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tiques et Militaires du Roi Joseph. Paris, 1855. 10

Interesting, especially as regards the Spanish difficulties, and
the restiveness of Napoleon under his first real check.

Crequi, Souvenirs de la Marquise de. Paris, 1834. 7

vols., 8vo.

Unfortunately, the witty Marquise left no memoirs, and this
book, which at first seems so valuable, is a forgery throughout.
It is a sample of a class of memoirs made up by speculators and
attributed to noted personages, against which the student of
French history needs to be especially upon his guard.

Dangeau. Memoires. Paris, 1839. 4vols., 8vo. Trans-
lated and condensed into i vol., 8vo.
The easiest of reading, and while giving a relief to more

severe studies, useful in letting the student into the daily life of

the old monarchy.

DuMONT. Souvenirs sur Mirabeau et sur les deux Pre
miferes Assemblees Legislatives. Paris, 1832. 8vo.
This work, though it throws much light upon the boldest man

at the beginning of the Revolution, and upon the men and things

about him, no longer retains the relative importance it held when

Macaulay wrote his essay.

GuizoT. Memoirs to Illustrate the History of my

Time. London, 1858. 4 vols., 8vo.

Worth reading, of course, but will probably disappoint every
reader. Under the circumstances, it could hardly fail to de-
generate into a piece of special pleading, and it produces the
effect of a series of orations or sermons in which the personality
of the orator is much more important than the events discussed.

Mallet du Pan. Memoirs and Correspondence. Eng-
lish translation. London, 1852.

Mallet was a Swiss intriguer who put himself at the service of
the Reaction. In carrying out those secret intrigues, he found
out some things of use, and his revelations have a certain value

298 Appendix.


The collection of Berville and Barriere is very large, but by
no means complete. Besides these, those of Barere, Segur,
Fauche-Borel, Malouet, Lafayette and others, are important;
but the leading histories will best introdi-ce the reader to them.
The first part of those usually named in connection with the Na-
poleonic period, often throws much light on the later period of
the Revolution, Thus, Beugnot's Memoirs begin with the
Necklace affair, and Dumas' with the War of American Inde-
pendence. The space allotted to this appendix, forbids an ex-
tended catalogue.

Napoleon. Correspondence Publiee par Ordre de
L'Empereur Napoleon III. Paris, 1858. — vols., 8vo.
The first part throws great light on the period of the Directory.

Their value will be appreciated by any one who sees the use

made of them by Lanfrey.

Robespierre, St. Just, Payan, et al., Papiers In^dits
trouves chez Robespierre. Paris, 1828. 3 vols. 8vo.
The introductory report by Courtois, is simply a ferocious ora-
tion. The remainder is exceedingly important and interesting
as showing the wheels within wheels during the government, by
the Committee of Public Safety. Under the head "Guerin" will
be found secret reports of Robespierre's spies, upon his intimate
associates ; and some of them throw a flood of light over the
spirit of the Reign of Terror. I'hus, Vol. ist, Page 366, it is

reported, " People noticed that Legendre showed it/z/zz^z,'' * * *
and " spoke mysteriously " to a friend; and of Bourdon it is
reported that, in the Convention, " He gaped while good news
was announced."

St. Simon. Memoirs. Translated and abridged, by
Bayle St. John. London, 1857. 4 vols, post 8vo.
No other writer has given so living a picture of the social
condition which had its centre in the Courts of Louis XIV. and
Louis XV. ; but the original generally frightens away readers
by its length. This abridgement is well done, and brings the
whole within the leisure of a short vacation.

Veron, R. Memoires d'un Bourgeois de Paris. 5 vols.

8vo. 1853.

Veron was a bon-vivant, and man about town, and from the
Restoration to the culmination of the second Empire, mingled
with all ranks and parties, and had all persons worth knowing
at his table.

Appe7idix. 399


CoNDORCET, Rabaud St. Etienne and others. Chron-
ique de Paris. Paris, 1789-93. 9 vols. 4to.
A moderate republican Journal advocating a federal system.

Desmoulins, Camille. Le Vieux Cordelier.

For extracts from this very influential Dantonist newspaper —
a paper conducted in what is in these days known as the " sen-
sational style " — see memoirs of Desmoulins in Berville and
Barrieres' collection.

The Revolutions de France et de Brabant are also of im-

Hebert, Le P^re Duchesne. Paris, 1791 — 93. 11 vols.


Unutterably vile. The organ of a class never thoroughly un ■
(lerstood until the "Commune" of 1871.

Lavaux, Rousseau, Th,, and others. Journal de la
Montagne. Paris, 1793 — 5. 7 vols. 4to.
A newspaper thoroughly in the Jacobin interest.

Mallet du Pan, and others. Le Mercure, i772-'92.

Often cited, but of little value, as it expressed no convictions,
but represented mainly personal interests and grudges; hence
the reader in these days can never know what allowances or
corrections to make.

Marat. L'.Ami du Peuple. Paris, 1789 — 1793. 18

vols, small 4to.

The organ of Marat's blood-thirsty policy. The most vivid
descriptions of historians are poor compared with almost any
number of this Journal, taken at random.

MONITEUR. 1789-— 1868.

Although the publication of the Moniteur was not begun until
after some of the most important of the early events of the Revo-
lution, it must always remain the great repository of facts regard-
ing the modern history of France. Any person who has access
to it will find that even a few short studies upon it are of great
value. Nothing can give more vividness to one's knowledge of
the French Revolution than a rapid run over the issues on the
two or three days succeeding the downfall of Robespierre.
There are brought together first the timid mention of Robes-
pierre's arrest ; then the vigorous denunciations by Billaud, Var-
ennes, Tallien and Barere, — the account of the execution of

300 Appendix.

the Triumvirs, the long lists of those sent to the guillotine, in
eluding a large batch of aged widows, and, immediately follow-
ing one of these, the list of plays at the various theatres for the
same evening, followed by the burning of the paper money, &c.,
&c., &c.

MoNiTEUR, Analyse du. Paris, 1801. 5 vols., 4to.

This is the key to the Moniteur, being the index by persons
and subjects.

Pelletier, Rivarol and others. Les Actes des Apotres.

Paris, 1789-91. 10 vols., Svo.

A Royalist newspaper, full of wit. As an example of its
comments the following will suffice : " Six months ago Louis
was master of twenty-four millions of subjects, to-day he is the
sole subject of twenty-four millions of kings."

Prudhomme. Les Revolutions de Paris 1789-94. 17 vols.


A vigorous democratic newspaper ; its editor well acquainted
with events as they were developed.

Robespierre. La Defenseur de la Constitution.

Lasted but a short time during 1792. Valuable, but with far
less clearness and shrill force than his speeches.


Beaumarchais. La FoUe Journee ; ou le Mariage de

Figaro. Paris, 1785. i vol., 8vo.

This play is well worth rapid reading, in view of the ideas it
stimulated, and the stir it made at the beginning of the Revolu-

Bulletin du Tribunal Criminel. Paris, 1793. 6

vols., 4to.

One of the most important though one of the rarest documents
throwing light upon the proceedings of the terrible Tribunal.
The mere reading of two or three of these trials, which are gen-
erally very short, will greatly deepen the reality of the student's
knowledge of the period.

C * * ■*, Theophilanthropes, Manuel des. Paris, 1798.

I vol., i2mo.

This was the prayer-book of the sect of Deists which
attempted to give a new religion to France, toward the close of
the Revolution, but which encountered the truth enunciated by

Appendix. 301

Thiers, that " the only altars that are not ridiculous are old

The book has, as its frontispiece, the picture of a priest in
suitable robes, and contains prayers, hymns with music, cate-
chism and all that was apparently necessary for establishing a
new fomi of worship,

Challamel, Augustin. " Histoire Musee de la Repub-
lique Frangaise." 2 vols., 8vo. Paris, 1858.
A very useful and amusing collection of Engravings of Revo-
lutionary scenes, portraits, medals, caricatures, autographs, docu-
ments in facsimile, paper money of various issues, &c., &c.
The later editions are much more complete than the earlier; no
work easily accessible gives a more living idea of the daily play
of passions among the French people during the period which it
treats. Every day philosophy, poetry, fun and blackguardism
are faithfully reflected from it.

Challamel, A. Les Frangais sous La Revolution.

I vol., 8vo. Paris, N. d.

A review of well-drawn sketches of typical persons in the
Revolution, useful in clearing up our knowledge of the period.

Champfleury. Histoire des Faiences Patriotiques sous
la Revolution. Deuxieme edition. Paris, 1867. i2mo.
Text of little value, but interspersed with a large number of

engravings of the pottery of the period, which by its inscriptions

and designs throw much light upon popular conceptions of men

and events.

Cheruel, a. Dictionnaire Historique des Institutions
Mceurs et Coutumes de la France. Paris, 1855. 2 vols.,

An exceedingly helpful little work to a student, in any period
of French history, and especially in the Revolutionary period.
Such articles as " Feodalite," " Gabelle," " Parlement,"
" Taille," etc., though not exhaustive, carry one through the
difficult points very satisfactorily.

Collier, Admiral, Sir George. " France on the Eve
of the Great Revolution." i vol. London, 1865.
Collier passed a little time in France in 1773, and has left

some details, amusing, but of trifling value compared with those

of Arthur Young; and of little interest eompared with the

sketches in Mercier's " Nouveau Paris."

Constitutions DE France, 1791-1830. Paris, 1830. i2mo

302 Appendix.

One of many collections of the sort. For others more or less
complete, see Challamel, Tableaux de la Revolution, and other
similar works. Despite Burke and all who have since given us
dilutions of him, the Constitution of 1791 is well worth study,
and the ultra radicalism of that of 1793, the ultra conservatism
of that of 1795, and the singular expedients resorted to in those
made afterward, render them vforthy of attention.

Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. London.

Various editions.

With many variations from exactness, it sketches in a striking
way, some phases of society during the Revolution, as well as
before it.


Various historical novels, by these two writers ; several of them
translated. These delightful works well deserve their great suc-
cess. They cover a period beginning with the confusion before
the States-General in 1789, and continuing to the Plebiscite un-
der Napoleon III. Not only is the couleur locale admirably pre-
served, but the very spirit of those who took part in the events
is reproduced. Very striking examples of this are seen in the
pictures of the preparation of the Deputies for the States-Gene-
ral, in the expression of feeling by soldiers in the army of the
Republic, as compared with those in the armies of Napoleon,
and by the peasants who voted at the will of the leaders of the
Second Empire. No more delightful and profitable relief from
severe studies on the entire Revolutionary and Imperial periods
can be imagined.

GiLLRAY. Caricatures. London, i vol., large folio.

There is also a second edition, in which the plates are good
enough for the purposes of the historical student. The most
valuable, perhaps, of all things of the kind for exhibiting the
feelings of the English nation toward the French during the
Revolution. All the plates are interesting and valuable, but
those bearing upon the early part of the Napoleonic period are
perhaps most so. Probably most important of all, as showing
the culmination of English injustice toward the French Revolu-
tion, is the one which glorifies the atrocious murder of the French
envoys by the Austrian hussars at Rastadt.

There is a volume sold separately, for obvious reasons, which
has no great historical value.

Lahure. Histoire Populaire de France. .4 vols., 4to.
Paris, 1865.
Text worth little, but the wood-cuts are of that spirited sort

Appendix. 303

which none but the French can make, and which throw much
light over the history.

LiVRE Rouge or Red Book. Being a list of Secret
Pensions paid out of the Public Treasury of France.
London, 1790. i vol., 8vo.

This is a translation of one edition of the famous Livre Rouge
which, when brought into light, provoked such a bitter feeling
against the old monarchy. This English edition contains notes
such as are not to be found in the original French edition pre-
sented to the Assembly by Camus. These notes profess to show
the reasons why the pensions were granted to various persons
about the Court, and are full of the most biting satire.

Louis XVL Reflexions sur mes Entretiens avec M.

Le Due De Vauguyon. Paris, 1851. i vol., 8vo.

For a long time this was supposed to be a pious fraud like
Dr. Gauden's Eikon Basilike ; but the argument now weighs
altogether in favor of its authenticity. It shows Louis as a
docile young man with a fair stock of very serviceable know-
ledge and thought.

Mercier. Le Nouveau Paris. Brunswick. 1800. 3 vols.


Often cited for the light it throws on every-day life in Paris,
during the Revolution ; but it requires much knowledge of
events to make the proper allowance for prejudices and exag-

Necker. Compte Rendu au Roi. Paris, 1781. i vol.


This was the first statement of French finances ever made clear
to the nation. The Memoirs dwell at great length on the stir
produced by it. It is a book easily found, and worth examining.

SOREL, A. "Le Convent des Carmes, et le seminaire
de St. Sulpice pendant la Terreur." Paris, 1864.
Of some value as showing the feeling of the Parisian mob,

toward the clergy.

Tableaux Historiques de la Revolution Fran-

QAISE. Paris, 1802. 3 vols., folio.

A large and precious collection of views, scenes, portraits and
documents, beginning with the oath of the Tennis Court, and
ending with the Concordat and kindred documents.

304 Appendix.

There are sixty large and beautifully engraved portraits, of
leaders of the Revolution, with accompanying sketches of more
or less value, also the full text of each of the five constitu-
tions of France, beginning with that of 1791.


Alison's History of Europe. — The English edition has a
valuable atlas with battle plans, &c.

Croker's Essays. — Contains, as a frontispiece, a carefully
studied plan of Revolutionary Paris, not encumbered with
minor details.

Duruy's Histoire de France. — Contains small, but very
distinctly engraved maps showing variations in interior divi-
sions and in frontiers, at various periods during the Revolution.

Spruner's Historisch-Geographischer Atlas. — Contains
maps showing old ecclesiastical divisions, and changes made
under the " Civil Constitution of the Clergy " — also many other
maps carefully drawn; but its plans of Paris are almost too
much confused with details of minor importance.

Thiers' Histoire de la Revolution. The best Editions
have an atlas admirable in all respects.



1. Buckle.

History of Civilization in England, Vol. I., Chapter VIII., to
XIV. ; being the part on French history before the Revolution.

2. MiGNET.

History of the French Revolution, giving a rapid but thought
ful survey of the whole period.

3. Adams, C. K.

Democracy and Monarchy in France, which will give a rapid

Appendix. 305

review of the tiistory treated in the two books previously read,
with an exhibition of its effects on French affairs since.

And it would suggest much thought and give much vividness
to the narration to read : —

Between i and 2, Arthur Yotaig's Travels in France in
1787 and 1789, or, as the book is difficult to obtain, Alison's
introductory chapters, which give copious citations from Young.

Between 2 and 3, Dickens^ Tale of Two Cities, Macaulay s
Essay on Mirabeau and Barlre, Carlyle''s History of the French
Revolution. This brief course will give a general history written
by master hands, from the time of Louis XIV. to the war be-
tween France and Prussia in 187 1.


\A More Extended Course.\

1. Buckle.

History of Civilization in England; Chapters 8 — 14 on the
History of France before the Revolution.

2. Arthur Young.

Travels in France from 1787 to 1789, or introductory chap-
ters of Alison's History of Europe.

3. De Tocqueville,
Ancient Regime and Revolution.

4. MiGNET.

History of the French Revolution.

5. Sybel and Thiers.

Selections bearing upon points where the reader desires a
fuller discussion than that given by Mignet.

6. Adams, C. K.

Democracy and Monarchy in France.

7. Lanfrey.
History of Napoleon.

8. Thiers' Consulate and Empire.

Selections covering points upon which the reader wishes to
see a judgment more favorable than that given by Lanfrey.

3o6 Appendix.

For collateral reading the following may be named :

Between l and 2, St. Si?7ion''s Memoirs, translated and
abridged by Bayle St. John ; or, Dangeaii's Memoirs.

Between 3 and 4, Memoirs of Madame Campan and of

Between 5 and 6, CarlyWs History of the French Revolu-

Between 6 and 7, Macaulay s Essay on Bar^re.

Between 7 and 8, Memoirs of the Duchess of Abrantes;
and, perhaps, selections from Bourrienne, de Beausset, Fain,
and others.

And to add life to the whole period, the Erckmann-Chatrian
novels ad libitufK.

For summary histories of the various European States which
were brought into relations with the Revolution, the reader
will find them generally well given in Alison's History of


1''he volumes contain the ripe results of the studies of men ii '19
art authorities in their respective fields.'" — The Nation.



Eleven volumes, i6mo,
each $1.00.


Eighteen volumes, i6mo,
each $1.00.

The Epoch volumes have most successfully borne the test of
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"A series of concise and carefully prepared volumes on special
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Online LibraryWilliam O'Connor MorrisThe French revolution and first empire : an historical sketch → online text (page 25 of 26)