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all readers, that the ancient liturgies contain certain
passages in which something is directly and verbally
offered to God. Let us begin with the form con-
tained in the liturgy of the Apostolical Constitu-
tions, which represents the great oriental rite to-
wards the end of the third, or beginning of the
fourth, century. After the words of institution, and
a commemoration of Christ's death, resurrection,
&c. the following passage occurs : " To thee, our
" King and God, we offer this bread and this cup,
" according to Christ's institution ; giving thanks to
" thee through him, because thou hast thought us
" worthy to stand before thee, and to minister unto
" thee ra ." It would seem impossible to deny that this
is an oblation, or sacrifice, of bread and wine to
God. A prayer immediately follows, which is just
as explicit, " that God would send his holy Spirit, the
" witness of Christ's passion, upon this sacrifice,, that
" he may make this bread the body of Christ, and
" this cup the blood of Christ"." Here the bread and
wine are evidently spoken of as the sacrifice ; for
when God is implored to send his holy Spirit on the
sacrifice, that the bread may be made Christ's body,
and the wine his blood, it seems evident that the



m Upocrtpepopev croi T<5 /SacrtXei n Kai Karon (p^ys TO ayiov <rov

Kal fw, Kara TTJV avrov 8iaTaiv } irvevpa eVi TTJV Bvcriav Tavrr/v, TOV

TOV apTov TOVTOV, Kal TO TTOTijpiov papTvpa TU>V 7ra6i)fjidTa>v TOV Ku-

TOVTO, fi>xapio~TovvTes <roi 81 ai- piov 'irjaov, OTTOIJ diro(f)r)vrj TOV

TOV, <f) ols KaTr)i<i>oras fjfjias e'crra- apTov TOVTOV aoJ/ia TOV Xpttrroi)

vat evatirtov o~ov Kal lepaTfvtiv trot. o~ov, Kal TO TTOTrjpiov TOVTO ai/xa

Apost. Const, lib. viii. c. 12. TOV XpioroC a-ov. Ibid,
p. 403. ed. Clerici.



80 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

bread and wine are identical with the sacrifice, other-
wise there is no connection between the former and
the latter parts of the prayer.

The liturgy of Csesarea, which represents the
great oriental rite as used at Caesarea A. D. 370,
and probably for centuries before, after the words
of institution, and the verbal commemoration of
Christ's death, &c., as above, proceeds thus : " Offer-
" ing to thee thine own things out of thine own, -
" we praise thee, we bless thee, we give thanks to
" thee, O Lord ; and we pray, O Lord our God.
" Wherefore, most holy Father - we approach thy
" holy altar ; and having set before thee the antitypes
" of the body and blood of thy Christ, we pray and
" beseech thee, O most holy, according to the good
" pleasure of thy beneficence, that thy holy Spirit may
" come upon us, and upon these gifts lying before
" thee, and bless them, and sanctify them," &c. We
here recognise the same sort of verbal oblation as
in the former case. For the oblation to God of
" things which are his own, taken out of his own,"
plainly refers to the bread and wine, which are
God's creatures, and therefore are his own ; and,
further on, the elements are called gifts, that is,
things given or offered, which God is implored to
sanctify, and make Christ's body and blood.

In the ancient liturgies of the Alexandrian patri-



To era IK ra>v o~wv croi irpoo~(p(- crov, 8eop.e6a KOI ere

Kara irdvra Kal fiia Trdvra, ayte dyicav, evdoKia rfjs crf]S dyado-

cre Vfj.vovfj.ev, ere fv\oyovfj.fv, trot Tyros, e\dfiv TO irvfiip-d erov TO

(vxapicrrovfjLfv, Kvpif Kal 8eo/j.(6a, ayiov '</>' f)p.ds Kal eVt TO. irpoK.fi-

6 eor f/nSiv. 8ia TOVTO AecrTrora p.eva 8a>pa ravra, Kal fi/Xoyrjcrai

iravdyie, Kal ly/xets ot apaprociXol avra, Kal ayidcrai, K. T. \. Litur-

Kal dvdgioi SovXoi o-ou - Trpocr- gia Basilii, Graec. Goar, Ri-

6ei>Tfs ra dvTiTvira TOW ayiov tuale Gra;c. p. 168, 169.

Kal a"ifj.aros TOV XptcrTOt)



SECT. x. Verbal Oblations in the Primitive Liturgies. 81

archate, the same sort of oblation is found. Thus,
" Before thy glory, O holy Father, we place these
" holy gifts, out of those things which are thine own:"

then, " Send down from above the Holy Spirit

" upon us thy servants, and upon these venerable
" gifts placed before thee, upon this bread, and upon
" this cup," &C.P In another Alexandrian liturgy
nearly the same words occur : " We, O Lord God,
" have set before thee thine own, out of thine own
" gifts, and we pray and beseech thee to send from on
" high thy Holy Spirit upon these loaves, and these
" cups, to hallow and consecrate them V &c. In a
very ancient Alexandrian liturgy the verbal oblation
is simply, " We offer to thee this bread and this
" cup r ." It appears, therefore, that in the ancient
Alexandrian liturgy, the bread and wine were
verbally offered.

The liturgies of Rome and Italy contained two
oblations ; one before, the other after consecration.
In both the elements are offered as they are bread
and wine. The first is as follows : " We beseech
" thee, O Lord, propitiously to receive this oblation
" of our service, and of all thy family's which obla-



P " Tu 6S coram CUJUS glo- T>V <rwi> ficoptaz/

ria hsec sancta dona proponi- eVeon-tdi/ o-ov. KOL 8eo/ie$u KOI Trapa-

HlUS, ex illis quse tua SUnt, Pa- Ka\ovp.ev o-e, <pi\dv6p<0Tre dyadf,

ter sancte Et mitte deorsum egaTroo-reiXov e fyovs TOV ayiov

ex excelso tuo sancto &c. o-ov e<p* rjuds KCH eVl TOVS dprovs

Spiritum tuum sanctum &c. TOVTOVS, Kal tVi ra Trorjjpta ravra

super nos servos tuos, et super TO Trvcvpa a-ov TO ayiov, Iva avra

haec veneranda dona proposita dyido-rj, K. r. \. Liturgia Marci.

coram te^ super hunc panem, Ren au dot, torn. i. p. 156, 157.

et super hunc calicem," &c. r " OfFerimus tibi hunc pa-

Liturgia Cyrilli Copt. Renau- nem et hunc calicem." Litur-

dot, Lit. Oriental. Coll. torn. i. gia ^Ethiop. Renaudot, torn. i.

p. 47>4S. P-S7-

1 (rot Kvpu 6 Qfbs f]fj.5>v rot <ra

VOL. II. G



82 Tlte holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

" tion do thou, O Lord, deign to make in all respects
" blessed, received, ratified, reasonable, and acceptable,
" that it may be made to us the body and blood of
" thy most beloved Son, our Lord God Jesus Christ 8 ."
After consecration there is another oblation : " We
" do offer unto thy most excellent Majesty, out of
" thine own donations and gifts, a pure sacrifice, an
" immaculate sacrifice, the holy bread of eternal life,
" and the cup of everlasting salvation, upon which
" vouchsafe to look propitiously, and to accept them 1 ."
This is evidently an oblation of the elements as they
are bread and wine, God's " donations and gifts" for
the use of man. For it would be altogether vain,
and indeed impious, to beseech God to "look pro-
" pitiously" on the body of his own Son, and to
" accept" it.

It appears, then, that in all these liturgies there
was a verbal oblation of bread arid wine, and there
can be no reasonable doubt that the Fathers often
speak of an oblation of bread and wine being used

8 " Hanc igitur oblationem petuae. Supra quae propitio ac

servitutis nostrae, sed et cunctae sereno vultu respicere digneris,

familiaetuae.qusesumusDomine, et accepta habere," &c. Me-

ut placatus accipias quam ob- nard. Sacr. Greg. p. 3. There

lationem tu Deus in omnibus, are strong grounds for think-

quaesumus, benedictam, ad- ing that this second oblation

scriptam, ratam, rationabilem, did not originally exist in the

acceptabilemque facere digne- Roman liturgy, since it is not

ris, ut nobis corpus et sanguis found in the most ancient MSS.

fiat dilectissimi Filii tui Do- of the liturgy of Milan, which

mini Dei nostri Jesu Christi." was originally derived from the

Sacramentar. Gregor. Menard. Roman rite ; see Muratori Li-

p. 2. turgia Rom. Vet. torn. i. p.

* " Oflferimus praeclarae ma- 134, where Milan MSS. of the

jestati tuae de tuis donis ac da- ninth or tenth century are

tis, hostiam puram, hostiam cited which do not contain it.

sanctam, hostiam immacula- For the derivation of the Mi-

tam, panem sanctum vitas ae- Ian rite from the Roman, see

ternae, et calicem salutis per- vol. i. p. I25,&c.



SECT. x. Verbal Oblations in the Primitive Liturgies. 83

in the Christian church, in token of humility and
gratitude towards God.

I proceed now to consider the liturgy of Constan-
tinople, in which it would appear that a second
verbal oblation is introduced. "We offer to thee
" thine own, out of thine own we praise thee, we
" bless thee, we give thanks to thee, and we pray thee,
" O Lord, our God. Moreover, we offer to thee this
" reasonable and unbloody worship"." It appears, I
think, that two things are here offered, the elements,
and the reasonable and unbloody worship. This
last probably means the whole service, comprising
the devotions, thanksgivings, and commemoration,
which may altogether be very properly so termed.

In the last place, let us look to the liturgy of An-
tioch and Jerusalem. The expressions in which the
oblation is conveyed, can be traced back in this case
to the fifth century; since they are found almost
word for word the same in the liturgies of both
orthodox and monophysites, who have held no com-
munion since the council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451.
After the words of institution, and the verbal com-
memoration of Christ's death, &c. it proceeds thus :
" We offer to thee this dreadful and unbloody sacri-
" fice v ." These words form the direct verbal oblation
in the liturgy of Antioch, and it would seem unrea-
sonable to refer them to the oblation of bread and

u ra era fK T>V a-aiv (TOI TTpocr- v " Offerimus tibi hoc sacri-

(pfpofjLfv Kara Travra KOI 8ia navra, ficium terribile et incruentum."

(re vfj.vovfj.fv, ae ev\oyov/j.fv, a-ol Liturgia Jacobi Syriac. Renau-

fvxapi(rTovfj.(v Kvpif, KOI 8(6fj.f6d dot, torn. ii. p. 32. 7rpocr^>epo/zez>

(rov, 6 Qf6s rifJicav. erl irpo(r(pfpo- croi, 8f(nrora, TTJV (poftepav Tavrrju

fj*v (TOI TTJV \oyiKrjv TavTijv, Kal KOI dvaifj.aKTov dvcriav. Liturgia

dvatfjMKTov \arpeiav, K. T. \. Li- Jacobi, Grace. Assemani, Co-

turgia Chrysostomi Goar, Ri- dex Litnrg. torn. v. p. 38.
tuale Greec. p. 77.

G 2



84 The lioly Communion, or Liturgy, CHAP, iv,

wine ; for though that sacrifice be unbloody, how
could it be called dreadful or tremendous f This
word signifies something mysterious and awful, and
of greater dignity than any oblation of mere bread
and wine could be, even if it were offered by the
whole church. Neither can we refer these words of
oblation to the elements considered as the body and
blood of Christ, for after the above oblation is made
this prayer follows : " Send thy holy Spirit, the
" Lord and Giver of life, &c. that coming, he may
" make this bread the life-giving body, the salutary
" body, &c. and that he may make what is mixed in
" the cup, the blood of the new covenant, the salutary
" blood, &c. of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus
" Christ w ." Now this prayer supposes that the
consecration had not taken place, or at least was
imperfect when the oblation was made, and therefore
the sacrifice then offered cannot be a sacrifice of
the consecrated elements, as Christ's body and
blood.

It only remains, then, that we interpret the "dread-
" ful and unbloody sacrifice" to be the whole service
or worship then performed. So that the meaning
is, " We offer to thee this whole unbloody sacrifice
" of thanksgiving and commemoration, dreadful from
" the sublime mysteries therein celebrated."

If this interpretation be correct, it appears first,
that in the liturgy of Antioch and Jerusalem there

w " Mitte Spiritum tuum novi, sanguinem salutarem, &c.

sanctum Dominum et vivifican- Domini Dei et Salvatoris

tern, &c. ut adveniens efliciat nostri Jesu Christi," &c. Li-

panem istum, corpus vivifi- ttirgiaJac. Syr. Renaudot, torn,

cum, corpus salutare, &c. et ii. p. 33. See also Liturg. Jac.

mistum quod est in hoc calice, Graec. Ass. torn. v. p. 39, 40.
efliciat sanguinem testamenti



SECT. x. Oblations in the English Liturgy. 85

was no direct verbal oblation of the bread and wine ;
secondly, that in the other liturgies, (except that of
Constantinople,) there was no verbal oblation of the
whole sacrifice or service ; thirdly, that the liturgy
of Constantinople contained a verbal oblation of the
elements, and of the service or worship also.

We may infer from these facts, that the validity
of the Christian sacrifice does not depend on its
verbal expression, or mention in the liturgy ; for
there is no one oblation that is found in all the
liturgies. Some contain an oblation of the whole
service, while others do not. Some contain an ob-
lation of the elements, which is not found in the
others. None contain a verbal oblation of Christ's
body and blood. This is not found in the Roman
liturgy, nor is it a form that has at any time been
used in the Christian church. Therefore the Chris-
tian Fathers, who contemplated several real obla-
tions in the eucharist, could not have thought it
necessary to express those oblations verbally in the
liturgy ; and consequently every oblation recognised
by them may exist in the English liturgy, whether
it be expressed verbally or not. We may infer in
particular, that a verbal oblation of the bread and
wine in the eucharist is not essential to a real obla-
tion of those elements. For the liturgy of Antioch
and Jerusalem had no such oblation. In truth the
act of devoting or setting apart a certain portion of
bread and wine for the service and honour of God,
to be converted into the sacraments of Christ's body
and blood, would seem to be as valid an oblation
as the act of the layman in presenting the elements
to the priest. Now we know that the latter was
considered a valid oblation, though it was not of-

G 3



86 The holy Communion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

fered with any form of words x ; and therefore the
act of setting apart the bread and wine for the sa-
crament to the honour and glory of God, would ap-
pear to be a valid oblation of those elements. We
may argue also, that a verbal oblation of the ele-
ments is not necessary to the validity of their obla-
tion, because the thanksgiving, which is certainly a
sacrifice to God, does not appear to have been ver-
bally or formally offered to him in the liturgies, all
of which, however, contain the thanksgiving. We
may further argue for the validity of the oblation of
the elements without any verbal oblation, from the
mystical or commemorative sacrifice of the eucharist,
which is not made by any verbal form of oblation,
but consists in performing the memorial of Christ's
sacrifice, which he has himself appointed.

If, therefore, the English liturgy were devoid of
any verbal oblation of the bread and wine to God,
it nevertheless would not be destitute of a valid ob-
lation of those elements. However, the English li-
turgy is not without a verbal oblation, which occurs
at the beginning of the prayers and commemora-
tions. After the elements have been placed on the
table, and thus devoted to the service and honour of
God, the priest prays to God thus : " We humbly
" beseech thee most mercifully to accept our alms and
" oblations, and to receive these our prayers, which
" we offer unto thy divine Majesty." Here three
species of sacrifice or oblation are verbally offered :

* " Locuples et dives es et obtulit sumis." Cypr. de Op.

Dominicum celebrare te ere- et Eleemos. p. 203. ed. Fell,

dis, qui corban omnino non There is no trace of any verbal

respicis, quae in Dominicum oblation made by the laity in

sine sacrificio venis, quae par- presenting the sacrifice of bread

tern de sacrificio quod pauper and wine to the priest.



SECT. x. Oblations in the English Liturgy. 87

first, the " alms," which St. Paul describes as a sa-
crifice well pleasing to God^ ; secondly, the " obla-
" tions," namely, the creatures of bread and wine ;
thirdly, the "prayers" which, according to Saint
John, are offered with incense on the heavenly
altar 2 , and of which the holy Fathers speak as a
sacrifice and oblation to God a .

It may be said in conclusion, that it is indifferent
in what part of the liturgy or communion-service
the verbal oblation occurs. In the liturgies of An-
tioch, Caesarea, Constantinople, and Alexandria, it
took place before the elements were fully conse-
crated ; in the liturgies of Milan and Rome, it oc-
curred both before and after the consecration. If
the verbal oblation is not an oblation of the ele-
ments as Christ's body and blood, (a form of obla-
tion which does not occur in any of the ancient
liturgies,) it is indifferent in what part of the liturgy
of the faithful it may be placed.

COMMEMORATIONS AND PRAYERS FOR THE LIVING.

This portion of the liturgy may be divided into
five particulars : first, a prayer for the catholic
church ; secondly, for kings and rulers ; thirdly, for
bishops and clergy ; fourthly, for the people and
congregation ; fifthly, for those that are in any

y Hebr. xiii. 16. of the law, he says, " Signiti-

z Revelations viii. 3, &c. cabant hominem quondam pec-

a " Sacrificamus quomodo catorem, verbo mox Dei ema-

praecepit Deus pura prece." culatum, offerre debere munus

Tertull. ad Scapulam, p. 69. Deo apud templum, orationem

ed. Rigalt. " Sacrificium mun- scilicet et actionem gratiarum

dum, scilicet simplex oratio de apud Ecclesiam, per Christum

conscientia pura." lib. iv. adv. Jesum catholicum Patris sacer-

Marcion. Argnmentum. Speak- dotem." Adv. Marcionem, lib.

ing of the figurative sacrifices iv. c. ix. p. 420. edit. Rigalt.

G 4



88 The holy Commmion, or Liturgy. CHAP. iv.

calamity or distress. The prayers for the living are
accordingly divided into so many parts in the fol-
lowing pages ; and to each part is annexed such
portions of the ancient liturgies as confirm and
illustrate our own. I must premise, however, that I
do not cite these ancient liturgies, in the present in-
stance, with any intention of exhibiting the exact
originals of our prayers, but to evince their pro-
priety and consistence with primitive customs. It
would not indeed be a matter of much importance
to prove that our forms were literally the same with
some one of the primitive liturgies, for they all dif-
fer from each other in the mere expressions ; whence
it is evident, that the general sense is all that we
need desire to know.

PHAYER FOR THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.

All the ancient liturgies contained prayers for the
universal church, in conformity with the directions
of St. Paul, to make " supplications for all saints,"
Eph. vi. 18 ; and that " supplications, prayers, in-
" tercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all
" men," 1 Tim. ii. 1. In none, however, is there a
more comprehensive form than in our liturgy.



ENGLAND. Which we offer C.ESAREA. 'En' a-ov

unto thy Divine Majesty J be- fj.vrjcr6r]Ti Kvpu TTJS ayias crov Ka-

seeching thee to inspire con- 6o\iKrjs KOI aTrooroXt/^s eKicXT)<rias,

tinually the universal Church TTJS OTTO Trepdrav eeas irepaTatv TTJS

with the Spirit of truth, unity, oiKOV/xf'i'Tjf, Kal flpyveva-ov UVTT/V,

and concord. fjv 7rept7rot/7<r<> rw Tip.i<a at/xart TOU

SARUM, MILAN, ROME. Tibi Xptoro{5trov b .

offerimus pro Ecclesia tua sane- ALEXANDRIA. Memento Do-

ta catholica, quam pacificare, mine pacis unius unicae sanctae

b Liturgia Basilii, Goar, p. 171.



SECT. x. Prayer for the Catholic Church, Kings, fyc. 89



custodire, adunare, et regere
digneris, toto orbe terrarum c .
JERUSALEM AND ANTIOCH.

Tlpocr<pepop.fv o~oi o~to~rroTa . . . Kal
TTJS, Kara jracrav TTJV OIKOV-
dyias crou KadoXiKTJs Kal
\IKTJS eKK\T]O~ias, TrXovcri'as
Kal vvv Tas 8a>peds TOV Travayiov
o~ov TTvevuLaTos, enivoprjyrjO'ov UVTTJ



Catholicse et Apostolicae Eccle-
siee, quse est a finibus ad fines
usque terrse, omni populo et
terris benedic e .

CONSTANTINOPLE. 'Erl Trpoo -

(pepojtteV croi TTJV \oyiKTjv Tttvnjv
\UTpdav VTTep TTJS oiKovp,evr)S, vrrep
TTJS ayias KadoXiKTJs Kal aTrocrroXt-

KTJS



ENGLAND. And grant, that CJESAREA. Uavo-ov ra o-xio-fna-
all they that do confess thy ra TO>V eKK\r](ria>v . . . ray T>V al-
holy Name may agree in the peaeav eVavao-racms ra^ews Kara-
truth of thy holy Word, and Avow, rj; 8vvdfj.fi TOV dyiov <rov
live in unity and godly love.



FOR KINGS AND RULERS.

According to the apostolical direction, all the an-
cient liturgies contained prayers "for kings, and for
" all that are in authority, that we may lead a quiet
" and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty,"
1 Tim. ii. 2. The words of the apostle are used in
several of the ancient liturgies.

ENGLAND. We beseech thee CONSTANTINOPLE. 'EriTrpoo -

also to save and defend all (pepofiev o~oi . . . vTrep TWV Tricrro-

Christian Kings, Princes, and rdYa>i> KOI <pi\oxpi<rTa>v r)p.av /3a-

Governors ; and specially thy o-iAeW, iravTos TOV TraAar/ou Kal

Servant N. our King ; that un- orparoTreSou avr<5i>. 86? avrots

der him we may be godly and Kvpie elpT/viKov TO {$ao~i\eiov. Iva

quietly governed : And grant Kal f)p.el.s lv Tfj ya\rjVT) avT$>v tjpe-



c Miss. Sarisb. fol. Ixxviii.
Miss. Ambros. ap. Pamelii Li-
turg. torn. i. p. 301. Sacram.
Gregorii Menard. p. 2.

d Liturgia Jacobi, Asseman.
torn. v. p. 41.

e Liturg. Cyrill. Copt. Re-
naudot, torn. i. p. 4;.



f Liturg. Chrysost. Goar, p.
78. See also Liturg. Jacobi
Syr. Renaudot, torn. ii. p. 34.
Marci, Renaud. torn. i. p. 146.
.ZEthiop. torn. i. p. 514.

S Liturgia Basil. Goar, p.
173-



90



The holy Communion, or Liturgy.



CHAP. IV.



unto his whole Council, and to
all that are put in authority
under him, that they may truly
and indifferently minister jus-
tice, to the punishment of
wickedness and vice, and to
the maintenance of true reli-
gion and virtue.

^ETHIOPIA. Memento Do-
mine Regis nostri N., conserva
eum nobis in pace 1 .

SARUM, MILAN, ROME. Tibi
offerimus pro Ecclesia tua . . .
una cum . . Rege nostri N.}

CLESAREA. After prayers for
the emperor follow these : /J.VTJ-

crdrjTi Kvpie TraoTjj ap\rjs Kal fov-
<rias, Kal twv ev TraAariw d8f\<j)a>v
Kal Travros TOV



Sou k.



fjiov Kal f]O"i>xiov(3iov 8tdy(t>fi.(v irdcrr]
fv fiHTf/Sftq, Kal <Tfp.v6TrjTi,l.

ALEXANDRIA. Domine mi-
serere Regis terrsc famuli tui.
Conserva ilium in pace et jus-
titia et potentia, ut subjiciantur
illi omnes barbari et gentes
quse bella volunt : da nobis
bonorum affluentiam : loquere
ad cor ejus pro pace unicac
tuae Catholicsc et Apostolicae
Ecclesiae : fac ut cogitet ea
quae pacis sunt erga nos et
erga nomen tuum sanctum, ut
vitam tranquillam et placidam
ducamus, atque in omni pie-
tate et honestate confirmati in-
veniamur apud te m .

ANTIOCH. Not unlike Con-
stantinople and Alexandria .



FOR BISHOPS AND CLERGY.



It has been always the custom of the Christian
churches to pray for their own pastors, and for the
bishops and clergy throughout the whole world. It
was formerly customary to recite the name of the
bishop of the church at this place ; and if the church
was within the limit of any patriarchate, the pa-
triarch also was prayed for by name . This last



i Liturgia ^Ethiop. Renaud.
torn. i. p. 514.

J Miss. Sarisb. fol. Ixxviii.
Miss. Ambros. ap. Pamel. Li-
turg. torn. i. p. 301. Gregorii
Sacram. Menard. p. 2.

k Liturg. Basil. Goar, p.
171.

1 Liturgia Chrysost. Goar,
p. 78.



m Liturg. Cyrilli Renaudot,
torn. i. p. 41.

11 Liturg. Jacobi Syr. Re-
naudot, torn. ii. p. 36.

See Goar, Rituale Graec.
p. 144. Bona, Rer. Liturgic.
lib. ii. c. ii. Liturgia Jacobi,
Renaudot, torn. ii. p. 34. et
observationes. Liturg. Basilii
torn. i. p. 10.



SECT. x. Prayers for the Bishops and Clergy.



91



rule obviously does not apply to the church within
the British empire, which from the beginning was
independent of all the patriarchs. And though more
than patriarchal authority was for a time usurped
by the bishop of Rome, the ancient liberties and in-
dependence of the catholic church in these realms
have long since been vindicated and restored.



ENGLAND. Give grace, O
heavenly Father, to all Bishops
and Curates, that they may
both by their life and doctrine
set forth thy true and lively
Word, and rightly and duly
administer thy holy Sacra-
ments.

ANTIOCH. Memento Domine
sanctorum Episcoporum nos-
trorum, qui nobis recte verbum
veritatis dispensant. Praecipue
vero Patris Patrum et Patri-
archae nostri Domini N.,et Do-
mini N. Episcopi nostri, cum
reliquis omnibus Episcopis or-
thodoxis. Canitiem ipsis vene-
randam concede Domine, mul-
tis annis ipsos conserva pas-



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