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teachers responsible; while still others appoint a social service
committee which seeks to direct every class in the selection of some
suitable form of endeavor. The technique of one school was
described as follows :

Our social ideals begin and go out from the home. We are a large home
group together; the importance of home is emphasized as a place for loving
works of service. The city is a larger home, the nation, and the world, all
growing out of the thought that we are at home best of all in the heart of God.
We strive to avoid testing too pointedly for the "daily good turn," in order not
to give the idea of acquiring merit and praise merely from such acts. Our
school flag bears a seal representing the character of Christ as founded on
relationships suggested in his confession, "I must be about my Father's busi-
ness." We build on this as the best social-service motto. It represents the
duty, reason, love, and opportunity of life.

A third form of organization is the completely graded program
of social service. This is the ideal, and must ultimately become
the universal, form of organization. It places the expressive
activities on the same plane as the other educational factors. It
recognizes the necessity of making sure that all the classes are
enlisted in some form of worthy endeavor, adapted to their age
and capacity, arranged in orderly and progressive sequence, and
correlated with the instructional and devotional elements so as to
present a vital and essential unity. A subsequent chapter will
be devoted to such programs.

§ 4. AFFILIATED

To the fourth general type belong the Sunday schools whose
social service is carried on through societies affiliated with their



GRADED SOCIAL SERVICE 85

respective departments. Each department has its corresponding
society and all the social activities of the department, recreational
or philanthropic, are under the direction of the society. The
organization of one school will illustrate the method:

Wee Folks' Band, kindergarten and primary.

Lend-A-Hand Society, boys and girls, eight to fourteen years of age.

Boys Scouts, twelve to fifteen years of age.

Camp Fire Girls, twelve to sixteen years of age.

Messenger Cadets, fourteen to eighteen years of age.

Young People's Alliance, eighteen to twenty-four years of age.

The advantages of this method are obvious. It secures a
simple and effective organization for the expressive activities. It
defines the specific function of the young people's societies and
indicates their relation to the Sunday school. It provides more
adequate time for discussing and planning social service than the
regular sessions of the class allow. It fosters the inspiration and
enthusiasm which belong to larger groups.

There are, however, objections to this plan. In a small school
to duplicate each department with a corresponding society would
crush the school with the weight of its machinery. Teachers
place a large emphasis on the unifying power which social service
exerts over the class. With a society, which is not an integral part
of the school, and which may not include all the class as the rally-
ing center, this value is largely lost and the development of a class
esprit de corps is made more difficult. The necessity of correlating
social service with instruction also declares against the trans-
ference of its welfare efforts from the immediate control of the
class. Social service is an expressive activity. That is its function
and therein is its value. But to perform that function and carry
that value it must be so presented and given such a setting that those
who engage in its activities regard them as the natural and fitting
expression of the truths which they have made their own.

§ 5. PERSONAL

Some Sunday schools confine themselves to personal service
and eliminate social service in the form of gifts. Where this
distinction obtains gifts are made by the school only at Thanks-



86 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

giving and Christmas. Two forms of personal service, performed
by a school of this type, seem significant enough to mention :

A Craft Gild

The program of this gild is set forth in the following announcement:

Cooking. — Excellent and practical recipes taught by an experienced
domestic-science teacher. All materials provided.

Dressmaking. — You can bring materials for a dress or waist, cut it out, make
and fit it yourself with the help of an expert dressmaker.

Plain sewing. — Undergarments, aprons, and children's clothing are being
made in this class. Machines are ready for your use. Mending is also taught.

Embroidery. — French embroidery, eyelet work, punch work, cross-stitch,
knitting, and Irish crocheting are taught.

Art. — An interesting class in sketching, designing, and lettering.

Millinery. — The teacher of this class will help you make and trim a hat
for yourself or trim over an old one.

Music. — The choral club is studying two-part songs. They have made
one public appearance and expect to appear again soon. A limited number of
private twenty-minute lessons on the piano are given.

Story-telling. — This course teaches how to tell stories, what stories to tell,
and to whom.

English literature. — A study of a few of our English classics, as well as some
practice in letter-writing.

Gymnastics. — Various forms of Delsarte, breathing work, Indian clubs, etc.,
are being taken up in this class.

Come Next Monday Night

We have a branch of the Public Library, magazines, and games, a pleasant
place to spend the evening if you don't want class work. Every Monday night
at 9:00 there is a short program of music or an interesting talk and then a
good social time over a cup of hot chocolate. This is all free, but 5 cents is
charged for lessons in classes. All young women will receive a hearty welcome.
The craft gild is for you.

Every week three hundred and fifty young women take advan-
tage of the privileges which the gild affords. Responsibility for
the management of this gild has been assumed by a young women's
class with a membership of forty. Only two paid workers are
employed by the gild, the others are supplied from or by the class.
The program which follows the classes is also furnished by them.
The members of the class attend the gild, cultivate the friend-
ship of the young women present, invite them to their class, and



GRADED SOCIAL SERVICE 87

find opportunity for the kindly personal relationships which such
intimacy always affords.

A second piece of personal service worthy of mention is that
rendered by the mass club of this same church. The distinguishing
characteristic of a mass club is well stated by Professor Fiske : "The
mass club is wholesale work with boys, the group is retail work.
The former is inclusive, democratic, free from castes or creedal
tests. The latter is exclusive, reflective, homogeneous, and includes
boys of the same age." The boys of this church were organized into
a mass club. "Work for boys by boys" was their slogan, and
they were scouring the community and bringing into their club
boys of all nationalities and every social position. Great differ-
ence of opinion prevails respecting the relative value of the mass
club and the group club. Into this discussion we need not enter.
All will agree that the boy who is trained to work for other boys,
whether in a mass club or in a group club, will know better how to
live with them and will more readily find and fill his useful place in
life.

§ 6. GIFTS

The sixth type appears in those schools which restrict them-
selves to gifts, mostly money, and refrain from personal service.
Excellent service is being done by some schools which have adopted
this type. Their work is well organized, and their classes are mak-
ing regular contributions to a wide range of institutions with which
they are intelligently in touch. Their social spirit is marked,
the young people are well informed regarding the philanthropic
agencies and institutions of the city, and their offerings are generous.
The giving of money, however, is a difiicult form of effort by which
to mediate the socializing process. With most children a gift of
money is not their gift at all, and represents no socializing values.
Giving money requires no immediate contact between the givers and
the recipients. Such contact, of course, is not necessary, for social
experience is a product of social imagination, and where there is
social imagination there will be imaginative if not physical contact.
Giving money, however, does not lend itself so readily to producing
social imagination as other forms of effort, and where it alone obtains
there is danger lest the group fail to realize the values of social



88 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

service. Probably one of the best ways by which to mediate the
socializing process through money-giving is to engender and direct
discussion and then commit the givers to a selection of the objects
of their gifts.

The feature of primary importance in social service is not the
system by which it is carried on, but the assertion of the social
spirit, with its quick appreciation of the distinction between social
service and charity work. Yet even if the attitude and spirit of
the workers leave nothing to be desired, a better service will be
rendered if the method of procedure be worthy the spiritual end of
the task.



CHAPTER IV



SIGNIFICANT PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL SERVICE

The purpose of this chapter is to give a few completely graded
programs of social service. As far as possible the technique is
included with the program. As these programs are actually in use,
they indicate what can be done, and may be useful as a guide to
other schools in the formation of a program suitable to their
opportunity.

§ I. CHRIST CHURCH, CHICAGO
Training Children to Serve



Class


Working For


Form of Work


Bible class (Young


Visiting Nurses' Associa-


Visiting shut-ins


men)


tion




Young ladies


Visiting Nurses' Associa-
tion

Visiting Nurses' Associa-
tion

Visiting Nurses' Associa-


Tearing bandages


Postgraduate


Tearing bandages


Teacher training


Visiting shut-ins; tearing bandages


class


tion




High school III. ..


Juvenile Protective Asso-


Gi\ing a play to raise money to help




ciation


a girl or boy in school


HighschoolIII...


Juvenile Protective Asso-


Giving a play to raise money to help




ciation


a girl or boy in school


High school II ... .


Junior Auxiliary


Organizing the society in the church
and carrying on its work


High school II ... .


Junior Au.xiliary


Organizing the society in the church
and carrying on its work


High school II ... .


Junior Auxiliary


Organizing the society in the church
and carrying on its work


High school II ... .


United Charities of


Various kindnesses suggested by the




Chicago


Charities workers; sharing boys'
magazines, etc.


High school I


United Charities of


Various kindnesses suggested by the




Chicago


Charities workers; sharing boys'
magazines, etc.


Grade 8


Chicago Home for the


Making garments according to
samples furnished




Friendless


Grade 8


Chicago Home for the
Friendless


Home-made games; home-made
candy




Grade 7


St. Mary's Home for


Making scrapbooks; sewing simple




Children


articles


Grade 7


St. Mary's Home for
Children


Making scrapbooks; sewing simple
articles




Grade 7


Chicago Home for Boys


Home-made games; home-made

candy
Home-made games; home-made


Grade 6


Chicago Home for Boys






candy



89



90



THE BIBLICAL WORLD



Training Children to Serve — Continued



Class


Working For


Form of Work


Grade 6


Children's Hospital work,
St. Luke's, Cook Co.

Children's Hospital work,
St. Luke's, Cook Co.

Woman's Auxiliary (ele-
mentary. Sunshine
Workers) home and
foreign missions

Assist. Sunshine Workers

Assist. Sunshine Workers
Assist. Sunshine Workers

Parish, diocesan, and for-
eign missions

Parish, diocesan, and for-
eign missions

Woman's Auxiliary, Sun-
shine Workers, foreign
and home missions

Woman's Auxiliary, Sun-
shine Workers, foreign
and home missions

Alaska, Japanese, and
Home missions

Boys' Home, Girls' Home,

St. Mary's Orphanage

of Holy Child
Boys' Home, Girls' Home,

St. Mary's Orphanage

of Holy ChUd
Parish missions; Sunday

school Home; St.

David's
Parish missions; Sunday

school Home; St.

David's
Parish missions; Sunday

school Home, St.

David's


Making surprise bags, dressing dolls,

bedroom slippers
Making surprise bags, dressing dolls,

bedroom slippers
Sewing; housekeepers; quilting for

Providence Nursery; screens

Carpenter work; screens, quilting

frames; raising money
Carpenter work; screens, quilting

frames; raising money
Sewing; housekeepers; quilting;

scrapbooks f or contagious patients;

Alaska missions
Raising money to buy materials, etc.;

selling magazines, etc.; caring for

prayer-books and hymnals
Raising money to buy materials, etc.;

selling magazines, etc.; caring for

prayer-books and hymnals
Sewing; housekeepers; scrapbooks

for shut-ins to send to Alaska

Sewing; housekeepers; scrapbooks
for shut-ins to send to Alaska

Helping some child in each place;


Grade 6


Grade "j


Grade 5


Grade 5


Grade 4


Grade 4


Grade 4


Grade 3

Grade 3

Grade ^


Grade 2


parish activities — errands, circu-
lating petitions
Raise money, or bring things to help
some individual child in the home

Raise money, or bring things to help
some individual child in the home

Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.;


Grade 2

Grade i


Grade i


mail lessons to shut-ins; corre-
spondence school

Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.;
mail lessons to shut-ins; corre-
spondence school

Ministering to sick; flowers, etc.;
mail lessons to shut-ins; corre-
spondence school


Kindergarten



The regular work of visiting sick classmates and looking up
absentees is not included in this outline, for that is a part of the
work of the entire school. For the same reason no mention is
made of the Thanksgiving and Christmas baskets and gifts. The
purpose of the plan is thus stated:



GRADED SOCIAL SERVICE 91

I. To systematize the activities of the school and to assist each class in
selecting definite work adapted to the capacity of its members.

2. To make an impression strong, definite, and lasting of at least one
of the good social agencies each year.

3. To arouse a genuine social spirit in our young people based upon the
desire to put into daily operation the fruit of their Christian knowledge.

4. To assist busy teachers in securing a worthy and interesting purpose for
their outside class meetings and to develop in the pupils a wholesome class
spirit while they work together for the good of others.

The work is in charge of a secretary of activities v^ho meets,
from time to time, the groups and grades doing the same w^ork, to
stimulate their interest and to discover the problems which have
arisen. A special effort is made to obtain representatives of the
various organizations and societies to visit the school and present
their work. Short talks are given, circulars of information espe-
cially prepared are distributed, and interesting pictures illustrating
philanthropic enterprises and cut from annual reports are mounted
on large cards and circulated among the classes. As a concrete
illustration of one feature of their educational method we insert
one of the circulars of information.

The United Charities

1. What it is:

Society for organizing the charities of Chicago, and reHef society.

2. When founded:

In March, 1908, the Relief and Aid Society, organized and chartered in
1851, amalgamated with the Bureau of Charities, founded in 1893, and took
the new name "United Charities of Chicago."

3. Purpose:

To provide for dependent families, in their homes, such personal service
and relief service as will help them toward permanent self-support.

4. How supported :

By private subscription.

5. Number of workers in Chicago and general methods of work:

One hundred and fifty workers, nine district ofiicers, one general ofiice.
Personal investigation and supervision of all applications for help. Regis-
tration Bureau a clearing-center for all social agencies in Chicago.

6. Number of inmates, or estimate of number of people reached annually:
Last year, October, 1911-October, 191 2, the Society helped 80,000 persons,
in 18,889 families.

7. Does it exist in other cities than Chicago?
Yes.



92 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

8. Greatest need of the organization at the present time:

Informed and thinking friends willing to serve the society and the poor in
lines of personal service and money service.

9. How young people of Chicago can help the work:

a) Personal service: Friendly visiting, clerical work in district office, accom-
pany patients to clinics and friends of patients to visit them at Hospital,
House of Correction, etc., tutor backward children, find proper work for
fourteen- or fifteen-year-old child, take children to park or for regular
fresh-air walk.

b) Relief: Material or money. Supply milk for underfed and tubercular
children, clothing for children, especially shoes, stockings, underclothing,
night clothing, etc. Assist visiting housekeeper by making fireless
cookers, furnishing kitchen utensils, extra bedding, face towels, tea
towels, brooms, closet and cupboard fixtures, etc.

An essential part of the plan is the report which must be made
to the secretary of activities. This report makes it possible to keep
a permanent record of all the endeavors of the school and to pre-
vent any work being neglected through omission or oversight.
Some four months after the program was inaugurated the following
report appeared in the church calendar:

Training the CraLDREN to Serve

Some weeks ago we published our schedule of activities, by means of
which we are training our boys and girls of the school of religious education to
put into practical operation the good principles they learn from their books and
teachers. A good deal of real work has been done. A definite work is assigned
to each grade in the school.

Some things accomplished are these: The third -year high-school pupils
gave a play by which they earned money to help the Juvenile Protective Asso-
ciation. The first- and second-year high-school grades have sent a box of gifts
to an orphanage and are at work preparing a "Quarter Bazaar" for the benefit
of a girls' school in the South. The boys of these grades have assisted the
United Charities, and some of them are mailing their books and magazines to
other boys. They have also made some fireless cookers for some of the pen-
sioned families of the district. The eighth-grade boys have made popcorn balls
and candy and have taken it to the Home for the Friendless. The seventh-
grade girls have made scrapbooks and dressed dolls for the children at St.
Mary's Home. The sixth- and seventh-grade boys have taken bundles of
clothing to the Home for Boys. The sixth-grade girls have made little surprise
bags, bedroom slippers, and paper dolls for the children of Cook County and
St. Luke's hospitals. Throughout the entire school, and particularly in the
junior and primary departments, special works of kindness are being done for



GRADED SOCIAL SERVICE 93

absent members of the classes, such as visiting them when sick, carrying
flowers, etc. At Thanksgiving and Christmas the boys and girls co-operated
actively in providing baskets of provisions, games, books, etc., for needy people.
A jolly Christmas party of children brought in by the United Charities workers
was entertained by the Girls' Club during the holidays.

This very brief report will show how directly the children are learning to
take an active interest in others, and to share gladly with them as well as to
do personal acts of kindness for them. They are learning the meaning of the
words, "Inasmuch as you have done it unto one of the least of these, my
brethren, you have done it unto me."

While Kttle more than a summary, this is an exceedingly valuable
report, for it shows how completely the program of the school was
carried out and establishes the feasibility of making social service
a regular feature in the program of a school.

§ 2. HYDE PARK BAPTIST CHURCH, CHICAGO

The technique of this school is quite different. With a graded
program as its ideal and a full desire for its realization, instead of
assigning special tasks it has encouraged each class to discover its
own work and develop its own program. Suggestion and direction
are not excluded. But no definite Hne of endeavor is laid down and
the work of one class is not specifically related to the others. A
detailed description of the social service of this school is hardly
necessary, as it is largely made up of the usual forms of work for
families and institutions. As the work of the kindergarten, how-
ever, is of a high order, and as many find it difficult to select tasks
for the Uttle folks, it may be well to describe this work somewhat
fully.

One of the impressive features in this kindergarten is the effort
which is made to relate the activities of the children with the
instruction which is given, and behind all the gifts they make for
others and the little services which they do for one another there is
a carefully thought out course of teaching which leads gradually
and yet decidedly to the tasks which they undertake. We shall
begin with the seasons, and the first is:

Thanksgiving.— About six weeks are required to lead up nicely
to Thanksgiving, and so for the six Sundays preceding Thanks-
giving all the talks are planned in harmony with the ultimate end.



94 THE BIBLICAL WORLD

The aim is to develop a spirit of gratitude which will express itself
in giving. Much is made of Thanksgiving as the close of the
harvest season. Then from this general thought of the harvest
time a skilful transition is made to our individual and family
preparations for the coming winter. The children are asked," What
is mother making and putting away for the winter?" Then the
suggestion is made, "Suppose each of us brings something that we
have stored away for the winter so that we may see what a lot of
things we have." Then a specific article is named and each child
is given a note to take home which explains the plan. When the
articles are brought together still another effort is made to deepen
the sense of gratitude. Then comes the suggestion, "Suppose
we give these to some other people who have not as much as we
have." It is always put in this comparative way and great care
is exercised in the choice of words and in avoidance of class terms.
In this description we have only the bare bones of a plan that a
skilful teacher requires six weeks to develop.

Christmas. — At Christmas the emphasis is on the side of giving
and all the lessons are intended to bring out with increasing clear-
ness that Christmas means giving. Last Christmas the suggestion
of their giving was made in this form : "I know a place where they
are going to have a Christmas tree for a great many children —
let us help." Any questions that arise are answered with great
care and the need of help is explained in terms of their own expe-
rience.

Easter.— The interest of children in Easter is small. It is too
far away from children for them to celebrate and it is not possible
to make a climax here with little children as at Thanksgiving and
Christmas. This year bulbs were given to the little folks at the
appropriate time and they were asked to plant them and care for
them. Then on Palm Sunday reference was made to these bulbs,
the coming Easter Sunday was spoken of, the children were told that
all the churches were to be decorated with flowers, and they were
asked to bring their flowering bulbs.

Children's Day. — Children's Day was preceded by a number of
talks about the church. The first talk was about the room itself;
its largeness — there was room for all the people. Then they talked



GRADED SOCIAL SERVICE 95

about the beautiful things they found there — the windows, the
organ, the desk. Then the talk passed to making the church
beautiful for a special day. Then all agreed to bring flowers —
cut flowers prove most successful — on Children's Day. The flowers
were afterward sent to a hospital for children.

In addition to these seasonal gifts the children are interested
in regular forms of benevolence and drop their pennies in four
boxes of different colors and designated by terms which the children
understand.


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Online LibraryWilliam Norman HutchinsSocial service in religious education by William Norman Hutchins → online text (page 3 of 8)