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William P. Welpton.

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PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

OF

PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND
HYGIENE *



BY



W. P. T^ELPTON, B.Sc.

MASTER OF METHOD IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS



Third Impression




LONDON: W. B. CLIVE

(llnipmtfg ufortdf (

HTGH ST., NEW OXFOKD ST., W.C.



1916



PREFACE.



SOME apology is needed at this time for presenting
to the public a work on physical education. So much
has been said and written 011 the hygienic and medical
aspects of school life that it would seem that little more
needs to be said. Yet the thought of the present day on
these particular aspects of education, thorough as it is in
its details and scientific in its outlook, leaves much to
be desired. To a great extent it lacks that well-balanced
judgment which comes only from viewing school life in all
its aspects, intellectual, social, and moral, as well as hygienic
and medical.

The theory and practice of education suffer from a
multitude of experts regarding the child and the school
from a multitude of points of view. Some consider the
child only as a thinking machine ; others as possessing only
a body. A well-balanced theory and practice must look
at child life as a whole, at the various bodily activities
developing in correlation with mental powers by the child
entering fully into the practical duties of life through boy-
hood and youth to manhood. It is in the practical activities
of life intellectual, social, aesthetic, recreative, utilitarian,
or whatever they may be that the bodily and mental
powers act together in the attainment of definite practical
ends, and it is through such practical pursuits, varied,
advancing in the skill required, and valuable in the ends

33M58 *



Vi PREFACE.

attained, that the child will most fully develop all parts of
his nature, physical as well as mental, in harmonious
relation to each other. From such a point of view the
social, moral, intellectual, and physical aspects of educa-
tion coalesce, and the method and procedure of education
present a consistent, harmonious, and well-balanced unity.

Throughout the following work an attempt is made to
regard physical education from this single unifying stand-
point, so that the physical and the mental aspects of edu-
cation are brought into harmony. School life is regarded
as a whole in which physical and mental training merge in
the pursuit of practical duties in which spirit, intelligence,
and skill are more than brute strength.

Feeling that a full understanding of the development of
skill and physique could not be grasped without a some-
what extensive and deep knowledge of the physical and
physiological bases of human activities, I have devoted
some space to expounding certain fundamental principles
with regard to the energy of life, cell activity, and nervous
function. The chapters dealing with these topics may be
somewhat difficult to the unscientific reader, and it may
be well for him to pass over them lightly on a first
reading. I am confident, however, that when he returns
to them he will find that a knowledge of these principles
gives a deeper understanding of bodily activities and a
clearer insight into the method and procedure of physical
education.

The opening chapter deals with the historical develop-
ment of the theory and practice of physical education.
This I felt to be the best way of approaching the subject
from its human aspect. Modern thought is " heir of all
the ages," and we can only fully grasp the tendencies of



PREFACE. vil

the present day by seeing them as the outcome of those
of the past. But especially in physical education is a
knowledge of its historical development valuable, for life in
the past was not so specialised as it is now, and it was
viewed more as a whole and less from abstract points
of view. Hence there is found in the theory and the
practice of past ages a more comprehensive and unifying
principle than pervades the educational thought of to-day.
Particularly is this the case in the system of physical
.education of the Ancient Greeks and in the revival of
Greek thought during the Eenaissance.

An account of the history of physical education, how-
ever, needed an author who by the depth and extent of his
grasp of the life and education of the different ages coull
picture and describe the thought and practice of those
times with living form and colour. Knowing my short-
comings in this respect, I approached the subject with
much hesitation, yet convinced that the historical outlook
was the only rational starting point. My difficulty was
overcome by my friend and chief, Professor Welton, of the
University of Leeds, who with his usual kindness and
self -sacrifice volunteered to write the opening chapter.
In the wealth of illustration presented, and in the compre-
hensive grasp of the underlying principles of life and
education that pervades a vast diversity of detail, I have
found much inspiration, and I cannot too heartily acknow-
ledge my indebtedness to him for his kindness to me and
to my readers.

My debt to Professor Welton is yet deeper, for he has
read through the whole of the remaining chapters both in
manuscript and in proof. It is not too much to say that
his thought and inspiration are on every page, directly in



7111 PREFACE.

the very many suggestions he has made in reading the
chapters, indirectly through my association with him for
the past sixteen years, first as my teacher, later as my
colleague, and always as a friend to inspire and encourage.

The final chapter on the medical aspect has been very
thoroughly revised by Mr. O. T. Williams, M.D., B.Sc.,
M.E.C.P., Pathologist to the Children's Infirmary, Liver-
pool, who has made many suggestions and removed several
flaws in medical details. Dr. Williams has had much
experience of children' Bailments, both mental and physical,
and as the chapter has met with his approval I feel that
although it is but a brief and condensed account of the
medical aspect of school life, yet it is an accurate one.

Finally, I must express my thanks to the several pub-
lishers who have kindly granted me the use of diagrams.
Many of the plates are taken from Dr. Lyster's School
Hygiene (Univ. Tutorial Press). Figs. 1, 2, and 3 are
copied from Wundt's Principles of Physiological Psychology
(Sonnenschein) ; Figs. 10 and K)A from Mark's Educational
Theories in England (Sonnenschein) ; Fig. 9 from Donald-
son's The Growih of the Brain (Scott). The diagrams and
curves add much to the value of the book, and the kindness
of the publishers has saved me much labour.

W. P. W.

THE UNIVERSITY, LEEDS.
September 1908.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

SECTION PACK

^ 1. Early Physical Education ... ... ... ... ... 1

2. Xenophon's Picture of Persian Education ... ... ... 3

3. Physical Education in Ancient .Jjrreece ... ... ... 5

Religious Games in Homer ... ... 5

The Olympic Games ... 6

Physical Education at Sparta ... . . 10

Aim of Education at Athens ... ... ... ... 12

Education in Early Youth ... ... ... ... 14

An Athenian School Day... ... ... ... ... 14

Physical Training in Athens .. ... 15

Gymnasia ... ... ... ... ... 15

Palaestrae ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 16

Greek Exercises ... ... ... 17

TheEphebei 20

Education of Athenian Girls ... ... ... ... 22

Decline of Greek Education ... ... ... ... 23

4. Physical Education in Ancient Rome 23

5. Physical Education in the Middle Ages 26

The Barbarians 26

Sports in the Middle Ages 28

Official Encouragement of Archery 29

The Church and Physical Education 30

Punishments in Mediaeval Schools ... ... ... 32

General Survey of Mediaeval Physical Training ... 33

The Education of Chivalry 34

ix



X TABLE OF CONTENTS.

ECTION PACK

6. Physical Education in the Renaissance 37

The Theory 37

The Practice 39

Mulcaster 41

7. Physical Education in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth

Centuries... ... ... ... ... ... ... 45

General Decadence ... ... ... ... ... 46

The Courtly Academies 49

Locko ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 51

Helvetius 52

English School Sports 52

8. Revival of Physical Education 53

Rousseau ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 53

Basedow ... ... 54

Gutsmuths ... 54

Pestaiozzi 60

Fellenberg 60

9. Physical Education in the Nineteenth Century ... ... 60

Germany 60

Denmark 63

Sweden 63

France 64

^England 65



CHAPTER II.
PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN RELATION TO MIND AND BODY.

1. Physical in Relation to Intellectual and Moral Education 72

^ The Relation of Mental to Bodily Activities 75

Function of the Mind 75

Function of the Body ... ... 77

The Cerebrum the Organ of Mind 78

The Senses 79

The Motor Machinery 81

The Coordination of Muscular Movements ... ... 83

The Correlation of Sensory Stimuli and Motor Im-
pulses ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85

The Nervous Organisation of Correlation and Co-
ordination ... 86



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XI

SECTION PAGE

3. The Organic Life of the Body 87

4. The Organism as a Complex Machine ... ... ... 90

5. The Aim of Physical Education 91

(a) with regard to the Body ... ... ... ... 92

(6) with regard to the Mind 92

6. The Means of Physical Education 93



CHAPTER HI.-

THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF LIFE.

C_

Q) The Energy of Life and Movement ... ... ... ... 95

Transformation of Matter and Energy 96

Potential and Kinetic Energy 96

Chemical Energy 97

Food the Source of Bodily Energy 98

2. The Body a Community of Living Cells 99

3. Structure of the Cell ...' 101

4. Life Processes of the Cells ... 102

5. Influence of Stimuli on the Activity of Cells ... ... 105

6. Unifying Function of the Nerve Cells 109



CHAPTER IV.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

1. The Nerve Cell or Neurone the Unit of Nervous Organi-

sation 112

The Nerve Fibre 113

Dendrites 114

The Cell Body 115

2. The Nervous System a Complex Organisation of Neurones 115

3. Excitatory and Inhibitory Impulses ... ... ... 117

4. Nerve Centres 119

5. The Different Orders of Nerve Centres 120

Centres for Simple Reflex Action ... ... ... 121

Centres for Complex Automatic Action 122

Centre for Intelligent Conduct *& 123

6. General Structure of the Central Nervous System ... 126



Xll TABLE OF CONTENTS.

SECTION PAGE

7. Structure of Spinal Nerve Centres 129

8. Nerve Tracks connecting 'Spinal and Brain Centres ... 132

(a) Motor Tracks 132

(b) Sensory Tracks 133

9. Centres for Cranial Nerves 134

10. The Centres of the Brain 134

The Cerebellum and its Connexions ... ... ... 134

Function of the Cerebellum ... ... ... ... 1 35

Connexions and Function of the Centres of the Mid-
Brain 137

The Centres in the Cerebrum ... ... 138

11. Summary 140

CHARTER V.

THE EDUCATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

1. The Development of Nerve Cells 142

in Size 142

in Functional Power 143

2. The Development of Nerve Centres 143

Hereditary Nervous Organisation ... ... ... 143

Acquired Nervous Organisation 144

Correlative Development of Mental Life ... ... 144

Time for Training the Centres ... ... ... ... 145

Order of Development of Motor Centres ... ... 147

3. The Influence of the Play and Imitative Instincts on the

Development of the Centres ... ... ... ... 147

4. The Formation of Habit 149

Action of Intelligence and Will ... ... ... 149

Influence of Repetition ... ... ... ... ... 150

Influence of Lapse of Time 1 50

Intensive Study ... ... ... ... 151

Precautions against Mistakes ... ... ... ... 152,

Preparatory Practice in the Elements of Action ... 153

Advance from Simple to Complex Forms of Activity 154

5. The Perceptual Element in Practical Activity ... ... 157

Muscular Impressions ... ... ... ... ... 157

Visual Impressions ... ... ... ... ... 158

Tendency of Teaching to rely on Visual Impressions 159



TABLE OP CONTENTS. Xlll



6. Perceptual and Motor Training combined in Practical

Activities .. ................ 160

7. The Nature of the Practical Pursuits of School ...... 162

Dual Aspect of Practical Pursuits ......... 162

The Motor Aspect of Practical Pursuits of the School 163

Practical Activities of Young Children ...... 163

Practical Activities of Older Pupils ...... 164

Intensive Practice of each Branch of Practical

Activity .................. 165

Wide Range of School Practical Activities ... 165

Drill Preparatory to Practical Pursuits ...... 166

The Mental Aspect of Practical Pursuits of the School 167

Practical Pursuits as a means to Knowledge ... 167

Practical Pursuits in Art ... ... ... ... 167

Practical Pursuits and Moral and Social Develop-

ment ... ... ... ... ... .. 168

8. Organisation of Instructors of Practical Activities ... 170

CHAPTER VI.
THE ORGANIC LIFE or THE BODY.

1. Health and the Organic Functions ... .r. ... ... 174

2. The Blood ..................... 175

The Blood Plasma .................. 176

The Red Corpuscles ... ...... ...... 176

The White Corpuscles ......... ...... 177

3. The Circulation of the Blood ............. 177

The Arteries ...... ... ......... 177

The Capillaries .................. 178

The Veins ..................... 178

4. The Respiratory System ... ... ... ... ... 179

The Air Cells of the Lungs ............ 179

Properties of Expired Air ............ 179

The Mechanism of Respiration ... ... ... ... 180

5. The Digestive System ... ............ 182

The Process of Digestion ' ............ 182

Reserve Food Substances ... ... ... ... 183

6. The Excretory System .......... . ... ... 184

The Skin ..................... 185

The Kidneys .................. 186



-XIV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

SECTION PACK

7. The Nervous Centres for the Control of the Organic

Functions 187

The Sympathetic System 187

The Organic Centre in the Bulb 188

The Control of the Heart 189

The Control of the Arterial Circulation 190

The Control of Respiration 191

8. Conditions for Healthy Life and Growth 193



CHAPTER VII.



1. Continued Work followed by Fatigue ......... 197

2. Nature of Fatigue .................. 198

Loss of Tissue Energy ............... 198

Toxic Action of Waste Products ......... 1 98

Nervous Tissue most sensitive to Toxic Agents ... 199

Effects of Toxic Agents on Consciousness ...... 200

3. Experiments of Professor Mosso ... ... ... ... 200

Muscular Fatigue .................. 200

Fatigue of the Nerve Centres ... ... ... ... 201

4. Fatigue and Exhaustion ............... 202

5. Recovery from Fatigue ......... ... ... 204

Change of Work .................. 205

Sleep ..................... 206

6. Conditions for Healthy Work ............ 208

The Nourishment of the Body ............ 208

The Supply of Oxygen ......... ...... 209

The Circulation of the Blood ............ 210

Bodily Exercise .................. 211

! 7. The Organisation of School Work ............ 212

Hygienic Surroundings ............... 213

Changes of Work ................... 213

Intervals for Recreation ............... 214

HomeWork .................. 214

Conditions of Healthy Sleep ............ 215

Precautions during Periods of Rapid Growth ... 217



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER VIII.

EXERCISE AND GROWTH OF THE BODY.

SECTION PAOE

1. Exercise in Relation to Functional Power and Health ... 218

Local Effects of Exercise 218

General Effects of Exercise 219

2. The Effect of Exercise on Nutritive Changes 221

Effect on the Nutrition of Working Tissues 222

General Effect on the Organic System 223

3. Exercise and Fatigue 225

4. Growth Measured by Increase of Weight and Stature ... 226

Normal Increase in Weight and Stature ... ... 227

Conditions of Life affecting Growth ... ... ... 229

Measurement of Weight and Stature ... 232

5. Physical Training and Health 233

Exercises that develop the System Generally... ... 234

Exercises that strengthen the Heart ... 235

Exercises that develop the Chest 236

Deep Breathing Exercises ... ... ... ... 237

Exercises that promote Control of the Breath ... 23S
Exercises for training a Correct Attitude in

Breathing 239

Games that develop the Chest 239

Chest Measurement ... ... ... ... ... 240

6. Educative Value of Physical Pursuits 241

Training in Health, Strength, Skill, Intelligence,

and Character ... ... ... ... ... ... 241

Pursuits should be based on the Natural Impulses of

the Young 242

7. Systems of Phj'sical Training ... ... ... ... 243

Swedish Drill 243

German Gymnastics ... ... ... 244

English Games 244

Games, Contests, and Exercises Compared ... ... 245

8. Physical Training for Schools 246

Games and Contests ... 246

Physical Exercises 248



XVI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

SECTION PACK

9. Organisation of School Life for Games and Exercises ... 250

Country Excursions "... ... 250

Holiday Camps 250

Playing-fields and Playgrounds ... ... 251

Dress and Dressing-rooms ... ... 252

10. Physical Training after School Life 252

CHAPTER IX.
CLEANLINESS.

1. The Excretions from the Skin 254

Sebum ... ... ' 254

Sweat ... 255

Effect of Excretions on the Atmosphere ... ... 255

2. Cleanliness of Rooms 250

3. Cleanliness of Clothing 250

4. Cleanliness of the Skin 258

Necessity for Cleanliness 258

Washing and Bathing 259

5. Education in Cleanliness 200

G. Training in Cleanliness in School 202

Necessity for School Training ... ... ... ... 202

Example and Environment ... ... 203

School Tone 204

Lavatories ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 205

Shower Baths 200

Swimming ... ... ... ... 209

7. InstructioninCleanlii.es ... ... ... 270

in the Primarjr School ... ... ... 270

in the Continuation School ... ... 271

8. Skin Diseases 273

Ringworm ... ... ... ... ... 273

Verminous Children ... 274

CHAPTER X.
FRESH AIR.

I. Impurities due to Breathing and their Effect on the Body 270

Carbonic Acid 270

Temperature and Moisture ... ... ... ... 277

Organic Impurities ... ... ... 281



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV11

BECTJON PAGE

2. Examination of Class Room Air 281

Subjective Symptoms 281

Measurement of Carbonic Acid ... ... ... ... 281

Measurement of Humidity ... ... ... ... 282

Measurement of Temperature ... ... ... ... 282

3. Principles of Ventilation ... ... ... ... ... 285

Ventilation a Difficult Practical Problem 286

The Unit of Ventilation 288

Law of Flow ..." 289

Circulation of Air in the Room... ... 290

Draughts ... ' 292

4. Ventilating Appliances ... ... ... ... ... 295

Outlets 295

Inlets .-;.: 297

Mechanical Ventilation ... ... ... ... ... 298

Plenum and Vacuum Systems ... ... ... ... 299

Zero-Potential System ... 301

Advantages and Defects of the Mechanical Systems 302

5. Summary ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 304

6. Instruction of Pupils in Ventilation 305

CHAPTER XI.

BODILY ATTITUDES.

1. School Life and Bodily Activity 307

2. Evils attending a Sedentary School Life ... ... ... 310

Narrowness of Mental Life ... ... ... ... 310

Injury to Eyes and Powers of Movement ... ... 311

3. Bodily Activity in the various School Subjects 311

4. Conditions of a Healthy Desk Life 314

Sitting and Writing Postures ... ... 315

Form of Desk 315

for Sitting 315

for Writing 316

for Reading 317

for Standing 317

.Desks Suited to Stature of Pupils 318

Training the Habit of Sitting and Writing in Correct

Postures 319

Upright Style of Writing 320



XV111 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

SECTION PAO

5. Position in Standing 322

6. Remedial Exercises 323

CHAPTER XII.
THE CARE OF THE EYE.

1 General Law of Growth ... 325

2. School Life and Eye Defects 326

3. Structure of the Eye 328

The Eye an Optical Instrument 328

Protective, Absorptive and Sensitive Coats of the Eye 328
Refractive Media The Lens, Aqueous Humour, and

Vitreous Humour ... ... ... ... ... 329

4. Movements of the Eye ... ... ... 330

Convergence of the Axes ... 330

Focussing Adjustment ... ... ... 331

5. Types of Eyes 333

The Normal Eye 333

The Short-sighted Eye 334

The Long-sighted Eye 334

6. Causes of Defects of Vision 335

Use of Eyes in Near and Delicate Work ... ... 335

Poor Health 336

Unhealthy Conditions of Work 336

Care Needed during Period of Rapid Growth . . . 337

7. Prevention of Eye Troubles 337

General Conditions of School Life ... 337

Precautions against Eye Troubles ... ... ... 340

Lighting 340

Arrangement of Work ... 342

8. Eye Testing 343

CHAPTER XIII.

ABNORMALITIES.

/I. Study of the Physical and Mental Condition of Children 346

2. Mentally and Physically Defective Children 352

Signs of Mental Deficiency 352

Aphasia and Agraphia ... ... 354

Intellectual and Emotional Expression 358



TABLE OF CONTENTS. XIX

8ECHON PAGK

Structural Defects 359

Treatment of Mentally Defective Children 360

Nervous Exhaustion 361

Deficient Vitality 362

Anaemia ... ... ... ... 36*2

Heart Weakness 363

Improper Feeding ... ... ... ... ... 333

Consumption ... ... ... ... ... ... 364

Rickets 365

Chorea 366

3. Infectious Diseases 367

Source of Infection 363

Precautionary Measures 368

Detection of Infectious Disease 369

Difficulty of Detection 369

Period of Incubation 370

Signs of Illness :{70

Closing the School 371

4. Accidents 375

Cuts and Bleeding Wounds ... 376

Bruises 378

Burns ; 379

Fractures 379

Fainting, Epilepsy, and Hysteria 380

Drowning 381

INDEX .. . 383



CHAPTER I.



HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 1

1. EDUCATION in all its forms and aspects has a more
or less consciously designed purpose. It
Early always implies that the adult members of

Education. a community endeavour to prepare the young
to live a more effective life than they would
live without such guidance. It is only when a people
has advanced far on the way toward civilisation that
the educative process is clearly conceived as a whole and
its various parts deliberately fitted into each other; and
even then thi& clear insight is reached only by the most
thoughtful. With the majority always there is but a
vague idea, never definitely formulated in words, of life as
a unified whole, and, consequently, of education as a
systematised process. Each particular piece of training
given to the young is designed to attain a limited end to
give some special aptitude which is seen to be desirable ;
but there is no enquiry into the relation of these aptitudes
to each other, or into the importance of each in the work
of life as a whole. uch an enquiry begins to attract men's
thoughts only when the pressing needs of existence are
easily provided for, so that there is leisure to meditate
upon the meaning of life and its ultimate purposes.

1 By Professor J. Welton, M.A.

PHY. ED. 1



2 HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION.

Among! peoples, then, which have advanced but a little
way in the conquest of the physical world and whose
existence is a continual struggle to obtain the bare neces-
saries of physical existence, we shall expect to find attention
concentrated on those physical activities such as hunting
and fishing which directly subserve the bodily life. Life
to a savage is little more than eating, drinking, sleeping,
and the exertions necessary to ensure a continuance of
those desirable modes of existence. Among these exertions
will probably be included fighting with neighbouring tribes,
and this gives satisfaction also to those pugnacious instincts
which are as inherent in human beings as in many of the
lower animals. This mode of life determines the education
given to the young, which is essentially a training in those
forms of physical skill which are of direct importance in
the tribal life. Often, indeed, he who is most skilful in
them is chosen chief.

But even savages demand amusement for their hours of
leisure, however few these may be. Such amusements are
always relative to the life they live. The bards relate
tales of war and of hunting, and celebrate the more than
human prowess of the heroes. The tribe generally joins
in the dance, itself a representation of scenes of hunting
or of battle. And these dances have usually a religious
significance. They are, therefore, bound up with the
savage life both on its spiritual and on its material side,
and learning the dances is an essential part of the education
of the youths.

There is, then, among even the most savage races, de-^
liberate education, or training of the young for life, and (
this takes a predominantly physical form because life itself /
is essentially physical. But it must be noted that then!
training is far from being merely physical, even in its
intention. Of course, intimately bound together as are



HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION. 3

the mental, moral, and physical sides of our nature, it
could never be merely physical in its effects. But the
adult savage desires that his son should develop such



Online LibraryWilliam P. WelptonPrinciples and methods of physical education and hygiene / by W.P. Welpton → online text (page 1 of 31)