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State of New Jersey.


Vol. XX.

This volume was prepared and edited by authority
of the State of New Jersey, at the request of the
New Jersey Historical Society, and under the direc-
tion of the following Committee of the Society:

William Nelson,
Garret D. W. Vroom,
William S. Stryker,
Austin Scott,
Francis B. Lee.




N8V22 19I7


State of New Jersey.



Extracts from American Newspapers, relating
to New Jersey.

VOL. IV. 1756-1761

The Call Printing and Publishing Co.


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The predominant note in these pages is that of War. The
Indian ravages begun in the fall of 1755 were continued well
on into 1756, to the alarm and distress of the'settlers in Sussex
county, and even further inland, forts being thrown up as far
south as Morris county, for the protection of the whites. The
contemporary newspaper accounts here given are sickening in
their horrid details of rapine and slaughter. These Indian
forays were but a part of the formidable designs of the French
on the northern and western British frontiers. The Earl of
Loudoun wrote to Pitt, April 25, 1757, predicting that the
Quakers of New Jersey and Pennsylvania would control the
Assembly, so that "you will continue to have no assistance
from them in money and will have very little in men, if they
are wanted." The facts proved that he was as poor a prophet
as he was a General. This little Province raised ^40,000 in
1755-6, for the purposes of protection and counter-attack. A
command was raised in the summer of 1756 for the defence of
the Sussex frontier, two shillings per day being promised to
those who enlisted in this service. (Page 52.) The Jersey
Regiment, under the gallant Col. Peter Schuyler, set out in
April, 1756, for the north, and its progress is detailed in the
newspapers of the day until it arrived at Oswego. We have a
graphic account of the unfortunate ambuscade of a part of the
Regiment, in July, 1757, the. bloody event giving its name to
the charming Sabbath Day Point, on Lake George. (Page
122). In May, 1758, again, Colonel John Johnston left Perth
Amboy with another New Jersey Regiment of one thousand
men, "as jolly likely young fellows as were ever seen in these
parts; they made a very handsome appearance, being genteely
cloathed from head to foot. And both officers and soldiers
went off with the highest spirits, cheerfulness and resolution."
(Page 219.) In the attack on Fort Ticonderoga a few weeks


later nearly sixty of these men were killed and wounded.
(Page 255.) In 1759 the Assembly again voted to raise one
thousand men for the summer campaign against the French; a
bounty of ^12 was offered to each volunteer, and the men were
to be "compleatly and uniformly cloathed from Head to Foot,"
their clothes, blanket and other necessaries being valued at £8
more. Col. Peter Schuyler's name and fame doubtless proved
an attraction superior to any of the other inducements. (Pages
336-344.) For the campaign of 1760 the Province raised its
usual quota of one thousand men, to whom the same bounty
of ^12 was promised, with other rewards, as in 1759. A com-
pany of Rangers was also sent with the Regiment, and the
troops did service at Oneida Lake. (Pages 425- 7, 438. 470, 474.)
Notwithstanding the great strain upon the resources of the
Province caused by these efforts for four years in succession,
the Assembly voted in 1761 to raise six hundred effective men
for service on the Canadian border. (Pages 560, 574, 581)
These "Jersey Blues" were thus clad: "Their Uniform blue,
faced with red, grey Stockings and Buckskin Breeches." (Page
219.) The gallantry and bravery of these men, the skill of
their noble commanders, Col. John Parker, Col. John Johnston,
and particularly the chivalry and princely generosity of Colonel
Peter Schuyler, spread abroad the fame of New Jersey's splen-
did soldiery. Nor were these heroic sacrifices without a reflex
action upon the citizens at home. The stirring events of those
days, when the American people learned that they were able
to protect themselves, by the prowess of their own arms, often
in despite of blunders of British Generals and statesmen, make
interesting reading, especially when gleaned from the contem-
porary newspaper reports, with their inevitable errors. The
varying fortunes of the war are indicated also in the proclama-
tions of the Governors of New Jersey from time to time ap-
pointing alternately days of fasting and then of thanksgiving:
as Thursday, April 22, 1756 — "A day of solemn humiliation
and fasting and prayer in view of disaster and threatened dan-
gers." (P. 20.) Friday, June 9, 1758 — "as a day of fasting
and publick prayer." (Page 214.) Thursday, December 7,
1758 — "as a Day of publick Thanksgiving." (P. 298.) Friday,
March 30, 1759 — "a Day of Fasting and Humiliation." (P.


337.) Thursday, November 22, 1759 — "as a day of thanks-
giving," on account of the capture of Quebec. (P. 388.) Fri-
day, April 25, 1760 — "a Day of Fasting and Humiliation."
(P. 427.) Friday, October 24, 1760 — ''as a Day of Publick
Thanksgiving to Almighty God, for the late glorious Successes
of His Majesty's Arms in the Conquest of Canada." (P. 495.)

Nor was the war confined to the land. French cruisers
continually hovered off the New Jersey coast, committing dep-
redations on British commerce. This stimulated privateering
among the seafaring men and merchants, who occasionally
captured worthy prizes. A privateer was built at Elizabeth-
town, and probably the Monmouth and Burlington seaports
fitted out others,' and the hardy whalefishers at Cape May
could scarcely have been behind in this alluring pursuit.

An instance of the demoralizing effect of the war is seen in
the numerous advertisements of deserters — young men who
had been persuaded to "drink to His Majesty," and repented
when sober. It is frequently conjectured, also, in the adver-
tisements of runaway servants and apprentices, that they had
enlisted, or "gone a-privateering," which was probably the

Important changes in the government of the Province oc-
curred in the six years (1756-1761) covered by this volume. The
zealous and tactful Gov. Jonathan Belcher was succeeded on
his death in 1758 by President John Reading, until the arrival
of Lieutenant Governor Thomas Pownal, who was superseded
in the same year by the appointment of Governor Francis Ber-
nard, who being transferred to Massachusetts in 1760, gave
way to Gov. Thomas Boone. The latter was in 1761 sent to
South Carolina, and was succeeded in New Jersey by the
amiable Gov. Josiah Hardy. In January of the same year
George the Third was proclaimed King at Perth Amboy and
at Elizabethtown. Both cities were ready to spurn his author-
ity fifteen years later.

The Province received a new Chief Justice in the person of
William Aynsley, in the spring of 1758, whose untimely demise
in the following July made opportunity for the appointment
of Nathaniel Jones, who by an ingenious legal quibble was
deliberately excluded from an office which the leading men of


the Province concluded he could not dignify. The story —
related in extenso in this volume, in text and notes — is one
of the most curious episodes in the history of our Provincial

The College of New Jersey, now firmly established at
Princeton, is attracting wide attention, the newspapers of the
day chronicling details of the annual commencements, the
deaths of Presidents Aaron Burr, Jonathan Edwards and
Samuel Davies, and the choice of the Rev. Samuel Finley to
succeed that illustrious trio. Much free advertising is given
also to the lottery for the benefit of the College, "as tending
to advance Religion and useful Learning."

Lotteries, indeed, seem to have experienced an extensive
revival. We have advertisements of these schemes for a wide
variety of objects, but principally in behalf of churches, as for
the Lutheran church at Bedminster, the English church at
New Brunswick, a new English church at Second River (now
Belleville), the Morristown Presbyterian church, the Bound
Brook Presbyterian church, St. John's church, Elizabethtown,
the Lutheran church at Hackensack, the Parsippany Presby-
terian church, and the Acquackanonk Reformed Dutch church.
Also for the disposal of books and scientific apparatus, and
for the relief of individuals. An important public object
advanced by this questionable method was the erection of a
lighthouse at Sandy Hook, by the merchants of New York.

Another lottery with a worthy motive was for the purpose
of raising money to purchase the title of the Indians to lands
in New Jersey. Interesting details are given in these pages
of the treaty councils held by Gov. Bernard with the Indians
at Easton, in 1758, when they relinquished their claims to the
soil of New Jersey. Incidentally, light is thrown on the rela-
tions of the whites and the Indians, a price being offered for
the scalps of the latter at one time, when the white settle-
ments were being ravaged by the aborigines, the result being
that the inherent spirit of savagery in some of the palefaces was
manifested in a manner to shock the authorities. It seems
incongruous that the wild, free sons of the forest should ever
have worn the shackles of slavery, and it is with satisfaction
that we read of the escape of an Indian slave, "about 30 years


of age, a little slim fellow, about 4 feet 4 or 5 inches high,
short thick hair, which was cut off last fall."

As is always the case where there is a class deprived of
equal rights before the law, we read in these newspaper
extracts of occasional rumors of threatened servile insurrec-
tions, indicating the uneasiness accompanying the existence of
slavery, even in the mild form in which that barbarous system
prevailed in New Jersey. It was one of the penalties paid by
the "superior" race as the price of its supremacy. There is
but one instance mentioned of a slave who was branded. It
is pleasant to learn that the branding was not done in New

The numerous advertisements of runaway servants show
the increasing restlessness of that class, and their natural
desire to better their condition As already intimated, the
constant calls for volunteers for the expeditions against the
French in Canada, and the excitement caused by the wars,
had much to do with inducing the breaking of their indentures
by many of the adventurers who had made their way to the
new country as bound servants That they were not ill-
treated, at least in the matter of raiment, appears from the
descriptions given of some of the fugitives. Witness the
runaway servant (page 73) who was attired in "a linsey wool-
sey coat, and brown jacket, a pair of duckbill shoes, square
brass buckles, and a good felt hat." Or the apprentice lad
who had on "a blue Broad cloth Coat and Jacket, fustian
Breeches, and a Pair of wide Checked Trousers over them,
and a Beaver Hat." Fancy the picture of the fellow with "red
duffel watchcoat, with brass buttons, halfworn sheepskin
breeches, grey woollen stockings " Or the Dutch (German is
probably meant) servant man wearing "a pair of Indian mock-
osens with buckles in them." Or the runaway negro garbed in
a "plain made bearskin coat, with flat metal buttons, a white
woollen vest ; wool hat and cap, brown tow shirt, buckskin
breeches, wool stockings, a pair of pumps with large brass buck-
les; he was branded when a boy, in Jamaica, in the West Indies,
on his left shoulder blade, plays on the fiddle." (P. 23.) They
were a careless lot — "a great taker of snuff, and very apt to
get drunk," describes one of them ; "a prodigal like fellow,"


was another : "a very impertinent talkative fellow, very apt to
get drunk, when he can get liquor" (p. 342); "somewhat down
looking;" "wears a bearskin camblet made sailor fashion."
They had a love of adventure, which made ordinary toil
irksome, and so we frequently read of runaway servants, and
especially of apprentices, that they were "supposed to have
gone a privateering." Here is a whole volume of adventure
compressed in the description of another runaway servant:
"Was bred in Cork, served his time in Philadelphia to a ship
carpenter; pretends to know something of sawing with a whip
saw ; has been a privateering and in the army; taught school,
in the Highlands of York, ran away, taught school again in
Salem county, ran away from his bail, took a horse with him,
forged an order on Capt. Coxe in Philadelphia, and got some
money, was put in York Goal, then in Salem goal, and then
became an indentured servant, and ran away again, can play
the flute, and is supposed to have gone to New York." (Page
132.) There must have been a story about Redmond Magre,
who might have came from the ball room rather than the
Trenton "Goal." He was "about 22 Years of Age, fair Com-
plexion, down Look, with light Hair: had on a blue Coat and
Breeches, the Coat trimmed with Gold Cord, and the Breeches
with Gold Lace at the Knees, a Buff colored Jacket, with
Gold Button holes, black or blue Stockings, and a halfvvorn
Hat." (P. 409.)

The women had the fondness of their sex for finery, which
sometimes resulted in such incongruities as a black silk bonnet
on a barefooted runaway servant girl, who also had on a "blue
calimanco gown and striped linsey petticoat." Less attractive
was the garb of another sixteen-year-old girl: "a short striped
blue and white Linen Gown, a striped Lincey Petticoat, a
coarse Tow Apron, a Pair of old blue Stockings, an old Pair
of Pumps, and an old white Bermuda Hat," (P. 466.) It is
not to be wondered at that she ran away. A young Irish
woman who made off with her lover was clad in " a striped
linsey gown and petticoat, a straw hat, homespun linen shift
and a pair of old damask shoes." (P. 61.) Another who fled
with a young man wore a "bluish flower'd silk gown."

The descriptions of lands and buildings for sale seem to


indicate even in these early days a disposition to forsake the
farm for the town, and to engage in trade : an adventurous
spirit leading men to seek new locations and new pursuits.
They throw light, too, upon the increasing prosperity of the
people, shown by the improved character of the farms, with
good dwelling houses, and excellent orchards of apple, cherry
and peach trees. Sometimes we read of "a good log house,"
but more frequently it is a "large two story stone house, with
two rooms on the lower floor and three rooms on the upper
floor;" "an exceeding good dwelling house, with a piazza of
twelve feet wide, around the house, also four large rooms on a
floor, with a commodious and spacious entry of twelve foot
wide, with eight fire places, about 800 apple trees thereon of
exceeding good fruit for cider ;" or "a good dwelling house
with three fireplaces, sash windows "

More attention is paid to the wants of travelers, who now
have two routes between Philadelphia and New York in con-
venient " Flying Stages " and " Stage Boats." The taverns on
the way are more numerous, and some of them have such pic-
turesque signs as the "Highlander on Horseback," "Nag's
Head," "Sign of Hudibras," "Death of the Fox," and the
"White Hart."

The numerous mentions of iron mines and iron works show
that there has been a remarkable development of that indus-
try, especially in Northern New Jersey, in the present Morris,
Passaic, Sussex and Warren counties.

There is an increasing demand for schools and schoolmas-
ters, and the career of the drunken, ignorant wieMer of the
ferule, who moreover was apt to run away, is about to be
checked by the new requirement that schoolmasters must be
examined and licensed.

It is creditable to the prevalent state of society that the
reports of crimes are so comparatively few. Horse stealing
and jail breaking are by far the most numerous offences.
Perhaps the horse races at Elizabethtown and Perth Amboy
excited an undue emulation on the part of some of the impe-
cunious spectators to possess fast steeds of their own.

A glance through the forty-six pages of index at the end
of the book will show that there is an exceeding variety of


subjects not touched upon in this preface, but which are full
of interest.

The biographical and genealogical notes are more nurae-
rousand much fuller than in some of the preceding volumes
of this series.

A History of Printing and Printers in New Jersey, prior to
1801, intended for this volume, is necessarily deferred, but will
probably appear with Volume XXIII., the next in the series
of Newspaper Extracts relating to New Jersey.

Newspaper Extracts.

Custom-House, Philadelphia. Cleared, Schooner
Sparrow, Zachariah Marston to Salem.

Philadelphia, January 15, 1756.
By virtue of a writ to me directed will be exposed to
sale, by publick vendue, about ten o'clock, on the seven-
teenth of March next, A plantation, containing- about
225 acres (part thereof will make good meadow) with a
good dwelling-house and barn, and a young orchard,
about two miles from Mount Holly, in West-New-Jer-
sey, now in possession of Daniel Packer, taken in execu-
tion by

William Smith, Sheriff.

N. B. The sale to be held on the premises, and one
year's credit given, provided the purchaser gives good
security, and pays lawful interest for the same. — The
Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 1 412, January 15, 1756.

To be Sold.

The several tracts of land and premises, lying and
being in the western division of the province of New
Jersey, viz. One plantation in Kingswood, in the
county of Hunterdon, at the south branch of Rariton
river, containing 800 and odd acres of good land, well
watered and timbered, upwards of 200 cleared, near 70
acres of good meadow under clover and timothy and
other valuable grass; there are about 20 acres more may
be cleared and watered with ease; a thriving orchard and


buildings; the dwelling- house is pleasantly situated by
the river, with a line prospect of a large meadow on
each side; there are several other buildings on the prem-
ises at a very publick place, where two great roads di-
vide, one leading to Trenton and the several ferries into
Pennsylvania, the other to Rariton landing and New
York; there are rents issuing out of that place of about
Thirty Pounds per annum, and capable of great im-
provements: The said plantation and meadows may
be conveniently divided into two very good farms. One
other tract of land in the county of Sussex, containing
about thirteen hundred acres situated and lying at Po-
hatkonk creek, with a great quantity of meadow
ground; there arc four tenements and plantations there-
on, now in the tenure of Joseph Hornbecker and others.
One other tract about 300 acres of land, lying be-
tween the Oxford furnace and the river Delaware,
about three miles from the said river; and also the one
undivided fourth part of the Oxford furnace, with all
the lands, plantations and improvements thereunto be-
longing, containing upwards of 4000 acres, together
with the several Negroes, horses, oxen, cattle, teams,
stock and utensils whatsoever thereunto belonging; the
furnace and ore are known to be very good, as also the
two third parts of the change water forge, with about
fourteen hundred acres of land, very well timbered; the
forge stands on Muskoneckonk creek, a large and con-
stant stream, not subject to frost or drouth (the works
are allowed by the forge men, who have been much
amongst iron-works, to be the best they have seen)
with a saw-mill and several other Buildings to accom-
modate the workmen, together with horses, carriages,
stock and utensils thereunto belonging; the forge is


about 5 miles from the Furnace, and in the way to mar-
ket, either to Philadelphia or New York, the distance
and price of carriage of the iron is about the same. Any
person or persons that may incline to purchase the prem-
ises, or any part thereof, may, by applying to the sub-
scriber, at Kingswood aforesaid, be informed of the
terms of sale, and payments made easy, by

Jonathan Robeson.
— The Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 14 14, January 29,

This is to give notice to all soldiers belonging to Col.
Schuyler's regiment, to repair to their several compan-
ies immediately; otherwise they will be treated as de-
serters: And all those that have deserted from said reg-
iment, if they repair to their respective companies, on
or before the 20th day of February inst. they shall be


Peter Schuyler.

— The New York Mercury, February 2, 1756.

Chester, January 24, 1756.
Taken up as runaways and now in Chester goal, one
John Bryan, says, he was born in the county of Cork in
Ireland, has been almost two years in the country,

bought by one James White The other

named John Peter Overton, says he is a freeman, and
served his Time to one William Foster, of Evesham
township. Burlington county, in the Jerseys: These are
therefore to desire the said James White and William
Foster, if they have any demands against the above, or
any other person that has, to come in live weeks from


the elate hereof, otherwise they will be discharged, pav-
ing their charges.

Samuel Smith, Goaler.

To he Sold.

By the subscriber, living in Morris Town, in the coun-
ty of Burlington, in West-Jersey,

A commodious new brick house, two story high, with
three rooms on a floor, a good kitchen, stable and other
conveniences; the whole well finished, with a large yard,
and a good wharff at the end thereof, where flats or
other vessels of burthen may load or unload their car-
goes, situate in the most populous part of Bridge-town,
commonly called Mount holly, in the county aforesaid,
very convenient for a merchant or shop-keeper, and has
been used in that way ever since it was built. Also
about three acres of good clover meadow, near said
premises, belonging to the estate of Benjamin Bispham,
deceased. The title is indisputable. For terms, enquire

Joshua Bispham, Executor
— The Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 141 5, Feb. 5, 1756.

NEW-YORK, February 9.

Saturday last his Majesty's Ship the Nightingale,
Dudley Diggs, Esq; Commander, sailed from Sandy-
Hook for England; with whom the Hon. Thomas Pow-
nall. Esq; Lieutenant-Governor of the Jerseys, went
Passenger. — The New York Mercury, February 9, 1756.

We hear that his Excellency, General Shirley has gen-
erously made a present of Fifty Pounds to the New-
Jersey Colledge.


Just published and to be sold by the Printer.

A Treaty between the Government of New Jersey
and the Indians, Inhabiting- the several Parts of the said
Province, held at Croswicks, in the County of Burling-
ton on Thursday and Friday the eighth and ninth Day
of January, 1756. — The Pennsylvania Journal, No. 688,
February 12, 1756.

Whereas some time in the month of September, in the
year 1753, Elizabeth Matrar, of Penn's neck, Salem
county, in New Jersey, obtained an obligation of me the
subscriber of' the same place, for the sum of Two Hun-
dred Pounds, conditioned for the payment of One Hun-
dred Pounds, and has since assigned the same over to
one Casper Little, with whom she afterwards intermar-
ried; but long before the assignment and intermarriage,
I have fully paid off the said obligation, of which I give
the publick this notice that they may not be imposed
upon by a further assignment of the said obligation,
which I am informed they have already attempted, for
I will not pay any money upon it.

Feb. 10, 1756. John Redstreake.

— The Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 1417, February 19,

To be Sold.

A tract of land, about four miles from New-Bruns-
wick, being the first landing on South River, containing
1,000 acres, 150 of which is fresh meadow, with two
dwelling-houses, one barn, and two orchards; one of
which contains 200 apple trees, and the other 150, all
choice fruit, and many other conveniences. Whoever


inclines to purchase the same, may apply to Air. John
Van Nordy, in New-Brunswick, or to the owner, Peter
Pra Van Zandt, in New- York, by whom an undisput-
able title will be given.

To be Sold.

A plantation, at Hanover, in Morris County, New-

Online LibraryWilliam NelsonExtracts from American newspapers → online text (page 1 of 55)