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Rer. Lit. p. 538.



300



The Litany.



CHAP. II.



Glory be to the Father, and
to the Son : and to the Holy
Ghost ;

As it was in the beginning,
is non>, and ever shallbe : world
without end. Amen.

From our enemies defend
us, O Christ.

Graciously look upon our af-
flictions.

Pitifully -behold the sorrows
of our hearts.

Mercifully forgive the sins
of thy people.

Favourably with mercy hear
our prayers.

Son of David, have mercy
upon tis.

Both now and ever vouch-
safe to hear us, O Christ.

Graciously hear us, OChrist ;
graciously hear us, Lord
Christ.

O Lord, let thy mercy be
shewed upon us ;

As we do put our trust in
thee.

We humbly beseech thee,
O Father, mercifully to look
upon our infirmities ; and for
the Glory of thy Name turn
from us all those evils that we
most righteously have deserv-
ed ; and grant, that in all our



Gloria Patri, et Filio, et
Spiritui Sancto.

Sicut erat in principio, et
nunc, et semper, et in saecula
saeculorum. Amen".

Ab inimicis nostris defende
nos Christe.

Afflictionem nostram benig-
nus vide.

Dolorem cordis nostri re-
spice clemens.

Peccata populi tui pius in-
dulge.

Orationes nostras pius ex-
audi.

Fill Dei vivi miserere nobis.

Hie et in perpetuum nos
custodire digneris Christe.

Exaudi nos Christe, exaudi
exaudi nos Christe P.

Fiat misericordia tua Do-
mine super nos.

Quemadmodum speravimus
in teq.

Infirmitatem nostram quse-
sumus Domine propitius re-
spice, et mala omnia quae juste
meremur, omnium Sanctorum
tuorum intercessionibus averte.
Per Christum Dominum r .



This was chanted at the
beginning of the litany, on the
second day of rogations, in
the church of Salisbury. See
Processionale Sarisb. fol. 99.
Antwerp. 1525.

P Processionale Sarisb. fol.



113. This was said in the li-
tany on St. Mark's day.

q Anglo-Saxon Office for
prime, in Hickes's Letters.

r Processionale Sarisb. fol.
114.



SECT. vi. Prayers an several occasions. 301

troubles we may put our whole
trust and confidence in thy
mercy, and evermore serve thee
in holiness and pureness of liv-
ing, to thy honour and glory ;
through our only Mediator and
Advocate, Jesus Christ our
Lord. Amen.

Almighty God, who hast
given us grace at this time
with one accord, &c.

The grace of our Lord Jesus
Christ, and the love of God,
&c.s

SECTION VI.

PRAYERS AND THANKSGIVINGS UPON SEVERAL OCCASIONS.

In speaking of the litany, I have already noticed
the antiquity and propriety of making special prayers
and supplications, and of returning due thanks to
God on occasions of peculiar importance. The
prayers which I proceed to consider, are those
which the church of this empire appoints for seve-
ral occasions, and which are directed to be said be-
fore the two final prayers of the litany, or of morn-
ing and evening prayer. When processions were
customary in this church, such collects as those
which we use were repeated, as now, at the end of
the litany 1 ; this position is therefore of considerable
antiquity. The church of Constantinople has from
time immemorial adopted a similar custom, as we
may see in the Greek Euchologium, where the pre-
catory anthems and prayers for particular occasions.

9 See the end of morning 168. " Cum Letania et Col-
and evening prayer. lecta."

* Processionale Sarish. fol.



302



The Litany.



CHAP. II.



are directed to be repeated after the general office
for the litany 11 . I now proceed to notice the dif-
ferent formularies of this nature which occur in the
English ritual.

For Rain.

This prayer, (with the exception of its introduc-
tion,) and the next also, bear some resemblance to
those which occur in Gregory's sacramentary on
similar occasions, and which had been used in Eng-
land from a period of remote antiquity.



O God, heavenly Father,
who by thy Son Jesus Christ
hast promised to all them that
seek thy kingdom, and the
righteousness thereof, all things
necessary to their bodily sus-
tenance ; Send us, we beseech
thee, in this our necessity, such
moderate rain and showers,
that we may receive the fruits
of the earth to our comfort,
and to thy honour ; through
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.



Deus in quo vivimus move-
mur et sumus, pluviam nobis
tribue congruentem, ut prae-
sentibus subsidiis sufficienter
adjuti, sempiterna fiducialius
appetamus. Per Dominum v ,



O Almighty Lord God

We humbly beseech thee, that
although we for our iniquities
have worthily deserved a plague



of rain and waters, yet upon
our true repentance thou wilt
send us such weather, as that



For Fair Weather.

Ad te nos Domine claman-
tes exaudi, et ae'ris serenitatem
nobis tribue supplicantibus, ut
qui juste pro peccatis nostris
affligimur, misericordia tua



praeveniente clementiam senti-
amus. Per Dominum w .



u Goar, Rituale Graecum,
p. 766, 771, &c.

v Menard. Sacramentar.Gre-
gorii, p. 221. Missale Sarisb.
fol. 22. Commune. Missale



MS. Leofric. fol. 229.

w Sacr. Gregorii, p. 222.
Miss. Sar. fol. 22. MS. Leofr.
229.



SECT. VI.



Prayers on several occasions.



303



we may receive the fruits of
the earth in due season ; and
learn both by thy punishment
to amend our lives, and for
thy clemency to give thee
praise and glory, through Je-
sus Christ our Lord, Amen.

In the time of Dearth and Famine.

These prayers are not unlike those used in the
church of Constantinople on occasions of drought
and famine.

O God, heavenly Father,
whose gift it is, that the rain
doth fall, the earth is fruitful,
beasts increase, and fishes do
multiply ; Behold, we beseech
thee, the afflictions of thy peo-



Kvpie 6 6e6s 6 iravroKparctp 6
dvdycav ve<pe\as ' eV^arou TTJS
yfjs, 6 darpairas tls vtrbv irr : 7roir}-
KO>S crov 8e6p,fda Kal <re lu
/uei> f'^o/xoAoyou/iei/oi ras
fl[*<0>v, KOI alTOvp.fvoi TO trapd crov
pie ; and grant that the scare- ir\ovcnov eXeos (gdyaye f]fuv ap-



ity and dearth, which we do
now most-justly suffer for our
iniquity, may through thy
goodness be mercifully turned
into cheapness and plenty ;
for the love of Jesus Christ
our Lord, to whom with thee
and the Holy Ghost be all ho-
nour and glory, now and for
ever. Amen.



O God, merciful Father,
who, in the time of Elisha the
prophet, didst suddenly in Sa-
maria turn great scarcity and
dearth into plenty and cheap-
ness ; Have mercy upon us,



TOV fls Ppcacriv, KO
KTTjVfcri. irpoo-o't^ai TO.S
iravrbs TOV Xaov crov, Kal
<rr) TOVS o-TT)vayp.ovs TG>V
p.f] TW 8vp,(p crov they{;T]S
p.T)8f Trj opyfj crov TTtuStvcr?;
p.Tjo'f 8ia(f)dfipr)s Xt/iw Kal Styei
TOV \dov crov Kal croi TTJV 86av
avanefjnrofj,fVj T<a HaTpl, Kal TW
Yi'<5, Kal roi 'A-yicp IIvfvpMTi' vvv
Kal del, Kal fls rov? alcavas TO>V



Ae'cTTrora Kvpte 6 Qfbs f)p-<H>v, 6
8ta TOV irpbs ere fj\ov
'HXi'ov TOV $ecrj3iYov, Kal TOV
Kaipbv TJJ yrj irtp.ir6p.tvov i
tirHTXtOfjvai Kf\tvcras, etra
8ta TTJS avTov iKtcrias Sf.



Goar, Rituale Grsec. p. 777.



304



The Litany.



opov avrfj xaptcra/jifvos' UVTOS
TO. TTfTr\rjfjip.f\rjp.fva TJ/JU.V



that we, who are now for our
sins punished with like ad-
versity, may likewise find a 7rapi8>v evcppavov TO
seasonable relief; Increase the TTJS yys 8ia TOVS TTTCOXOVS TOV XaoC
fruits of the earth by thy hea- <rov, KOI TO. oXXa Traira' K.r.X.Y
venly benediction through
Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

In time of War and Tumults.

This collect seems to resemble one which occurs
in the ancient English offices and in the sacrament-
ary of Gregory.



O Almighty God, King of
kings, and Governor of all
things, whose power no crea-
ture is able to resist, to whom
it belongeth justly to punish
sinners, and to be merciful to
them that repent ; Save and
deliver us, we humbly beseech
thee, from the hands of our
enemies ; that we, being
armed with thy defence, may
be preserved evermore from
all perils, to glorify thee, who
art the only giver of all vic-
tory; through the merits of
thy only Son, Jesus Christ our
Lord. Amen.



Deus, regnorum omnium,
regumque dominator, qui nos
et percutiendo sanas, et ig-
noscendo conservas, praetende
nobis misericordiam tuam, ut
tranquillitate pacis, tua potes-
tate firmata, ad remedia cor-
rectionis utamur. Per 2 .



In time of Plague or Sickness.

This collect does not resemble in its allusions any
that I have met in the offices of the Greek or Latin
churches, though many prayers on a similar occa-
sion are to be found a .



7 Goar, Rituale Graec. p.
776.

* Sacr. Gregorii, p. 214.



Miss. Sar. fol. 23.

a Sacr. Gregorii, p. 218, &c.
Goar, Hit. Grsec. p. 792, &c.



SECT. vi. Prayers on several occasions. 305

For Ember Weeks.

These collects are, I apprehend, peculiar to the
English ritual.

A Prayer that may be said after any of the former.

This collect occurs in the sacramentaiy of Gre-
gory, and in the most ancient monuments of the
English offices.

O God, whose nature and Deus cui proprium est mi-

property is ever to have mercy sereri semper et parcere, sus-

and to forgive, receive our cipe deprecationem nostram :

humble petitions ; and though et quos delictorum catena con-

we be tied and bound with the stringit, miseratio tuae pieta-

chain of our sins, yet let the tis absolvat. Per Dominum

pitifulness of thy great mercy nostrum b .
loose us ; for the honour of
Jesus Christ, our Mediator and
Advocate. Amen.

A Prayer for the High Court of Parliament, to be read
during their Session.

Such a prayer as this of course cannot be expected
to have occurred in any of the primitive offices, but
it is perfectly consistent with the practice of the ca-
tholic church, which has ever obeyed the apostolic
precept of praying for kings, and for all that are in
authority. The appellation of "most religious and
" gracious king" corresponds with those high titles
of respect and veneration which the primitive church
gave to the Christian emperors and kings ; thus in
the liturgy of Basil it is said, Mv



Kvpie 7ra<T>75 apxys KOI e^oucr/a?, KOI TWV fv 7raXctT/<w
ane\(f)u>v ^/ACOI/, Kai Trai/ro? TOV <TTpaTO7re$ov c .



b Sacr. Greg. p. 204. MS. c Liturgia Basilii Goar, Ri-

Leofric. fol. 325.Brev. Sarisb. tuale Grace, p. 171.
fol. 6 1.

VOL. I. X



306 The Litany. CHAP. n.

A Prayer for all Conditions of Men, to be used at such
times when tJie Litany is not appointed to be said.

This excellent prayer is not unlike the " Orationes
" generales" which are found in the ancient monu-
ments of the English church d , and which, like this,
comprise petitions for all estates of men. The like-
ness is not however sufficiently strong to induce me
to occupy space by transcribing the formularies
alluded to.

THANKSGIVINGS.

A General Thanksgiving.

This excellent prayer does not seem to have been
derived in any way from the ancient offices of the
English church, nor from any other western formu-
laries. A prayer however, at the beginning of the
very ancient Coptic liturgy of Basil, seems to bear
some resemblance to it.

Almighty God, Father of all Domine Deus omnipotens,

mercies, we thine unworthy Pater Domini Dei et Salvatoris

servants do give thee most nostri Jesu Christi, gratias

humble and hearty thanks for agimus de omnibus et propter

all thy goodness and loving- omnia, et in omnibus, quia

kindness to us, and to all men. protexisti nos, adjuvasti nos,

We bless thee for our crea- eonservasti nos, suscepisti nos

tion, preservation, and all the ad te, et misertus es nostri ;

blessings of this life ; but auxilium dedisti nobis, et ad

above all, for thine inestimable hanc horam perduxisti. Ea

love in the redemption of the propter petimus et obsecramus

world by our Lord Jesus Christ; bonitatem tuam, 6 amator ho-

for the means of grace, and minum,ut concedas nobis hunc

for the hope of glory. And, diem sanctum, et omnes dies

we beseech thee, give us that vitae nostrae in pace cum ti-

due sense of all thy mercies, more tuo transigere per gra-

rt Miss. Sar. Commune, fol. 34, &c. MS. Leofric. fol. 236, 262.



SECT. VI.



Thanksgivings .



307



that our hearts may be un-
feignedly thankful, and that
we may shew forth thy praise,
not only with our lips, but in
our lives; by giving up our-
selves to thy service, and by
walking before thee in holi-
ness and righteousness all our
days ; through Jesus Christ
our Lord, to whom with thee
and the Holy Ghost be all ho-
nour and glory, world without
end. Amen.



tiam et misericordiam, amo-
remque erga homines Filii tui
unigeniti, Domini Dei et Sal-
vatoris nostri Jesu Christi, per
quern tibi debetur honor, glo-
ria, et imperium, cum ipso et
Spiritu Sancto viviticante, tibi-
que consubstantiali, nunc et
semper et in omnia saecula
saeculorum. Amen e .



Occasional Thanksgivings.

The English ritual, I believe, is the only one
which contains special thanksgivings for the mercies
of God, others having confined themselves to gene-
ral expressions of gratitude on all such occasions.
It has therefore, in the present ca.se, improved on
the ancient customs of the Christian church, instead
of being in any way inconsistent with them.



Liturgia Basilii Coptice Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental, torn. i.



p. 2.



x 2



308 Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. CHAP. in.

CHAPTER III.
COLLECTS, EPISTLES, AND GOSPELS.



T3EFORE I proceed to ascertain the antiquity of
this portion of our ritual, I would observe, that
the collects, and the lessons which we now call Epi-
stles and Gospels, were originally recited from two
books, the former entitled the Sacramentary, the
latter the Lectionary. These two books, with a third
called Antiphonary, contained the whole service for
the Eucharist. The Sacramentary comprised the
collects arid the canon or prayers that never varied 3 .
The Lectionary consisted of lessons from the Old
and New Testaments, corresponding to our Law,
Epistles, and Gospels b : and the Antiphonary sup-
plied the anthems or verses for the beginning of the
communion, the offertory, &c. c About the eleventh
or twelfth century it was found convenient generally
to unite these three books, and the volume obtained
the name of the Complete or Plenary Missal, or
Book of Miss<e d . Of this description were almost all

a See Zaccaria, Bibliotheca tarium," or " Evangeliarium."

Ritualis, torn. i. p. 39, &c. See Zaccaria, p. 35 39.

b The Lectionary, sometimes c The Antiphonary was often

called "Comes," or "Liber called " Graduale," because

Comitis," often contained the some of the anthems were

Gospels as well as the other chanted on the steps (gradus)

lessons ; but generally the Gos- of the ambon, or pulpit. Zac-

pels were read from a separate caria, p. 28, &c.
volume, entitled, " Evangelis- d Zaccaria, p. 49, 50.



CHAP. HI. Antiquity of Collects. 309

the liturgical books of the western churches, and
the arrangement is still preserved in our own.

The eastern churches have no sacramentaries,
because they do not employ different prefaces and
collects for different days, but make use of several
liturgies, each of which is appropriated to a particu-
lar season of the year. The lessons and anthems
are by them recited from distinct lectionaries and
anthem books 6 .

COLLECTS.

The origin of collects, or prayers read before or
between the lessons during the celebration of the
liturgy, is involved in obscurity. Such prayers have
certainly been used in all the western churches from
a remote period ; for we not only find them in the
earliest monuments of the Roman liturgy, and of all
which adopted that rite, but even in those of Gaul
and Spain. None such occur in the ancient litur-
gies of Jerusalem, Antioch, Caesarea, or Constantino-
ple ; but they appear in the same position as in the
western liturgies in that of the Monophysites of
Alexandria f ; and we conclude that they must have
been used in the Alexandrian liturgy prior to the
council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451. because the liturgy
of the orthodox of that church gives plain signs of
having been altered from one resembling in this
respect that of the Monophysites^ ; and such resem-
blance must have been caused by the derivation of
both from a common original, before their total

e See Zaccaria, p. 1 7, 1 8. f Liturgia Basilii Copt. Re-
Cave's second Dissertation, at naudot, Lityrg. Oriental, torn,
the end of his " Historia Lite- i. p. 2 8.
raria," contains an account of e Liturgia Marci, ibiil. p.
all the ritual books of the Greek 131 137.
church, in alphabetical order.

x 3



310 Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. CHAP. in.

separation at that time. We have also Cassian's
testimony that collects were recited in his time,
amongst the psalms and lessons of morning and
evening prayer, by the Egyptians h : and Athana-
sius, in more than one place, seems plainly to allude
to the existence of the same practice in his time, or
early in the fourth century 5 . There is therefore a
high degree of probability that the collects of the
Alexandrian liturgy are of great antiquity. The
use of collects is certainly very ancient in the west,
but they probably cannot be traced so far as those of
Alexandria. The latter indeed look much as if they
were the models on which those of Rome and other
western churches were formed ; and if I were to
hazard a conjecture on the origin of collects, I
should say that they were introduced from Alexan-
dria. We know certainly that the eastern Chris-
tians at an early period devised many improvements
in the mode of celebrating divine service, which did
not occur to the less lively and inventive imagina-
tions of their brethren in the west ; and that the
latter were accustomed to imitate the former in their
rites and ceremonies J. A time came, however, when

h Cassian. Instit. lib. ii. c. 5, eastern churches. " Constituit

6, &c. synodus ut per omnes eccle-

i See the passages quoted sias Hispanise et Gallicise, se-

above in chap. i. part i. . 16. cundum formam orientalium

j Thus the custom of alter- ecclesiarum, concilii Constan-

nate chanting, according to tinopolitani, hoc est 150 epi-

which the choir were divided scoporum, symbolum fidei de-

into two parts, who sang al- cantetur." Concil. iii. Toletan.

ternately, was brought from can. 2. This custom was fol-

the east by Ambrose, accord- lowed afterwards at Rome,

ing to Paulinus and Augustine. Bona, Rer. Lit. lib. ii. c. 8.

The council of Toledo, A. D. p. 387. The form Kyrie elec-

589, introduced the Constan- son was evidently derived from

tinopolitan Creed into the Ii- the east, and the council of

turgy, in accordance with the Vaison, directing it to be used,



CHAP. in. Antiquity of Collects. 311

the tide of invention turned, arid innumerable addi-
tions and alterations began to be originated in the
west, while the eastern rites continued with little
variation from age to age.

It has been thought that the collects originally
did not vary with each celebration of the liturgy,
but were always the same ; and the office for Good
Friday, or Parasceve in the ancient Roman sacra-
mentary, where there are several collects for the
clergy, people, heretics, Jews, infidels k , &c. has been
pointed out as a relic of the primitive custom. Au-
gustine seems to allude to some such custom in his
epistle to Vitalis of Carthage, who affirmed that we
ought not to pray for unbelievers. " Employ thy
" disputations against the prayers of the church ; and
" when thou hearest the priest of God at the altar
" exhorting the people to pray for the unbelieving,
" that God may convert them to the faith ; and for
" the catechumens, that he may breathe into them a
" desire for regeneration ; and for the faithful, that
" by his grace they may persevere in that which they
" have begun to be, then ridicule the pious words 1 ."

refers to the custom of the k Menard. Sacram. Gregorii

cast. Concil. ii. Vasens. can. 3. p. 61, &c.
Litanies and processions were 1 " Exerce contra orationes

also introduced from the east, ecclesiae disputationes tuas, et

Gregory the Great certainly quando audis sacerdotem Dei

imitated the liturgy of Con- ad altare exhortantem populum

stantinople in placing the Dei orare pro incredulis, ut eos

Lord's Prayer immediately af- Detis convertat ad lidem ; et

ter the Roman canon ; and pro catechumenis, ut eis desi-

the circumstance gave great derium regenerationis inspiret;

offence to some who were et pro fidelibus, ut in eo quod

zealous for the superiority of esse coeperunt, ejtis munere

the see of Rome above that of perseverent, subsanna pias vo-

Constantinople. Gregorii Mag. ces." August. Epist. ad Vita-

Epist. lib. ix. Epist. 1 2. p. 940. 1cm Carthag.
torn. ii. oper. edit. Benedictin.

X4



312 Collects^ Epistles, and Gospels. CHAP. m.

Ccelestinus of Rome, about the same time, speaks of
prayers resembling those mentioned by Augustine.
The ancient Leonian sacramentary, used in the
Roman church in the fifth century, contains several
collects for each feast, sometimes four or five ; and
the Irish sacramentary, originally derived from the
Roman, contained several collects for different estates
of men, which did not vary". It is so difficult, how-
ever, to reconcile the idea of the invariableness of
collects with the directions of the African church in
the fourth and fifth centuries, which prohibited the
use of collects, &c. that were not approved by com-
petent authority , evidently permitting any new
collects that should be so approved ; arid with the
variety of collects seen in the most ancient sacra-
mentaries of Rome, Milan, &c. that I am inclined to
think the variation of collects has been customary
in the west from a most remote period ; arid the
words of Augustine and Coelestinus probably relate
to some peculiar offices.

I now proceed to consider the antiquity of those
individual collects which are found in the English

m Coelestinus in Epistola ad tur." Labbe, Concilia, torn. ii.

Galliar. episcopos de gratia p. 1117. See also Concil. Af-

Dei pro Prospero et Hilario, rican. can. 70. Labbe, torn.

c. ii. ii. p. 1662. " Preces" here

n See Dissertation on Litur- mean collects, " praefationes"

gies, section xi. prefaces ; " commendationes"

Deprecibus ad altar edicen- refer to the part after " hanc

dis canon ciii. " Placuit etiam igitur/' in the canon of the an-

hoc, ut preces quae probatae cient Roman liturgy, which

fuerint in concilio, sive praefa- was often varied on special oc-

tiones, sive commendationes, casions, Bona, Rer. Lit. p. 438.

seu manus impositiones, ab " Maims impositiones" signi-

omnibus celebrentur, nee alise fied the long benedictions be-

omnino contra fidem praeferan- fore communion. See Bona,

tur, sed quaecumque a pruden- Rer. Lit. p. 465, &c.
tioribus fuerint collect* dican-



CHAP. HI. Antiquity of English Collects. 313

ritual. The majority of these occur in the Latin
language, in the ancient missals of Salisbury, York,
Hereford, &c. and they are also in the sacramenta-
ries of the English church, written before the Nor-
man Conquest. We meet them in all the ancient
MSS. of Gregory's sacramentary, as used in the
Roman, Italian, and other western churches, and
thence shew that they formed part of that sacra-
mentary when it was introduced into England by
Augustine, first archbishop of Canterbury ; and in
consequence, that they have been used by the church
in this country for above twelve hundred years.
Many of the collects, however, are much more an-
cient than the time of Gregory, A. D. 590 ; they
occur in the sacramentary of Gelasius, patriarch of
Rome A.D. 494, and some may be traced to the
Leonian sacramentary, used in the Roman church
about A. D. 483. In the following pages I have
placed in parallel columns the English text of our
collects, and the Latin, extracted from the ancient
liturgical offices of the church of Salisbury, with
which those of York and Hereford almost always
agree P. I have also cited a manuscript sacramen-
tary of the Anglo-Saxon church, written probably
about the ninth or tenth century, and given by Leo-
fric, bishop of Exeter, to his church before the Nor-
man Conquest^. I have likewise referred to the
sacramentary of Gregory, as published by Menard.
When references to the above three monuments are
appended to any collect, we may fairly consider it
to have formed part of the sacramentary of Gregory

P For notices of these an- <i Now in the Bodleian Li-
cient English rites, see Disser- brary.
tation, section xi.



314 Collects, Epistles, and Gospels. CHAP. HI.


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