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Milan, nor in those of Constantinople and Csesarea.

z Miss. Ambros. antiq. ca- Liturg. turn. i. p. 302.
non. Muratori, Liturg. Rom. a Matt. xxvi. 26.
torn. i. p. 134. See Panic!.



SECT. xix. Breaking of Bread. 145

It does not now occur in any of them. In the
Alexandrian liturgy however, as used by the Coptic
Monophysites, the bread is broken when it is said,
" he brake it." But it is again united together, in
order to be completely broken and divided into
small fragments immediately before distribution 1 '.
I am not aware that any other liturgy, except the
English, prescribes a breaking of bread during the
benediction. But all liturgies, including the Alexan-
drian just alluded to, appoint the bread to be broken
after the benediction is completed . It would ap-
pear that the same custom was used in the church
of Corinth in the days of St. Paul, as prevails there
at present. The apostle says to the Corinthian bre-
thren, ** The bread which we break, is it riot the
" communion of the body of Christ ?" TOV aprov ov
/cAwyUey, ov-ftl KOIVIOVIO. TOV crw/uaro? TOV Xpicrrov evriv ;

1 Cor. x. 16. The bread, according to St. Paul, was
the communion of Christ's body when it was broken :
now it could not have been the communion of Christ's
body until after it was blessed ; and therefore it was
then blessed before it was broken, even as it has
been in all after-ages in all the countries where St.
Paul had especially the care of the churches d . It

b Renaudot, Liturg. Orien- Ambros. ibid. Bingham, An-

tal. torn. i. p. 259. tiquities, &c. book xv. ch. 3.

c Liturgia Jacobi Syr. Re- . 34. Mabillon de Liturgia

naud. torn. ii. p. 41, 111, 112. Gallicana, lib. i. c. 5. N. 21.

Lit. Jac. Graec. Assemani Co- Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. c.

dex Lit. torn. v. p. 54, 55. Lit. 15. NO. 4. p. 463. Martene

Chrysostomi, Goar, p. 81 ; the de Antiq. Eccl. Rit. lib. i. c. 4.

ceremonies of which are ob- art. 9.

served in the liturgy of Basil. d In the liturgy of Con-

Liturgia Basil. Copt. p. 19. stantinople, which is used all

Renaudot, torn. i. Cyrilli, p. through Greece, the bread is

49. Marci, p. 162. Missale broken after the blessing and

Roman, canon missae. Missale consecration is finished. Vide

VOL. II. L



146 The lioly Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

appears to me that the church of England did not
mean to exclude or prevent the ancient division
of the bread after the benediction, by directing a
" breaking" to take place while the institution was
recited. This is to represent more vividly and for-
cibly the sacrifice of Christ on the cross. But it
would be inconvenient at the middle of this solemn
description of the last supper, to divide the bread
into a number of small portions for the convenience
of distribution, which was certainly the original
and primary intention of this act, both in our
Saviour's liturgy arid in all subsequent liturgies.

It may be well here to notice a custom which has
extensively prevailed in the Christian church. Af-
ter the consecration was finished, and the bread
broken, some of it was put into the cup. This ce-
remony was commonly known by the name of the
union of the two kinds, and in many places was
performed with appropriate prayers 6 . The custom
is certainly not of primitive antiquity, since we find
no mention of it in scripture, nor the early Fathers.
This rite, doubtless, arose from the custom of
communicating the laity with the sacrament of the
body dipped in the cup. This most probably be-
gan in the east, where it has remained in use to the
present day, and it also prevailed formerly in the
west f . It was introduced to prevent the inconve-

Liturg, Chrysost. Liturg. Ba- Copt. Renaud. torn. i. p. 19.

silii. The same rite prevails 261, &c.

through the whole eastern and f Bingham, Antiquities, book

western church. xv. ch. 5. . 2. Bona, Rer. Li-

e Liturg. Jacob! Syr. Re- turg. lib. ii. c. 18. art. 3. It

uaudot, torn. ii. p. 41. 108, would appear that this custom

109; Jacobi Graec. Assemani is older in the, east than the

Cod. Lit. p. 54. torn. v. Chrys- councils of Chalcedon 45 1, and

ostomi Goar, p. 82. Basilii Ephesus 43 1, since the Euty-



SECT. xix. Union of the two Kingdoms considered. 147

niences which were imagined to arise from the re-
ception of both kinds separately by the laity. The
consecrated bread dipped in the cup was then given
in a spoon to the laity, and to accomplish this more
conveniently, when the bread was broken, some of
it was put into the cup, from which the clergy took
out with a spoon small particles tinged with the
wine ; and thus communicated the laity. This ac-
count of the origin of the union of the two kinds,
serves also to explain why all the bread was not
put into the cup&. The clergy were still permitted
to receive the communion in both kinds separately,
because they were too well instructed to permit
the sacrament to fall on the ground, or experience
any irreverence, and accordingly a portion of bread
was reserved for their use which was not put into
the cup.

According to the rite of the primitive church ; in
the oriental and English churches, the words of in-
stitution are repeated aloud to the present day.
Assernani very properly admits that this has been
the ancient custom of the eastern churches, which
was enforced by the decree or injunction of the em-
peror Justinian in the sixth century h .

Before we proceed to the next section, it will be
proper to consider the substance of the primitive
liturgies which intervened between the completion of



chians and the Nestorians, as also almost all the liturgies

well as the orthodox of the and places referred to for the

east, have used it all along, breaking of the bread and the

See Renaudot, Liturg. Oriental. " union" of the two kinds,
torn. i. p. 261. h Assemani, torn. v. cod.

A portion is reserved by Lit. Prsef. p. liv. Menard, Sa-

the Monophysites of Antioch, cramentar. Gregorii, p. 389.
Renaudot, torn. ii. p. 112. See



148 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

consecration, and the distribution of the elements to
the clergy and people. In the liturgies of Antioch,
Caesarea, and Constantinople, the consecration was
followed by the general prayers for all men and all
things, the Lord's Prayer, and the breaking of
bread. In the Roman liturgy the consecration was
followed by an oblation of the elements as they were
bread and wine, a petition for the departed faithful,
a prayer for communion with them, the breaking
of bread, and the Lord's prayer. It is probable
from the ancient MS. of the liturgy of Milan, pub-
lished by Muratori 1 , that the Roman liturgy did
not originally contain any more at this place than
the Alexandrian, which we proceed to consider.
After consecration, the Alexandrian liturgy pre-
ferred a request, that they who were about to com-
municate might be partakers of various spiritual
benefits. Then the bread was broken, and the
Lord's Prayer repeated. All these liturgies termi-
nated before the Lord's Prayer and breaking of
the bread with a doxology ascribing glory to the
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to which all the
faithful responded with a loud Amen. This is
the Amen of which the apostle Paul speaks in the
Epistle to the Corinthians, and to which we find
various allusions in the writings of the primitive
Fathers. The English canon terminates with the
consecration, and it may perhaps be thought too
abruptly : but this is merely a matter of taste.
However, the people answer at the end of the bene-
diction with that Amen which has been handed
down from the Apostles themselves. The only point

1 Muratori Liturg. Rom. torn. i. p. 134.



SECT. xix. Lord's Prayer not essential here. 149

which seems to merit serious consideration with
regard to this part of the liturgy, is the omission of
the Lord's Prayer. So very general has been the
use of the Lord's Prayer between the consecration
and communion, that it might appear almost essen-
tial to the office ; and Gregory the first, patriarch
of Rome, has been understood to affirm that the
apostles consecrated the elements with no other
formi. But it appears plainly that the Lord's
Prayer was not universally used at this place in pri-
mitive times. The liturgy of the Apostolical Con-
stitutions, though it does not appear to have been
used in any particular church, is nevertheless, be-
yond all doubt, the same liturgy as that of the
church of Antioch. It is evidently derived from
the same stock. We do riot find the Lord's Prayer
used after consecration by the liturgy of the Aposto-
lic Constitutions 14 , although we certainly know that
this Prayer was used in the liturgy both at An-
tioch and Jerusalem in the fourth century 1 . Now
to suppose that the author of the Apostolical Con-
stitutions would have omitted the Lord's Prayer in
this place, if it had been used from time immemorial,
is altogether improbable. What conceivable reason
could there be for omitting it under such circum-
stances ? Does not the fact then of his omitting it
prove that either it had not been introduced when
he wrote, or that it was then known to have been
introduced at a period subsequent to the apostolic

j " Orationem Dominicam Epist. 64. lib. vii.
idcirco mox post precem di- k Apost. Const, lib. viii. c.

cimus, quia mos apostolorum 12. p. 404. ed. Clerici.
fuit, ut ad ipsam solummodo ! Cyril and Chrysostom men-

orationem oblationis hostiam tion it : see vol. i. p. 33. 36.
consecrarent." Greg. Magni

L 3



150 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

age ? Either supposition is, I think, enough to shew
that the Lord's Prayer was not used in this part of
the liturgy of Aritioch during the first ages. I
cannot forbear to make a similar remark with re-
gard to the liturgy of Alexandria. In the Ethio-
pian liturgy, which was derived from the primitive
liturgy of Alexandria, the Lord's Prayer does not
occur between the consecration and communion m .
It may be said in this case as in the last, that no
conceivable reason can be assigned for the omission
of the Lord's Prayer in this place, if it had been
used for any great length of time in the Alexan-
drian liturgy.

Whether it might have been the Ethiopian or
some other church to which Augustine referred, it
is certain that he alludes to churches where the
Lord's Prayer was not repeated between consecra-
tion and communion in the fifth century". In say-
ing that almost every church used this prayer in
that interval of the liturgy, he evidently implies
that there were churches which did not follow the
same custom.

However anciently therefore, the Lord's Prayer
has been used in some churches, and however cer-
tainly in the fifth century, it was used in almost
all ; no one can justly say that it is necessary to
have it in this place. I am not however contending
against the propriety of its use here. No liturgy
in existence, except those I have mentioned, is with-
out the Lord's Prayer shortly before communion ;
and certainly it is a very appropriate place, since

m Liturgia ^ZEthiopum Re- " Quam totam petition em fere
naudot, torn. i. p. 518. omnis ecclesia Dominica ora-

11 See vol. i. p. 138. note u . tione concludit."



SECT. xx. Communion. 151

the petition, " Give us this day our daily bread,"
may be mystically understood as a prayer for the
bread of the soul then shortly to be received, even
as the fathers and doctors of the church have
expounded it .

SECTION XX.

COMMUNION."

It is impossible to deny that the English liturgy
prescribes a mode of communion perfectly conform-
able to the practice of the primitive church. Here the
bishops, priests, and deacons receive the sacrament
in both kinds first, and then the people are com-
municated in like manner. No one denies that this
is the primitive order of delivering the elements. It
is also indisputable, that the English custom of de-
livering to all the people both kinds separately, and
not united, is the apostolic method. The same may
be said of our custom of delivering the sacrament of
the body, which we give into the hands of the faith-
ful. In all this the English church preserves cus-
toms whose apostolical antiquity it is in vain to dis-
puted In all the eastern churches the sacrament
has been given to the laity in both kinds, even to
the present day. It is true that they are not given
separately, but at the same moment, by means of a
particle of bread dipped in the cup'i ; but this is
merely a variety of discipline, which does not in the
slightest degree affect the verity of the communion

Cyprian de Orat. Domi- N. 16. 24, 25. Bona, Her.

nica. Cyril, Hierosolym. Cat. Liturg. lib. ii. c. 17, 18.
Mystag. v. 1 Goar, Rituale Grace, p.

P Bingham's Antiquities, b. 151. Renaudot, Liturg. Ori-

xv. ch. 5. . i. 2. 6. Mabillon ental. torn. i. p. 282.
de Liturgia Gall. lib. i. c. 5.

L 4



1 52 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP, i v.

in both kinds. The same custom formerly pre-
vailed all through the western churches'", but in
later times the laity were in most places entirely
deprived of the sacrament of Christ's blood ; in or-
der to obviate inconveniences which some persons
thought might follow from an obedience to Christ's
commands, and the practice of the catholic church.

It was not remembered that God could prevent
his sacraments from real profanation ; and that
proper instruction might suffice, as it had done in
primitive times, to teach the people their duty. It
became necessary in after-times to defend this prac-
tice, and then it was heard for the first time that
the sacrament of Christ's body or flesh was also the
sacrament of his blood.

The Church of England does not prohibit the
laity from coming to the chancel, or bema, and re-
ceiving at the rails of the holy table. In different
churches different rules have been adopted, as to the
place of lay-communion. According to the eastern
canons, the people may not approach the table 8 .
The same rule was made by the fourth council of
Toledo in Spain*. In the church of Gaul, as now
in England, the laity, both men and women, were
allowed to approach the holy table, and receive the
sacrament in their hands u .

It was the custom of the primitive church to fill
up the time during which the people communicated



r Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii. u Concil. 2. Turon. canon 4.

c. 18. . 3. Goar, Rituale " Ad orandum et communican-

Grsec. p. 153. dum laicis et foeminis, sicut

8 Concil. Laodicen. canon mos est, pateant sancta sanc-

19. torum." Vid. Mabillon de Lit.

* Concil. Toletan. 4. canon Gall. lib. i. c. 5. N. 24, &c.



SECT. xx. Communion. 153

by singing a psalm. We find from Cyril, Chrysos-
tom, and Jerome, that in the churches of Antioch
and Jerusalem, " O taste and see," &c. was sung
during the communion in the fourth century. In
the west we find numerous traces of the same cus-
tom. Augustine expressly mentions it v , and it ap-
pears to have prevailed in Gaul and Italy. In after-
times it was generally adopted in the west, and the
anthem was called communio. With regard to any
words used at the delivery of the elements, we
know not when they began to be used. Our Lord
made use of expressions in the delivery of the sa-
crament which the apostles commemorated in their
thanksgiving and consecration ; but there is not the
slightest reason to think that these expressions were
ever in any way used at the dtlivery of the elements
in the primitive church. However, in the second
and third centuries it appears that a certain form
was used in many, if not all, churches. The minis-
ter, in presenting the bread to every communicant,
said, " The body of Christ," and the communicant,
to signify his faith, said, "AmenV It appears
that in the time of Gregory the Great, the ancient
form of delivery had been changed into a prayer.
" The body of our Lord Jesus Christ preserve thy
" soul ; " to which the party receiving answered,
" Amen? ;" but this was not the original design of
the form.

v Augustin. Retract, lib. ii. x Cornel. Roman, apud Eu-

c. ii. quoted in vol. i. p. 136. sebii Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 43^

note d . p. 245. ed. Valesii; Apost.

w Bingham's Antiquities, b. Const, lib. viii. c. 13. p. 405.

xv. ch. 5. . 10. Antiphona- edit. Clerici ; Cyril. Hierosol.

rius Gregorii, Pamel. Liturg. Cat. Mystag. 5. N. 18.
torn. ii. p. 62, 63. &c. Miss. Y Johannes Diaconus in Vita

Sarisb. fol. 1 1 . Gregorii lib. ii.



154 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

During all the primitive ages, the whole body of
the faithful communicated at each celebration of the
liturgy, and the sacrament was never distributed to
those who were in health, except at this time 2 . But
as charity grew chill, the number of communicants
became less, until there were scarcely any. In order
to preserve a semblance of the communion, bread
was blessed by the priest and distributed to the
people at the close of the liturgy. However, in
after-times even the custom of giving "eulogiae," or
blessed bread, as a substitute for the sacrament be-
came extinct ; and now in a large part of the west
the people never receive the communion, or even a
semblance of it, at the celebration of the liturgy a .

SECTION XXI.

THE LORD^S PRAYER.

The Lord's Prayer cannot be inappropriate in any
part of the liturgy. It must be acknowledged, how-
ever, that we have no certain instance in the litur-
gies of the primitive church of its use in this place,
immediately after communion. The Ethiopic liturgy,
indeed, appears either to prescribe the prayer itself,

z Mabillon de Liturgia Gal- post communionem a sacerdote

licana, p. 96. dicuntur, pro ipsis communi-

a The learned Romanist, cantibus sunt." Rer. Liturg.

Bona, regrets the departure of lib. ii. cap. 14. . 5. p. 457.

the Roman church, and those Would that they who commu-

that communicate with her, nicate with the Roman church

from the primitive practice, were not too timid or too luke-

" Tepescente successu tempo- warm to return to the practice

ris fervore, multa ex his, ne of the primitive church in this

missa prolixior evaderet, ab ea and many other respects,
paulatim sejuncta sunt j adeo With regard to the custom

ut etiam ipsa communio post of giving eulogiae, see Bing-

missam differatur, non sine mag. ham, Antiquities, book xv. 0.4.

na rituum ecclesiasticorum per- .3. Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. ii.

lurbalione; quia orationes.qusc c. 19. . 7.



SECT. xxii. The Post-Communion Thanksgiving. 155

or a part of it, after communion h ; but no such thing
appears in the Alexandrian, the Oriental, Roman,
Italian, Gallican, or Spanish liturgies. Nor do we
find any traces of such a custom amongst the writ-
ings of the Fathers. The use of the Lord's Prayer
therefore in this place cannot be traced to any very
great antiquity, though certainly in the fifth century
it was a general custom to use it before communion,
and in some churches it may have been used there
even from the apostolic age. When the Lord's
Prayer was repeated before communion, it was
repeated by all the people, as well in the Gallican
church, as in all the churches of the east c . At
Rome it was only repeated by the priest, according
to Gregory the Great d .

SECTION XXII.

THE POST-COMMUNION THANKSGIVING.

In all churches it was anciently customary to re-
turn thanks to God after receiving the sacrament,
and to implore his grace for the future. The second
form, which the church of England has appointed
for this occasion, (though it would be presumptuous
to say that it is more appropriate than the first,)
may be fairly said to accord most with the thanks-
givings which the primitive church used at this
place. Let us, then, regard the second form of
thanksgiving and prayer prescribed in this place by
the English liturgy, and trace its analogy with an-
cient liturgies.

b Liturg. Ethiop.Renaudot, apud Graecos ab omni populo

Liturg. Oriental, torn. i. p. 521. dicitur: apud nos vero a solo

c Mabilloo, Liturgia Gallic. sacerdote." Gregor. Mag. lib.

lib. i. c. 5. N. 22. p. 49. vii. Epist. 64.

d "Sed et Dominica oratio



156



The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.



ENGLAND. Almighty and
everliving God, we most heart-
ily thank thee, for that thou
dost vouchsafe to feed us, who
have duly received these holy
mysteries, with the spiritual
food of the most precious body
and blood of thy Son our Sa-
viour Jesus Christ ; and dost
assure us thereby of thy fa-
vour and goodness towards us;
and that we are very members
incorporate in the mystical
Body of thy Son, which is the
blessed company of all faithful
people ; and are also heirs
through hope of thy everlast-
ing kingdom, by the merits of
the most precious death and
passion of thy dear Son. And
we most humbly beseech thee,
O heavenly Father, so to assist
us with thy grace, that we may
continue in that holy fellow-
ship, and do all such good
works as thou hast prepared
for us to walk in ; through Je-
sus Christ our Lord, to whom,
with thee and the Holy Ghost,
be all honour and glory, world
without end. Amen.



CJESAREA. Evxapt.o-Tovfi.ev <roi,

Kvpie 6 Qeos f)ij,S>v, eVt TJJ fi.Ta-
\rj^ei TO>V dyio>v, dxpdvrav, dQa-
VUTUV, Kal eirovpaviov trou p.vo~TT)-
pLcav, a e'Sco/cay Tjfilv eir' evepyeo~ia
Kal aytao~/ji<p, Kal ldo~ei T>V ^rv^Siv
Kal T>V erw/zaTcw r)p.>v. UVTOS 8t-
(riroTa T>V airdvTatv, bbs yeveadai
rjp.lv TTJV Koivwviav TOV dyiov cr&>-
fiaros Kal a'tparos TOV Xpiorov
<TOV, els TTIO~TIV aKaTaivxyiTov , els
dydnr)v dvvrroKp'iTov, (Is ir\rj(Tp.o-
VTJV cro(pias, fls ld(nv ^vx'l 5 Ka '
<ru>p.aTos, els dnOTpoirr)v iravros
evavTiov, els irepnroiT)<riv TG>V Ivro-
\S>v (TOV, els diro\oylav evTrpov-
SeKTOv TTJV enl TOV (poftepov /3^/i.a-

TOS TOV XpltTTOV O~OV e .

Similar forms occur in all
the ancient liturgies ; amongst
which that of Antioch, and the
beautiful form of the Alexan-
drian liturgy of Basil, are par-
ticularly deserving of noticed



It would be useless to cite the prayers in the
ancient Gallican, Roman, and Italic sacramentaries,
which correspond to this form, because they do not
resemble it more than the oriental forms already



e Liturgia Basilii, Goar, Rit.
Grace, p. 175.

f Liturgia Jacob! Syr. Re-



naudot, torn. ii. p. 42. Basilii
Copt. torn. i. p. 24.



SECT. xxin. Gloria in Excelsis. 157

cited and alluded to ; and also because it is impos-
sible to ascertain which of the numerous " missae" in
each sacramentary is the oldest. The form tran-
scribed from the liturgy of Caesarea is perhaps
fifteen hundred years old, or even more ancient.

With regard to the first prayer after communion,
it is impossible not to admire the excellence of its
composition, but I do not think that we find the
topics to which it alludes mentioned in this part of
ancient liturgies ; however, the expressions of which
it makes use are truly orthodox and pious, and may
very properly be employed on the present occasion.

SECTION XXIII.

THE HYMN GLORIA IN EXCELSIS.

We read in the holy gospel, that after the sacra-
ment the Lord and his disciples sang an hymn
before they went to the mount of Olives . Whether
the apostles and the church during the most primi-
tive ages followed this example, I am not able
positively to decide. It would appear probable that
the liturgy terminated with a thanksgiving during
the earliest ages, and not with a hymn ; yet in after-
times there were few liturgies which did not use a
psalm, anthem, or hymn, after communion. Thus
in the liturgy of Constantinople the twenty-second

psalm, euAo^cra rov Kvpiov ev Travri Kaipw, is sung by

the choir 11 . After the end of the Roman liturgy,
the hymn of " the Three Children," or Te Deum, is
sung 1 . Amongst the Syrian monophysites, who use
the ancient liturgy of Antioch, the psalm Daminus

s Matt. xxvi. 30. Mark xiv. ' Bona, Rer. Lit. lib. ii. c. 20.
26. .6. p. 519.

h Goar, Rituale Graec. p. 85.



158 TJie holy Communion, or Liturgy. ( H.U>. iv.

pascuit me et nihil mihi deerit, is said by the priest
after the communion J. In a very ancient liturgy of
the western church, which is supposed to be as old
as the seventh century, and which belonged to the
Irish monks of Luxovium in Gaul, the hymn Gloria
in excelsis is found exactly in the position which
the English liturgy assigns to it, namely, amongst
the thanksgivings after communion k . This cele-
brated hymn owes its origin to the eastern church,
where it was used in the time of Athanasius, in the
beginning of the fourth century 1 . In the churches
of Constantinople, Alexandria, and the rest of the


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