the sense impressions from whose
sphere they are taken. Perhaps they are apt to seem

Online LibraryWilliam Mitchell RamsayLuke, the physician : and other studies in the history of religion → online text (page 1 of 30)