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hoods as pertaineth to their
several degrees, which they
have taken in any university
within this realm. But in all
other places, every minister
shall be at liberty to use any
surpless or not.

The vestures, &c. mentioned in the preceding
passages, are the vestment, cope, tunicle, albe, ro-
chette, hood, surplice, and pastoral staff; which,
with the scarf or stole, and the chimere, used by
the church, though not mentioned in the preceding
quotations, I shall briefly notice b .



THE vestment or chasible, called in the western
churches casula, planeta, pcenula, amphibalum, &c.,
and in the eastern (patvoXiov or (pevu>\iov c , has been
used by the ministers of the Christian church from
a period of remote antiquity. Gregory of Tours

b The authors from whom I mannica, torn. i. disquisit. iii.

have chiefly compiled the fol- cap. 3 ; Goar,Rituale Graecum ;

lowing pages are, Bona, Rerum Ducange's Glossary ; Ferra-

Liturgicarum lib. i. cap. 24 : rius de Re Vestiaria.
Gerberti Vetus Liturgia Ale- c Goar, Rituale Grace, p. 1 12.

310 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

speaks of the casula of Nicetius, bishop of Lyons,
about A. D. 560 d ; Isidore Hispalensis mentions its
use in Spain 6 ; and Sulpitius Severus alludes to the
" amphibalum" or vestment of Martin, bishop of
Tours, A.D. 380 f , a word which is used by a sub-
sequent Gallican writer as a name for the casula s.
In the patriarchate of Constantinople and the east,
the phenolion has been used from time immemorial ;
and the monophysites of Antioch and Alexandria
have retained the use of it since their separation
from the catholic church A. D. 451. The former
call it"faino;" the latter, "albornozV We have
very ancient pictures representing this vesture. The
sacramentary of Gregory the Great, written in Gaul
in the time of Charlemagne, and published by Men-
ard' ; a manuscript of the works of Gregory Nazi-
anzen, written in the east about the year 860, and
copied by DucangeJ ; and a mosaic in the church of
Ravenna in Italy, as old as the time of the emperor
Justinian A. D. 540 k ; enable us to describe the
ancient form of this vesture. It was a garment
extending from the neck nearly to the feet, closed all
the way round, with only one aperture, through
which the head passed. When the Liturgy or other
offices were to be performed, this vesture was lifted
up at the sides, while the front and back still

< l Gregorius Turonensis, Vi- '' Renaudot, Liturgiar. Ori-

tse Patrum, cap. 8. ental. torn. i. p. 179; torn. ii.

e Isidorus, lib. xix. Origi- p. 55.

nutn cap. 24. ' Menard, Sacramentar. Gre-

f Sulpitius,, dialog. ii. de Vita gorii, p. i and 364.

S. Martini, n. i and 2. j Ducange, Historia By-

e "Casula quam amphiba- zantina, lib. iii. p. 125.

him vocant." Germanus de k Ferrarius de Re Vestiaria,

Missa,Martene,Thesaurus An- p. 108. Paris, 1654.
ecdotorum, torn. v. p. 99.

SECT. ii. The Vestment. 811

remained pendent. We find innumerable monuments
of this dress in the east and west ; and in England
almost all the figures or statues of bishops now
extant, represent the casula raised at the sides.
At the end of this Appendix the reader will find
engraved illustrations of the ecclesiastical dresses.
Figures I. and II. represent bishops arrayed in the
vestment or chasible, (marked with the number 2,)
according to the ancient form as used by the fathers
and bishops during the most primitive ages. The
Greeks still retain the ancient form of the vestment.
The Latins in process of time divided this garment
at each side for the sake of convenience. Originally
the casula was worn, not only by bishops and pres-
byters, but by all the inferior clergy ; but in the
course of ages it became peculiar to presbyters and
bishops. The casula varied in its materials and
decoration with the means of those who gave it.
Sometimes it was made of wool or hair ; sometimes
of linen, silk, velvet, or cloth of gold. It was adorned
at pleasure with needlework, gold, silver, and jewels.
It admitted various colours, as white, black, green,
yellow, purple, blue. Most anciently, however, it
was always white, which was the favourite colour
in primitive times, as denoting internal purity ; and
to this day no other colour is used by the Egyptian
churches, nor in the patriarchate of Constantinople.
The vestment is appointed by the English ritual to
be worn by bishops in celebrating the eucharist, and
in all other public ministrations ; in which, however*
they may use a cope instead of it. The vestment is
also appointed to be used by priests in celebrating
the eucharist, but on no other occasion. The rubrics
containing directions for the use of the vestment


312 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

have been mistaken by some persons, who have
confounded the vestment with the cope ; but this is
evidently an error ; for Alesse uniformly translates
vestment by the word casula, while he distinguishes
cope from it by the appellation of cappa ; and in the
rubric of the ritual of 1551 the distinction is evident :
" the priest shall use neither albe, vestment, or
" cope."



The cope, termed by ancient writers capa, cappa,
pallium, pluviale, &c. is a garment of consider-
able antiquity. It seems, like the casula, to have
been originally derived from the ancient paenula ;
which, from the descriptions and figures given by
Ferrarius in lib. ii. de Re Vestiaria, p. 79 and 80,
appears to have been a cloak closed all round, with
an aperture for the head to pass through, and a short
division in the lower part of the front. To this
garment was attached a hood or cowl, which in wet
weather was drawn over the head. The casula is
often called paenula by ancient writers, and the chief
respects in which it differed from the cope were in
having no cowl, and in not being divided in the
front. The cope, being intended for use in the open
air, retained the cowl, and in process of time was
entirely opened in the front. The original identity
of the cope and casula appears from the writings of
Isidore Hispalensis 1 , and Durand 111 , the latter of
whom says, that the cope is the same as the casula ;
and Caesarius, bishop of Aries, A. D. 520, possessed

1 Gavanti Thesaurus, p. 122. m Durandus, lib. ii. cap. 9.

SECT. in. The Cope. 313

a " casula processor! a," which is generally understood
to mean a cope". The cope, as I have remarked, is
a cloak reaching from the neck nearly to the feet,
open in front except at the top, where it is united by
a band or clasp. To the back was attached a hood
or cowl, which in later times has given place to a
sort of triangular ornament of the same shape, which
sometimes extends over the shoulders. Figures III.
and IV. represent bishops dressed in copes. Figure
III, N. 1, is an ancient cope resembling those deli-
neated and described by Gerbert, Liturgia Aleman-
nica, torn. i. p. 250, 251. Figure IV, N. 1, repre-
sents a cope as used in England in the thirteenth
century ; N. 2. is the hood or cowl at the back. It
was made of various materials and colours like the
vestment, and often with fringes and rich embroi-
dery. William the Conqueror, king of England,
sent a cope to Hugh abbot of Clugny, almost en-
tirely made of gold, and adorned with pearls and
other gems ; and Walafridus Strabo informs us,
that the kings of France in the ninth century were
in possession of the cope of Martin bishop of Tours,
A. D. 380P. The English ritual permitted the bi-
shop to wear a cope instead of a vestment in his
public ministrations, if he chose, and gave the same
liberty to presbyters in celebrating the eucharist.
The Injunctions of queen Elizabeth in 1564, and the
canons of 1603, directed the cope to be used. The
former also appointed the epistler and gospeller, or
assistants at the eucharist in cathedral and collegiate
churches, to wear copes ; a custom which was pre-

u Cyprianus Tolonens. Vita lib. i. cap. 24. . 17.
Caesarii Arelatens. Num. 23. P Liber de Rebus Ecclesias-

See Bona, Rer. Liturgicar. ticis, cap. 31.

814 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

served in the consecration of archbishop Parker to
the see of Canterbury. We are informed by Le
Brun, that the Armenians and the Nestorians of
Chaldsea and India use the cope and not the chasi-
ble at the celebration of the eucharist 1. The as-
sistant ministers have very anciently worn copes in
the western churches on solemn occasions, especially
in cathedrals, as we find the ancient Ordo Roma-
nus, written, according to some, in the seventh cen-
tury, directing them to use it when a bishop cele-
brates the eucharist r . I have not learned that the
cope is worn by the clergy of the patriarchates of
Alexandria and Antioch, but the mandyas, used by
certain clergy of Constantinople and Russia 5 , seems
very much to resemble it. Formerly the cope was
used by the clergy in processions or litanies, and on
solemn occasions in morning and evening prayers,
and was generally worn by the bishop except in
celebrating the eucharist, ordination, and some other
occasions, when he used the vestment.



The tunicle, called tunica, dalmatica, tunicella,
&c. in the west, was used in the earliest ages of the
Christian church. Originally it had no sleeves, and
was then often called colobium. The garment used
by deacons in the Greek church, and all the east, and
called sticharion, seems to be the ancient colobium.
It is said that wide sleeves were added to the colo-
bium about the fourth century in the west, which

q Le Brun, Ce're'monies de torpii Officia, p. 7.
la Messe, tome v. p. 80. s See Goar, Rituale Grace.

r Ordo Romanus apud Hit- p. 113.

SECT. v. The Tunicle and Albe. 315

thenceforth was often called dalmatic; and when
used by subdeacons, tunicle. But the shape of the
garment was the same, by whomsoever it was worn.
In the middle ages, several distinctions were made
relative to the use of the tunic by bishops and
others ; but the Greek and eastern churches do
not use the sleeved tunic, and with them no such
distinctions are in existence. The tunic was made
of the same sort of materials, &c. as the cope
and vestment ; and the English ritual directs it to
be used by the assistant ministers in the holy com-
munion*. Figures V. and VI. represent deacons
arrayed in tunicles. Fig. V, N. 1, is a tunicle, as
used in England in the ninth and tenth centuries.
Fig. VI, N. 1, represents the eastern sticharion or
tunicle, with separate Tri/j.aviKia or sleeves added,
(see Goar, p. Ill,) from an ancient picture published
by Ducange.



The albe bore different names in the writings of
ancient authors. Amalarius calls it camisia or alba,
lib. ii. c. 18. Isidorus Hispalensis calls it poderis
or camisia, lib. xix. Origin, c. 21. In the old Ordo
Romanus of the seventh century it is called linea.
Whether the albe and tunic were originally the
same is not certain, but I think it not improbable.
In the east it was early called poderis, from its
reaching to the feet ; and it is mentioned under that
name by Eusebius and Gregory Nazianzen. The
poderis was the same as the sticharion, which is

t See Bona, Rer. Liturgicar. i 24. Ducange's Glossary, c.
lib. i. cap. 24. . 1 8. Gavauti Gerbertus, Liturgia Alemanni-
Thesaurus a Merati, torn. i. p. ca, torn. i. p. 243.

316 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

spoken of by Athanasius, Sozomen, and Gregory
Nazianzen. The albe of the western church is
spoken of by the fourth council of Carthage ; by
that of Narbonne, A. D. 589 ; and by various an-
cient writers referred to above". It was made of
white linen, and generally bound with a girdle of
the same ; but the sticharion of the Greeks is not
girded. The albe is directed by the English ritual
to be used by the bishop, presbyters, and deacons in
celebrating the eucharist. The first, however, is al-
lowed to use a surplice instead of it in his public
ministrations. Fig. VII, N. 2, represents the albe.



The scarf is not mentioned in the rubric of the
English ritual ; but as it is often used in the church
during the performance of divine service, I think it
merits consideration in this place. The scarf is
worn by bishops, with the rochette, and generally
by dignitaries and prebendaries in cathedrals, and
by chaplains. The origin of this custom is obscure,
and I have not seen the subject noticed in any place.
The scarf is not worn because the person is a doctor,
by whom, in universities, a scarf is used ; for many
persons who are not doctors wear it. And there-
fore it seems to me more natural to refer this cus-
tom to the ancient practice of the church, according
to which presbyters and bishops wear a scarf or
stole in the administration of the sacraments, and on
some other occasions. The stole or orarium has

11 See Gavanti Thesaurus, turgicar. lib. i. c. 24. . 3. Du-
tom. i. p. 143. Buna, Rer. Li- cange, Glossary.

SECT. vi. The Scarf or Stole. 317

been used from the most primitive ages by the
Christian clergy. It is spoken of by the first coun-
cil of Braga, A. D. 563 ; by Isidore Hispalensis,
A.D. 600 ; the council of Laodicea in Phrygia, A.D.
360 ; Severianus Gabalitanus, in the time of Chrys-
ostom ; arid many others v : and it has been continu-
ally used by all the churches of the west and east,
and by the monophy sites of Antioch and Alexandria.
The stole, always called wpdpiov by the Greeks, was
a long scarf, which was. fastened on one shoulder of
the deacon's albe, and hung down before and behind.
The priest had it over both shoulders, and the two
ends of it hung down in front. The eastern churches
call the stole of the priests eTrirpa-^Xiov. Thus sim-
ply were the dresses of deacons and priests distin-
guished from each other in primitive times. Fig. VI,
N. 3, represents the stole as worn by deacons over
the left shoulder ; Fig. VII, N. 1, represents it as
used by priests.

The origin of the pall, which has been generally
worn by the western metropolitans, is disputed ;
but whoever considers the ancient figures of it
which are found in manuscripts, and in the mosaic
of "the church of Ravenna, constructed about A.D.
540, (see Fig. I. N. 1. and Fig. II. N. 1,) will see that
it was originally only a stole wound round the neck,
with the ends hanging down behind and before. In
the east the pall is called omopkorion, (co'/uo^xyuoj/,)
and has been used, at least, since the time of Chrys-
ostom, who was charged with accusing three dea-

v Bona, Rer. Liturg. lib. i. c. 8. . 2. Gerberti Liturg.
c. 24. . 6. Gavanti, p. 147. Aleman. torn. i. p. 240.
Bingham's Antiquities, b. xiii.

318 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

cons of taking his omophorion w . It is worn by all
the eastern bishops, above the phenolion or vest-
ment, during the eucharist ; and, as used by them,
resembles the ancient pall much more nearly than
that worn by western metropolitans.



The rochette is spoken of in the old Ordo Roma-
nus, under the title of linea; and has, no doubt,
been very anciently used by bishops in the western
church. During the middle ages, it was their ordi-
nary garment in public. The word rochette is not
however of any great antiquity, and perhaps cannot
be traced further back than the thirteenth century x .
The chief difference between this garment and the
surplice formerly was, that its sleeves were narrower
than those of the latter ; for we do not perceive, in
any of the ancient pictures of English bishops, those
very wide and full lawn sleeves which are now

Dr. Hody says, that in the reign of Henry the
Eighth our bishops wore a scarlet garment under
the rochette ; and that in the time of Edward the
Sixth they wore a scarlet chimere., like the doctors'
dress at Oxford, over the rochette ; which, in the
time of queen Elizabeth, was changed for the black
satin chimere used at present. History of Convoca-
tions, p. 141.

The chimere seems to resemble the garment used

w See Photii Bibliotheca, * Gavanti Thesaurus, torn. i.
p. 55. Paris, 1611. p. 142.

SECT. viii. The Pastoral Staff and Surplice. 319

by bishops during the middle ages, and called man-
telletum ; which was a sort of cope, with apertures
for the arms to pass through. (See Ducange's
Glossary.) The name of chimere is probably de-
rived from the Italian zimarra, which is described
as "vesta talare de' sacerdoti e de' chierici." Or-
tografia Enciclopedica Italiana, Venezia, 1826.
Fig. VIII. represents a bishop dressed in a chimere,
N. 2 ; and rochette, N. 3.



The pastoral staff, called baculus pastoralis,
cambutta, &c. was spoken of in the fourth council
of Toledo, held near 1200 years ago, as being used
by bishops. In the western church it was frequently
given to bishops at their ordination. Fig. Ill,
N. 4, represents a pastoral staff of an ancient form,
such as is depicted on the curious font in the cathe-
dral of Winchester, and in a manuscript of the Bar-
berini library, copied by Gerbert, Liturg. Aleman.
Tabula VIII. N. 2. p. 251. In later times it was
curved into the form of a shepherd's crook. The
eastern bishops use a pastoral staff of another form,
which may be seen in Gear's Greek Ritual, p. 115.
For additional information on this subject, see Bona,
Rerum Liturgicarum lib. i. cap. xxiv. $. 15, and
Gerbertus de Liturgia Alemannica, torn. i. p. 256,



It is by no means improbable that the surplice
was, in very ancient times, not different from the

320 On Ecclesiastical Vestures. APPENDIX.

albe. In fact, it only varies from that garment,
even now, in having wider sleeves. The inferior
clergy were accustomed to wear the albe at divine
service, as we find by the council of Narbonne, A.D.
589, which forbad them to take it off, until the li-
turgy was ended. Probably in after-ages it was
thought advisable to make a distinction between the
dresses which the superior and the inferior orders
of clergy wore at the liturgy ; and then a difference
was made in the sleeves. And from about the
twelfth century the name of surplice was intro-
duced. In Latin, it was superpelliceum, or cotta;
see Bona, Rerum Liturg. lib. i. cap. xxiv. . 20.
Fig. III. N. 2. Fig. IV. N. 3. represent surplices.

During the middle ages, bishops very frequently
wore the surplice with a cope, and above the
rochette, as is represented in Fig. III.



The hood, in Latin caputium, almucium, amicia,
&c. is perhaps as ancient a garment as any of which
I have spoken, and was formerly not intended merely
for distinction and ornament, but for use. It was
generally fastened to the back of the cope, casula,
or other vesture, and in case of rain or cold was
drawn over the head. It was formerly used by the
laity as well as the clergy, and by the monastic or-
ders. In universities, the hoods of graduates were
made to signify their degrees by varying the colours
and materials. In cathedral and collegiate churches,
the hoods of the canons and prebendaries were fre-
quently lined with fur or wool, and always worn in
the choir. The term almutium, or amice, was par-

SECT. x. The Hood, and Square Cap. 321

ticularly applied to these last. See Ducange, Glos-
sary, Paris, 1733, vocibus Capucium and Almucium.
Ducange supposes that the square cap was formerly
that part of the amice which covered the head, but
afterwards separated from the remainder. See his
Glossary, voce Amicia. If this conjecture be right,
the square caps used in the universities, and by the
clergy, derive their origin from the customs of the
canons regular during the middle ages. All our
clergy are permitted to wear the hood at the daily
service, and on other proper occasions.


[ 322 J

Figure I. From a figure of Gregory Nazianzen, in a manuscript
of Basil's Works, written near a thousand years ago. See
Ducange, Historia Byzantina, lib. iii. p. 125.

N. i. The archiepiscopal or episcopal pall, or omophorion,

2. The vestment, or casula. 3. The albe.

Figure II. A bishop, from a mosaic in the church of Ravenna,
constructed in the reign of Justinian, about A. D. 540. See
Ferrarius de Re Vestiaria, lib. i. c. 38. p. 108.

N. i. The pall. 2. The casula. 3. The albe.
Figure III. A bishop in a cope.

N. i . An ancient cope, from the picture of one in Gerbert,
Liturgia Aleman. torn. i. p. 250. 2. A surplice. 3. A
rochette. 4. A pastoral staff.

Figure IV. A bishop, from an illuminated manuscript represent-
ing the chief events of the New Testament, written in the
thirteenth century, now in the British Museum.

N. i. The cope. 2. The hood or cowl, at the back of the

cope. 3. The surplice. 4' The albe.

Figure V. A picture of Laurence the deacon, from an ancient
vestment found in the tomb of St. Cuthbert, at Durham, and
given by queen ^Elfledato Frithestanus, bishop of Winchester,
A. D. 905. See Raine's Saint Cuthbert, p. 207.
N. i. The tunicle, or dalmatic. 2. The albe.
Figure VI. A deacon of the eastern church, from an ancient
Greek painting representing St. Stephen, copied by Ducange,
Historia Byzantina, lib. iv. p. 137. Also a MS. of the library
of Casano, of the ninth century. Gerbert. Liturgia Aleman.
torn. i. plate 7. p. 247.

N. i. The a-Toixdptov, or tunicle. 2. An under garment.

3. The deacon's stole.

Figure VII. A priest, from old manuscripts.

N. i. The stole, as worn by priests. 2. The albe girded.
Figure VIII. A bishop, partly from a portrait of bishop Fox.

N. i. Scarf, or stole. 2. Chimere. 3. Rochette. 4. Cas-
sock, or under garment.







i : \

v ii



ABERDEEN, breviary of, i.
1 88.

Ablution of hands in the li-
turgy, i. 129.

Absolution in the morning pray-
er, its antiquity, i. 214. the
mere form indifferent, 215.
in the communion service,
common in ancient liturgies,
ii. 107. our form justified,
1 08, 109. of the sick, 226.

AFRICA, civil diocese of, its
extent, i. 134. liturgy of,
how it confirms the anti-
quity of the Roman, 119,
i 20. reasons for thinking it
was derived from the Ro-
man, 134, 135. compared
with the ancient Roman,
135, &c. point of difference
between them, 138, 140.
other small differences, 140.
antiquity of this liturgy in-
ferred from the independ-
ence of the African church,
141. antiquity of the African
church. 142.

Agenda, what, ii. 166.

Albe, its antiquity, ii. 315,

Alexandria, liturgy of, see
MARK, CYRIL, patriarchate
of, by whom founded, i. 82.
how long in possession of
the monophysites, ibid, pa-
triarch of, called pope in
the Alexandrian liturgy, i.
86. how long this ti*le has
been used, ibid.

Alexandrian text of Basil's li-

tur gy> ' 54 & c-

Alleluia, at the beginning of
morning prayer, i. 220. in
the liturgy, ii. 49.

Almutium, ii. 320.

Alphonso, king of Castille,
changes the liturgy in his
dominions, i. 167.

Amice, ii. 320.

Amphibalum, what.ii. 309, 3 10.

Anaphora, what, i. 20.

Antioch, liturgy of, see St.
JAMES : patriarchate of, its
extent, i. 15.

Antiphonarium, what, i. 207,

Apologia, or private confession
of the priest, formerly used
in the Roman liturgy, i.
122. relic of it, ibid.

Apostles' Creed in morning pray-
er, why placed where it is,
i. 234. its original position,
238. in the evening prayer,


Apostolical Constitutions, liturgy
of, see St. CLEMENT.

Aquileia, liturgy of, what it
was, i. 132.

Archbishop, different meanings
of the term, i. 6.

ARMENIA, when converted to
Christianity, i. 191. origin
of the catholic of Armenia,
ibid, its liturgy, when, and
by whom translated and
published, 191, 192. remarks
on its present state, 192.



ancient parts of it detailed,
193, affords proof that the
order of Basil's liturgy pre-
vailed at Caesarea long be-
fore his time, ibid.

Athanasian Creed, anciently
used in the English offices,
i. 233. Waterland's work on
this Creed recommended,
234. the Apostles' Creed ge-
nerally repeated here, ibid,
original text of the Athana-
sian Creed, 234 258.

dve Maria, when prefixed to
the Roman offices for the
hours of prayer, i. 218.

Bangor, its " use," i. 186. pon-
tifical of, 187.

Baptism, office of, ii. 166. its
introduction whence deriv-
ed, 167 469. several rites
properly removed from it,
170. alterations in it, 171.
antiquities and originals of

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